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Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 The Erosion- Deposition Process Lesson 2 Landforms Shaped by Water and Wind Lesson 3 Mass Wasting and Glaciers Chapter Wrap-Up. Chapter Menu. How do erosion and deposition shape Earth’s surface?. Chapter Introduction. What do you think?.

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chapter menu

Chapter Introduction

Lesson 1 The Erosion- Deposition Process

Lesson 2 Landforms Shaped by Water and Wind

Lesson 3Mass Wasting and Glaciers

Chapter Wrap-Up

Chapter Menu
chapter introduction3
What do you think?

Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree with each of these statements. As you view this presentation, see if you change your mind about any of the statements.

Chapter Introduction
chapter introduction4
1. Wind, water, ice, and gravity continually shape Earth’s surface.

2. Pieces of sediment in different sizes tend to mix when being moved along by water.

3. A beach is a landform that does not change over time.

Do you agree or disagree?

Chapter Introduction
chapter introduction5
4.Windblown sediment can cut and polish exposed rock surfaces.

5. Landslides are a natural process that cannot be influenced by human activities.

6. A glacier leaves behind very smooth land as it moves through an area.

Do you agree or disagree?

Chapter Introduction
lesson 1 reading guide kc

The Erosion-Deposition Process

  • How can erosion shape and sort sediment?
  • How are erosion and deposition related?
  • What features suggest whether erosion or deposition created a landform?
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC
lesson 1 1

Reshaping Earth’s Surface

  • A combination of constructive processes and destructive processes produce landforms.
  • Constructive processes build up features on Earth’s surface.
  • Destructive processes tear down features on Earth’s surface.
Lesson 1-1
lesson 1 2
The breakdown of rock—weathering—is one type of destructive process that changes Earth’s surface.Lesson 1-2
lesson 1 210

A Continual Process of Change

  • Chemical weathering alters the chemical composition of rock.
  • Physical weathering is the breaking of rock into pieces, called sediment, without changing the chemical composition of the rock.
  • Water, wind, and ice are agents, or causes, of weathering.
Lesson 1-2
lesson 1 211

A Continual Process of Change (cont.)

  • The mineral composition of some rocks makes them less resistant than others are to weathering.
  • The difference in the rate of weathering can produce unusual landforms.
Lesson 1-2
lesson 1 213

Erosion

  • Erosion is the removal of weathered material from one location to another.
  • Agents of erosion include water, wind, glaciers, and gravity.
  • Factors that affect the rate of erosion include weather, climate, shape of the land, and type of rock.
Lesson 1-2
lesson 1 214

Erosion (cont.)

  • The presence of plants and the way humans use the land affect the rate of erosion.
  • The rate of erosion sometimes depends on the type of rock.
  • Weathering breaks some types of rock into large pieces. Other rock types easily break into smaller pieces that are more easily transported.
Lesson 1-2
lesson 1 215

Erosion (cont.)

As rock fragments bump against each other during erosion, the shapes of the fragments can change.

How can erosion affect the shape of sediment?

Lesson 1-2
lesson 1 216

Erosion (cont.)

  • Erosion also affects the level of sorting—separating of items into groups according to one or more properties—of sediment.
  • Sediment is often well-sorted when it has been moved a lot by wind or waves.
Lesson 1-2
lesson 1 217

Erosion (cont.)

Poorly sorted sediment often results from rapid transportation, perhaps by a storm, a flash flood, or a volcanic eruption.

How can erosion sort sediment?

Lesson 1-2
lesson 1 218

Deposition

Deposition is the laying down or settling of eroded material.

deposition

from French deposer, means “put down”

Lesson 1-2
lesson 1 219

Deposition (cont.)

  • As water or wind slows down, it has less energy and can hold less sediment, which can result in some of the sediment being deposited.
  • Sediment is deposited in locations called depositional environments, such as swamps, deltas, beaches, and the ocean floor.
Lesson 1-2
lesson 1 220

Deposition (cont.)

  • High-energy environments, like rushing rivers and ocean shores with large waves, are those in which sediment is transported and deposited quickly.
  • Small grains of sediment are often deposited in low-energy environments, like deep lakes, areas of slow-moving air, and swamps.
  • Sediment deposited in water typically forms layers called beds.
Lesson 1-2
lesson 1 221

Deposition (cont.)

