Climate Temperature: The difference in temperature between the photic, or sunlit, zones nearer to the surface and the deep sea are dramatic. Temperatures vary more in the waters above the benthic zone where thermoclines, or the separation of water layers of differing temperatures, are more common. In most parts of the deep sea, the water temperature is more uniform and constant. The deep sea temperature remains between 2-4°C.
Plant life • Phytoplankton -The plant plankton (as opposed to the animal plankton or zooplankton). Mostly made up of microscopic groups ranging from a few thousandths of a millimeters to a few millimeters across, but also including bacteria and other simple cells without a well- organized nucleus. • Kelp-The stipe is analogous to a plant stalk, extending vertically from the holdfast and providing a support framework for other morphological features. • Zostera -is a small genus of widely distributed seagrass, commonly called eelgrass. It contains twelve species.
animals • Benthos -All the animals living within or on the sea floor. • Deep Sea Octopod • Deep Sea Snipe Eel • Deep Sea Dragon Fish
Recreation in the biome • Deep sea • Scuba diving • Deep sea fishing
Special history • In general, the deep sea is considered to start at the photic zone, the point where sunlight loses its power of transference through the water. Many life forms that live at these depths have the ability to create their own light. Much life centers around seamounts that rise from the deeps, where fish and other sea life congregate to spawn and feed. Hydrothermal vents in the ocean floor act as oases, as do their opposites, cold seeps. These places support unique biomes and many new microbebs have been discovered at there. • Bathypelagic The name, meaning 'deep sea', given to part of the third great mid-water depth zone, extending from the bottom of the 'twilight zone,' or mesopelagic, at about 1,000m depth, to the top of the abyssopelagic at about 3,000m.
Human uses • Trenches • Have long been used to carry water • The sinking of oceanic lithosphere helps to explain relative scarcity of sediment that has accumulated within the trenches • Deep sea • Deep sea fishing