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A Mechanism for Equitable Bandwidth Allocation under QoS and Budget Constraints. Sreenivas Gollapudi Oracle Corporation / SUNY at Buffalo. D. Sivakumar IBM Almaden Research Center. Presented by: Abdul Hasib CPSC 601.43 Topics in Multimedia Networking .

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a mechanism for equitable bandwidth allocation under qos and budget constraints

A Mechanism for Equitable Bandwidth Allocationunder QoS and Budget Constraints

Sreenivas Gollapudi

Oracle Corporation /

SUNY at Buffalo

D. Sivakumar

IBM Almaden Research Center

Presented by:

Abdul Hasib

CPSC 601.43 Topics in Multimedia Networking

The Twelfth IEEE International Workshop on Quality of Service IWQoS, 2004.

presentation outline
Presentation outline
  • Quality of Service (QoS)
    • Integrated Service
    • Differentiated Service
  • Objective and previous work
  • Desired Properties
  • Basic principle
  • Bandwidth allocation algorithm
  • Comparison parameter
  • Experimental Results
quality of service qos
Quality of Service (QoS)
  • Internet provides “Best effort” service
    • Simple
    • No admission control
    • No guarantee; no performance assurance
    • Single level of service
    • Not suitable for booming real time applications.

The capability to provide resource assurance and service differentiation in a network is often referred to as quality of service (QoS).

technologies
Technologies
  • QoS parameters
    • Throughput; Delay; Jitter; Data corruption etc.
  • Developed technologies categorized by two key QoS issues:
    • Resource allocation
      • Integrated Service
      • Differentiated Service
    • Performance optimization
      • Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS)
      • Traffic engineering
integrated services int serv
Integrated Services (Int-serv)
  • Per-flow resource reservation.
  • Steps:
    • Application requests its required resource.
    • The network uses a routing protocol to find a path based on the requested resources.
    • Reservation protocol (RSVP) is used to install the reservation state along that path.
    • At each hop, admission control checks whether sufficient resources are available to accept the new reservation.
    • After reservation, the application can start to send traffic over the path for which it has exclusive use of the resources.
int serv cont
Int-serv (cont.)
  • Two services level
    • guaranteed (delay) service, controlled load service.
int serv cont1
Int-serv (cont.)
  • Disadvantage:
    • Applicable to long lasting traffic (video conferencing);
    • Scalability problem
      • may not be able to cope with a very large number of flows at high speeds
      • requires the support of accounting and settlement between different service providers
  • Potential Application Area:
    • IP telephony, video conferencing over corporate intranets
differentiated service diff serv

Interior

Router

Egress

Edge

Router

Ingress

Edge Router

Differentiated Service (Diff-serv)

Uses a combination of edge policing, provisioning, and traffic prioritization to achieve service differentiation.

  • Resource allocation to aggregated traffic rather than individual flows.
  • Traffic policing on the edge and class-based forwarding in the core.
router functionality
Router Functionality
  • Network edge routers:
    • Packet classification: service level agreement (SLA) and traffic type.
    • Responsible for mapping packets to their appropriate forwarding classes, per-hop behavior (PHB). Each PHB is represented by a 6 bit DSCP
    • Set DSCP in packet header DS field, modified TOS field.
    • Nonconforming traffic may be dropped, delayed, or marked with a different forwarding class.
  • Interior routers:traffic classification and forwarding
    •  use DSCP as index into forwarding table
router functionality cont
Router Functionality (cont.)
  • Network edge routers:
    • traffic conditioning (policing, marking, dropping), SLA negotiation.
diff serv
Diff-serv
  • Define forwarding behavior not end-to-end services.
  • Guarantee by provisioning rather than reservation:
    • For each forwarding class, the amount of traffic that users can inject into the network is limited at the edge

of the network.

      • service providers can adjust the level of resource provisioning;
      • control the degree of resource assurance to the users.
  • Qualitative QoS scheme.
presentation outline1
Presentation outline
  • Quality of Service (QoS)
    • Integrated Service
    • Differentiated Service
  • Objective and previous work
  • Desired Properties
  • Basic principle
  • Bandwidth allocation algorithm
  • Comparison parameter
  • Experimental Results
objective and previous work
Objective and previous work
  • Fair and efficient bandwidth management.
  • Allocation based on differential pricing scheme.

Previous work

  • Allocation is based on a single preferred bandwidth (A) request of user.
  • Uniform allocation rule:
    • Initially allocate an equal share (X) to every user,
    • if A<X, user will receive exactly A.
    • Excess bandwidth will be equally re-apportioned among all remaining users.
desired properties
Desired properties
  • Feasibility: ; ai=allocated bandwidth to user i
  • Efficiency:
    • If the sum of ideal allocations exceeds the supply, then no user should receive more than his ideal allocation;
    • if supply exceeds the sum of ideal allocations, then no user should receive less than his ideal allocation.
  • Strategy proof ness: Mis-reporting bandwidth requirement should not give incentive to user.
  • Envy-freeness: When the allocations have been determined, no user would prefer other users allocation to his.
basic principle
Basic principle
  • Network coordinator
    • is used to deploy the bandwidth allocation mechanism in a general network;
    • handles the functions of admission control.
  • Bandwidth allocation is based on:
    • Service provider (vendor) parameter
      • Cost function, c(b)= ; = constant
      • Capacity and utilization information of all links along path, P.
basic principle cont
Basic principle (cont.)
  • Bandwidth allocation is based on:
    • User (agent) parameter:
      • Utility function,
      • Pricing level, li

- User can choose to pay more for a QoS requirement to increase the likelihood of receiving the better service.

- where, ci= cost function for agent I

C= revenue goal

comparison parameter
Comparison parameter

(1) Quality of Service: For an agent with optimal allocation

, an allocation b of bandwidth is defined to achieve a QoS value of Q( , b) = b/

(2) Probability of allocation: Fraction of agents who receive at least , their minimum acceptable allocation ( ).

(3) Fairness rank, F(i) is proportional to