How are erosion and deposition related?

Lesson 1-2
lesson 1 3

Interpreting Landforms

  • Landforms can have features that are clearly produced by erosion.
  • Different rates of erosion can create unusual landforms like tall, protruding landforms called hoodoos.
  • Glacial erosion can produce ice-carved features in mountains.
Lesson 1-3
lesson 1 323

Interpreting Landforms(cont.)

  • Landforms created by deposition are often flat and low-lying.
  • An apron of sediment, called an alluvial fan, often forms where a stream flows from a steep, narrow canyon onto a flat plain at the foot of a mountain.
Lesson 1-3
lesson 1 324

Interpreting Landforms(cont.)

Deposition along a riverbed occurs where the speed of the water slows down and can result in a sandbar.

What features suggest whether erosion or deposition created a landform?

Lesson 1-3
lesson 1 vs

Erosion occurring at different rates can carve rock into interesting landforms.

  • Rock fragments with rough edges are rounded during transportation.
  • Landforms created by deposition are often flat and low-lying.
Lesson 1 - VS
lesson 1 lr1

Which of these refers to the breaking of rocks into sediment without changing the chemical composition of the rock?

A. chemical weathering

B. physical weathering

C. deposition

D. erosion

Lesson 1 – LR1
lesson 1 lr2

Which is an example of a low-energy environment?

A. swamp

B. rushing river

C. ocean shore with large waves

D. none of the above

Lesson 1 – LR2
lesson 1 lr3

Which term refers to the laying down or settling of eroded material?

A. erosion

B. sediment

C. weathering

D. deposition

Lesson 1 – LR3
lesson 1 now
1. Wind, water, ice, and gravity continually shape Earth’s surface.

2. Pieces of sediment in different sizes tend to mix when being moved along by water.

Do you agree or disagree?

Lesson 1 - Now
lesson 2 reading guide kc

Landforms Shaped by Water and Wind

  • What are the stages of stream development?
  • How do water erosion and deposition change Earth’s surface?
  • How do wind erosion and deposition change Earth’s surface?
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - KC
lesson 2 reading guide vocab

Landforms Shaped by Water and Wind

  • abrasion
  • dune
  • loess
  • meander
  • longshore current
  • delta
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - Vocab
lesson 2 1

Shaping the Land with Water and Wind

  • Water and wind are two important agents of weathering, erosion, and deposition.
  • Erosion by water and wind can change the shape of landforms.
Lesson 2-1
lesson 2 2

Water Erosion and Deposition

  • Streams are active systems that erode land and transport sediment.
  • The erosion produced by a stream depends on the stream’s energy. This energy is usually greatest in steep, mountainous areas where young streams flow rapidly downhill.
  • Water from a young stream slows down as it reaches gentler slopes and is then called a mature stream.
Lesson 2-2
lesson 2 234

Water Erosion and Deposition(cont.)

  • A meander is a broad, C-shaped curve in a stream.
  • A stream moves slowly when it reaches flat land and is then called an old stream.
  • As time passes, erosion of the outside bend of a meander, where water is flowing more quickly, occurs. Deposition occurs on the inside bend, where water flows more slowly.
Lesson 2-2
lesson 2 236

Water Erosion and Deposition(cont.)

Describe the stream development stages.

Lesson 2-2
lesson 2 237

Water Erosion and Deposition(cont.)

  • Waves crashing into shore erode loose sand, gravel, and rock along coastlines.
  • A longshore current is a current that flows parallel to the shoreline.
  • This current moves sediment and continually changes the size and shape of beaches.
Lesson 2-2
lesson 2 238

Water Erosion and Deposition(cont.)

Water erosion can also form caves, stacks, and arches.

How does water erosion change Earth’s surface?

Lesson 2-2
lesson 2 239

Water Erosion and Deposition(cont.)

  • Flowing water deposits sediment as the water slows down.
  • Slower-moving water deposits sediment on the inside curves of meanders.
  • A delta is a large deposit of sediment that forms where a stream enters a large body of water.
Lesson 2-2
lesson 2 240

Water Erosion and Deposition(cont.)

  • Much of the sand on most ocean beaches was originally deposited by rivers.
  • Longshore currents transport the sand along ocean coasts and deposit it where the currents have less energy.
Lesson 2-2
lesson 2 241

Water Erosion and Deposition(cont.)

