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Iowa State University. Iowa State University. 1858 - Chartered as Iowa Agricultural College and Model Farm 1864 – Designated nation’s first land-grant institution 1869 – Official opening 1872 – 1 st graduating class of 26 students

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iowa state university2
Iowa State University
  • 1858 - Chartered as Iowa Agricultural College and Model Farm
  • 1864 – Designated nation’s first land-grant institution
  • 1869 – Official opening
  • 1872 – 1st graduating class of 26 students
  • 1959 - Renamed Iowa State University of Science and Technology
iowa state university today
Iowa State University Today
  • 26,856 students
    • 21,607 undergrads
    • 5,249 graduate
  • 6,083 faculty and staff
  • 1984 acres of main campus
  • Over 200 buildings
  • 11,133,828 gsf of building space
edison light plant in 1884

1 - East Boarding Cottage

2 - West Boarding Cottage

3 - Chemistry-Physics Hall

4 - Lab of Mechanics

5 - College Workshop

Edison Light Plant in 1884
  • Replaced gas lighting system.
  • Size “K” Edison Dynamo (approximately 15,000 watts - 110 volts DC) powered by an existing 25 hp Harris-Corliss steam engine in the college workshop.
  • 250 ten-candle lamps were installed in College Main Building.
  • Operated only during evening hours.
college power station in 1891
College Power Station in 1891

In 1891 a new power station (arrow) was constructed directly north of Engineering Hall (Lab of Mechanics Building).

1891 college power station
1891 College Power Station
  • Started Iowa State’s history of cogeneration
  • Steam engines were used to produce electricity for lighting
  • Waste steam from steam engines was sent to campus buildings for heating
power station dynamo room at the turn of the century
Power Station Dynamo Room at the Turn of the Century

Total electric capacity of 100 kilowatts

chilled water
Chilled Water
  • In mid-1960’s the university was beginning to air condition campus buildings
  • Made decision to construct large central chilled water system
  • Installed all major piping systems throughout campus
  • Installed the first 5,000 ton steam driven chiller in main power plant
  • 1968 – Started operation of central chilled water system
comparison
Comparison

1900 Generator Room

Capacity of 100 kilowatts

2008 Generator Room

Capacity of 46,000 kilowatts

iowa state university utility enterprise
Iowa State University Utility Enterprise
  • Rate-based enterprise – established in 1985
  • Employs 78 people
  • Two facilities on main campus and two satellite facilities
  • Capability to provide all the energy needs of the university
  • Receives no state support
iowa state university utility enterprise16
Iowa State University Utility Enterprise
  • Utility Administration – 2 people
  • Plant Operations – 28 people
  • Material Handling – 7 people
  • Plant Maintenance – 20 people
  • Mechanical Distribution – 5 people
  • Electrical Distribution – 9 people
  • Utility Engineering – 7 people
iowa state university utility enterprise17
Iowa State University Utility Enterprise
  • FY08 budget of $35.7 million
    • Coal - $13.7 million
    • Limestone - $412,000
    • Ash disposal - $780,000
    • Purchased electricity - $2.05 million
  • For FY08 the cost of these four items averaged $45,000 every day
power plant north chilled water plant
Power Plant & North Chilled Water Plant
  • 6 boilers – 900,000 lbs/hr
  • 4 turbine-generators – 46 MW
  • 5 chillers – 21,000 tons
  • 4 air compressors – 4,000 cfm
  • 1 water plant – 1,000,000 gpd
  • 2 cooling towers
  • Extensive auxiliary systems
iowa state challenges
Iowa State Challenges
  • Campus growth
  • Aging equipment
  • Uncertain environmental regulations
  • Green movement
  • Plant capacity
plant capacity
Plant Capacity
  • With current campus capital plans
    • Need additional chilled water capacity about 2014
  • To maintain capability to fully generate electrical load
    • Need additional boiler and generator capacity about 2015
green activities
Green Activities
  • Alternative fuels
    • Waste fuels?
    • Biomass
  • Wind energy
alternative fuels24
Alternative Fuels
  • Construction demolition waste
    • Considered a waste to energy opportunity by Iowa DNR
    • ISU completed test burns in March and August 2008
      • Material handling problems
      • High variability in fuel quality
      • NOX emissions increased
      • High levels of lead which remained with the ash
      • Higher levels of some trace metals (arsenic & cadmium)
    • No longer considering this fuel due to environmental concerns
alternative fuels25
Alternative Fuels