Water deposition forms many structures within caves.

How does water deposition change Earth’s surface?

Lesson 2-2
lesson 2 242

Water Erosion and Deposition(cont.)

  • Ocean waves can erode beaches by removing sediment.
  • To reduce erosion, people sometimes build structures such as retaining walls or groins.
  • Reducing or removing vegetation from the land surface is one of the most common ways that surface erosion is increased.
Lesson 2-2
lesson 2 3

Wind Erosion and Deposition

  • Abrasion is the grinding away of rock or other surfaces as particles carried by wind, water, or ice scrape against them.
  • A duneis a pile of wind-blown sand.
Lesson 2-3
lesson 2 344

Wind Erosion and Deposition(cont.)

Loess is a crumbly, windblown deposit of silt and clay.

loess

from Swiss German Lösch, means “loose”

Lesson 2-3
lesson 2 345

Wind Erosion and Deposition(cont.)

Plowed fields and dry, overgrazed pastures are two ways in which people contribute to wind erosion.

How do wind erosion and deposition change Earth’s surface?

Lesson 2-3
lesson 2 vs

Water erosion changes Earth’s surface. An example of this is the change in features of a stream over time.

  • Water transports sediment and deposits it in places where the speed of the water decreases.
  • Wind erosion can change Earth’s surface by moving sediment. A dune and loess are two types of wind deposition.
Lesson 2 - VS
lesson 2 lr1

Which term refers to the grinding away of rock or other surfaces as particles carried by wind, water, or ice scrape against them?

A. meander

B. delta

C. longshore current

D. abrasion

Lesson 2 – LR1
lesson 2 now

Do you agree or disagree?

3. A beach is a landform that does not change over time.

4. Windblown sediment can cut and polish exposed rock surfaces.

Lesson 2 - Now
lesson 3 reading guide kc

Mass Wasting and Glaciers

  • What are some ways gravity shapes Earth’s surface?
  • How do glaciers erode Earth’s surface?
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - KC
lesson 3 reading guide vocab

Mass Wasting and Glaciers

  • till
  • moraine
  • outwash
  • mass wasting
  • landslide
  • talus
  • glacier
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - Vocab
lesson 3 1

Mass Wasting

  • Mass wasting is the downhill movement of a large mass of rocks or soil because of the pull of gravity.
  • Mass wasting commonly occurs when soil on a hillside is soaked with rainwater.
  • A landslide is the rapid downhill movement of soil, loose rocks, and boulders.
Lesson 3-1
lesson 3 154

Mass Wasting(cont.)

  • Two types of landslides are a rockfall and a mudslide.
  • Slump is a type of mass wasting where the material moves slowly, in a large mass.
  • If the material moves too slowly to be noticeable, causing trees and other objects to lean over, the event is called creep.
Lesson 3-1
lesson 3 155

Mass Wasting(cont.)

What are some ways gravity shapes Earth’s surfaces?

Lesson 3-1
lesson 3 156

Mass Wasting(cont.)

  • When material reaches a stable location, such as the base of a mountain, the material is deposited.
  • Talus is a pile of angular rocks and sediment from a rockfall.
Lesson 3-1
lesson 3 157

Mass Wasting(cont.)

  • Human activity, such as removing vegetation, can affect both the severity of mass wasting and the tendency for it to occur.
  • Landscaping or building on a slope can make the slope steeper and more likely to undergo mass wasting.
Lesson 3-1
lesson 3 2

Glacial Erosion and Deposition

  • A glacier is a large mass of ice that formed on land and moves slowly across Earth’s surface.
  • The two main types of glaciers are alpine glaciers and ice sheets.
  • Glaciers erode Earth’s surface as they slide over it, carving the land as they move.
Lesson 3-2
lesson 3 260

Glacial Erosion and Deposition(cont.)

How do glaciers erode Earth’s surface?

Lesson 3-2
lesson 3 362

Glacial Erosion and Deposition (cont.)

Till is a mixture of various sizes of sediment deposited by a glacier.

till

Science Use rock and sediment deposited by a glacier

Common Use to work by plowing, sowing, and raising crops

Lesson 3-3
lesson 3 363

Glacial Erosion and Deposition (cont.)