Biomass

  • Considered carbon neutral
  • Volume of fuel increases nearly 4 times
    • BTU content is 40% lower
    • Density of biomass is 50% of coal
  • Fuel handling systems and boiler design are significantly different
  • Causes NOX emissions to increase and SO2 emissions to decrease
  • Transportation costs are significant, source must be located close to plant
alternative fuels26
Alternative Fuels
  • Would like to find a natural biomass fuel to displace 5-10% of coal burn
    • Wood pellets
    • Chicken manure pellets
    • Corn stover
wind energy
Wind Energy
  • Working jointly with Ames Municipal Electric System to procure wind energy delivered to Ames and campus
  • Iowa State is looking for about 5 megawatts of capacity
  • Would equate to 7-8% of the campus energy consumption
wind energy28
Wind Energy
  • Ames/Iowa State participating in preliminary development of a wind farm near Ames
  • Would be connected to joint Ames/Iowa State transmission system
  • Ames/Iowa State also issuing an RFP for wind energy delivered to campus
facilities
Facilities

Main Power Plant

North Campus Chilled Water Plant

Vet Med College Utility Operation

Applied Science Complex Utility Operation

support services
Support & Services

Plant Operations

Material Handling

Plant Maintenance

Remote Plant Operations

staffing support
Staffing Support
  • Plant Operations
    • Operate main power plant
    • Monitor/check operations of remote plants
    • 3-8hr shifts per day
    • 5-crews 5-people per shift
    • 28-day rotation schedule
  • Material Handling
    • Receive coal & lime deliveries
    • Load ash trucks
    • 2-Crew’s (5:30 Am ~6:30 Pm)
    • 7-Equipment Operator’s
    • Fueling plant 6-7 days per week
staffing support33
Staffing Support
  • Plant Maintenance
    • Leadership Team 1-Manager 2-Mechanical Supervisor’s
    • 3-Electrical & Instrumentation Technicians
    • 2-Insulators
    • 7-Maintenance Mechanics
    • This group provides support as needed to all facilities
  • Remote Plant Operations
    • 3-Enviromental System Mechanics
      • Operate & maintain equipment (Refrigeration Certification)
boilers
Boilers

Boiler 1

Fluidized Bed

Coal

20 years

170,000 lbs/hr

Boiler 2

Fluidized Bed

Coal

20 years

170,000 lbs/hr

Boiler 3

Spreader Stoker

Coal/Gas

35 years

150,000 lbs/hr

Boiler 4

Spreader Stoker

Coal/Gas

33 years

160,000 lbs/hr

Boiler 5

Chain Grate Stoker

Coal/Gas

40 years

150,000 lbs/hr

Boiler 6

Chain Grate Stoker

Gas

48 years

100,000 lbs/hr

  • Total steam production capacity of 900,000 lbs per hour
  • Peak steam production of 488,000 lbs/hr
turbine generators
Turbine Generators

Generator 3

30 years

13.28 megawatts

Generator 4

48 years

6.25 megawatts

Generator 5

40 years

11.5 megawatts

Generator 6

3 years

15.0 megawatts

  • Total electrical production capacity of 46 megawatts
  • Peak load of 34.1 megawatts
chillers

North Chiller Plant

Main Power Plant

Chiller 1

40 years

5,000 tons

400 lb steam

Chiller 2

30 years

5,000 tons

400 lb steam

Chiller 3

24 years

5,000 tons

90 lb steam

Chiller 4

12 years

2,000 tons

electric

Chiller 5

5 years

4,000 tons

90 lb steam

Chillers
  • Total chilled water production capacity of 21,000 tons
  • Peak load of 15,169 tons
vet med college operation
Vet Med College Operation

90# steam is typically supplied from the main power plant.

2- Packaged boilers (30,000#/hr each)

2- 1,000 ton absorption chillers

2- 1,000 ton centrifugal chillers

2- Air compressors

applied science complex
Applied Science Complex

2-Low pressure heating boilers

2- 400 ton centrifugal chillers

Air compressors

fy08 plant production
FY08 Plant Production
  • Steam produced – 2,623,141,000 lbs
  • Steam to campus – 1,095,721,000 lbs
  • Chilled water – 33,343,000 ton-hrs
  • Electricity consumed – 200,886,000 kwh
    • Generated electricity – 151,831,000 kwh
    • Purchased electricity – 45,956,000 kwh
  • Coal burned – 154,463 tons
  • Limestone used – 14,749 tons
  • Ash produced – 28,178 tons
cogeneration
Cogeneration
  • Fiscal Year 2008
    • Over 98% of the steam supplied to campus was used to produce electricity before being sent to campus
    • Over 83% of the steam used to produce chilled water was used first to produce electricity before producing chilled water
    • Cogeneration produced nearly 20% of the university’s electricity at a cost of $0.012 per kilowatt-hour
limestone
Limestone
  • Used in fluidized bed boilers to remove over 90% of the sulfur from the coal
  • 1 pound of limestone for every 8 lbs of coal
  • Limestone comes from Alden, Iowa, near Iowa Falls
  • 15,000 tons of limestone per year
ash disposal
Ash Disposal
  • Nearly 30,000 tons per year of ash
  • All ash is reused for beneficial uses as defined by the Iowa DNR. Uses for ash in 2007 included:
    • Quarry reclamation – 23,410 tons
    • Soil stabilization – 6,999 tons
    • Compost manufacture – 1,358 tons
    • Cement manufacture – 305 tons
purchased electricity
Purchased Electricity
  • Make or buy decision
  • Power plant operators determine how much power to buy, if any
    • Weather conditions
    • Anticipated cogeneration opportunities
    • Equipment operating limits
    • ISU production costs
    • Cost and availability of purchased power
    • Available transmission system capacity
mechanical distribution systems
Mechanical Distribution Systems
  • Steam tunnels – 4.5 miles
  • Direct buried steam – 2.6 miles
  • Chilled water – 5.3 miles
  • Domestic water – 8.3 miles
  • Natural gas – 4.5 miles
  • Sanitary sewer – 10.3 miles
  • Storm sewer – 25.2 miles
  • Compressed air – 3.5 miles
  • Replacement value of $113 million
applying utility core values
Applying Utility Core Values
  • Safety
  • Reliability
  • Efficiency
  • Innovation
  • Stewardship
common strategies applied to achieve vision and core values
Common Strategies Applied to Achieve Vision and Core Values
  • Provide Detailed Standards
    • Identify standard material and methods
    • Refine standards
      • Observations
      • new products
    • Apply same standards
      • Capital Projects
      • Routine Maintenance
    • Post Standards on the web for everyone to access
    • Make standards so easy to use so that most will not consider free lancing and using other approaches
increase reliability
Increase Reliability
  • Make System Decision for 30-100 year life
  • Standards
increased reliability
Increased Reliability
  • Provide Looped Feed with Isolation
    • Methodically look for low capital looping opportunities
    • Install 3 way valving at buildings
    • Maintenance activities
      • during peak usage
      • without customer interruption
    • Extends infrastructure Life
      • beyond normal useful life
    • Minimize Customer Disruption
increase reliability53
Increase Reliability
  • Look for Reduced Maintenance Opportunities
    • Corrosion is not your friend
      • Install Polyethylene and PVC Pipe
      • Install stainless steel
      • If plain carbon steel:
        • keep it dry and protected
        • e.g. - epoxy coated rebar and galvanized
      • Provide protection beyond typical manufacturers’ recommendation
    • Minimize non-welded fittings and joints
    • Eliminate packed glands and fittings
    • Standardized and Stock Materials
increase efficiency
Increase Efficiency
  • Reduce Engineering and Inspection Time
    • Typically No Customization
      • Just apply standards
    • Minimize project review
      • Standard should look familiar to all
    • Use In-House staff working with repeat contractors