A moraine is a mound or ridge of unsorted sediment deposited by a glacier.

moraine

from French morena, means “mound of earth”

Lesson 3-3
lesson 3 364

Glacial Erosion and Deposition (cont.)

  • Outwash is layered sediment deposited by streams of water that flow from a melting glacier.
  • A small change in Earth’s average temperature causes considerable melting of glaciers.
  • As glaciers melt, sea level rises around the world.
Lesson 3-3
lesson 3 vs

Mass wasting can occur very fast, such as when a landslide occurs, or slowly over many years.

  • Material moved by a mass wasting event is deposited when it reaches a relatively stable location. An example is talus deposited at the base of a hill.
Lesson 3 - VS
lesson 3 vs66

A glacier erodes Earth’s surface as it moves and melts. Glaciers can form U-shaped valleys when they move past mountains.

Lesson 3 - VS
lesson 3 lr1

Which of these describes a type of mass wasting where the material moves slowly, in a large mass?

A.slump

B. talus

C. till

D. moraine

Lesson 3 – LR1
lesson 3 lr2

A large mass of ice that formed on land and moves slowly across Earth’s surface is called what?

A. glacier

B. landslide

C. slump

D.talus

Lesson 3 – LR2
lesson 3 lr3

Which term refers to a mound or ridge of unsorted sediment deposited by a glacier?

A.till

B.outwash

C.moraine

D.talus

Lesson 3 – LR3
lesson 3 now

Do you agree or disagree?

5. Landslides are a natural process that cannot be influenced by human activities.

6. A glacier leaves behind very smooth land as it moves through an area.

Lesson 3 - Now
chapter review menu

Key Concept Summary

Interactive Concept Map

Chapter Review

Standardized Test Practice

Chapter Review Menu
the big idea
Erosion and deposition are constructive and destructive forces that shape Earth’s surface by building up and tearing down landforms such as coastlines, dunes, rivers, lakes, mountains, glaciers, and deltas.The BIG Idea
key concepts 1

Lesson 1: The Erosion-Deposition Process

  • Erosion is the wearing away and transportation of weathered material. Deposition is the laying down of the eroded material.
  • Erosion tends to make rocks more rounded. Erosion can sort sediment according to its grain size.
  • Landforms produced by deposition are usually on flat, low land. Landforms produced by erosion are often tall and/or jagged.
Key Concepts 1
key concepts 2

Lesson 2: Landforms Shaped by Water and Wind

  • A young stream moves quickly down steep slopes. A mature stream moves more slowly and develops meanders. An old stream is wider and moves slowly.
  • Water erosion forms V-shaped valleys. Longshore currents reshape beaches. Deposition of sediment from water can form deltas.
  • Wind abrasion can alter the shape of rock. Wind deposition can form a dune or loess.
Key Concepts 2
key concepts 3

Lesson 3: Mass Wasting and Glaciers

  • Gravity can shape Earth’s surface through mass wasting. Creep is an example of mass wasting.
  • A glacier erodes Earth’s surface as it moves by carving grooves and scratches into rock.
Key Concepts 3
chapter review mc1

Which process always alters the chemical composition of rock?

A. physical weathering

B. chemical weathering

C. deposition

D. erosion

Chapter Review – MC1
chapter review mc2

Locations where sediment is deposited are referred to as which of these?

A. hoodoos

B. alluvial fan

C. depositional environments

D. swamp

Chapter Review – MC2
chapter review mc3

What is a large deposit of sediment that forms where a stream enters a large body of water?

A. longshore current

B. delta

C. dune

D. meander

Chapter Review – MC3
chapter review mc5

A pile of angular rocks and sediment from a rockfall is referred to as which of these?

A. landslide

B. talus

C. glacier

D. slump

Chapter Review – MC5
chapter review stp1

Which term refers to the removal of weathered material from one location to another?

A. deposition

B. erosion

C. physical weathering

D. chemical weathering

Chapter Review – STP1
chapter review stp2

What is a stream called when it reaches flat land and moves slowly?

A. old stream

B. longshore current

C. delta

D. creep

Chapter Review – STP2
chapter review stp5

Which of these refers to a mixture of various sizes of sediment deposited by a glacier?

A. till

B. outwash

C. moraine

D. talus

Chapter Review – STP5