      • Eliminates the need for site specific designs
increase efficiency55
Increase Efficiency
  • Religiously Maintain Records Electronically
    • Maintain an Easy Process to Keep Maps and Records Current
      • Access to All Staff
    • File All Information Electronically
      • Access to All Staff
increase efficiency56
Increase Efficiency
  • The staffing level can be low
    • Mechanical Distribution
      • 5 Trades People
      • 1 Engineer
    • Energy Management
      • 3 Technicians
      • 1 Energy Program Coordinator
    • Train staff to be Cross Functional Rather than Specialist
    • Operational Staff Provide Oversight and Work with Capital Project Construction Manager
      • They have a vested interest in getting it right
increase efficiency57
Increase Efficiency
  • Engineering Design
    • Focused of keeping the standards current
    • Don’t design it if standards can be directly applied
      • We then only need to size it
    • Make project designs details as simple as absolutely required
    • Design most project in house
      • In-house design more than pays for the position by saving consulting fees
    • Maintain in-house computer model of all systems
      • Use model for capital planning and maintenance activities
      • Use software that is integrated with other packages such as CAD and Databases to minimize stand-alone legacy systems.
innovation
Innovation
  • Increased Use of Directional Boring
    • Speed of Installation
    • Minimize Surface Interruption
    • Maintain Developed Landscaping
  • Infrastructure Fund is in Place to Reduce Utility Cost to Building Projects
    • Individual Projects Do not Bear the Burden of Major Capacity Increases
    • Cost is Subsidized with Utility Rates
current challenges
Current Challenges
  • Maintain Appreciation of Standards
  • Keeping Standards Up-to-Date
  • Strive for Asset Manager versus Project Mentality
steam utility summary
Steam Utility Summary
  • Multiple Loops
  • Single Pressure: 90 psi to All buildings
  • Asbestos Free
  • Ventilation Fans are Used to Keep Tunnels Dry
  • Personnel Passage into Buildings is Minimized for Security Reasons
  • Security Motion Detectors are Scattered Around System.
steam tunnel summary
Steam Tunnel Summary
  • Most of System is Walk Through Steam Tunnel
    • Majority of Tunnel System is Over 70 Years Old
    • Some Tunnel is over 100 years Old
    • 2 Bolt Cast Iron Pipe Still Used for Condensate Return Went Out of Business in 1930’s
    • Recent 700 Foot Project Cost
      • $1,150 per foot for structure
      • $750 per foot for all piping
chilled water summary
Chilled Water Summary
  • Multiple Loops
  • Primary Pumping Only
  • Size Lines for Additional capacity and Reduced Operating Cost from Hydraulic Friction
  • Minimize Thrust Blocks
storm sewer summary
Storm Sewer Summary
  • Increase Emphasis on Storm Water Management and Regulation
    • Rain Water Reuse
    • Sand Filter
    • Porous Payment
    • Swales
    • Reduces Need for Storm Water Capacity
sanitary sewer summary
Sanitary Sewer Summary
  • Work with Customer to Reduce Quantity and Increase Quality of Discharge
    • Settling Tank
    • Compost
compressed air summary
Compressed Air Summary
  • Central System
  • Central Drying and Filtering
energy management
Energy Management
  • Johnson Control Campus Wide Systems
  • Standards are Well Developed
  • System is Operating with Redundant Backup Servers
  • All 100,000+ Points are Trended to the Server Every 15 minutes
  • Web Access Across University
  • Some Campus Departments Schedule Their Own Systems
energy management67
Energy Management
  • Energy Witness Software is Used for Historical Data and Sophisticated Analysis
    • Details to be covered in Energy Witness Presentation
electrical distribution systems
Electrical Distribution Systems
  • High voltage electrical cables – 16.7 miles
  • Electrical transformers – 525
  • Electrical substations – 7
  • Telecommunications cables – 90 miles
  • Street, sidewalk and parking lot lights – 1900
  • Traffic lights – 7
  • Electrical System Replacement value - $53 million
operating voltages
Operating Voltages
  • 69,000 Volts
    • Utilized in 2 joint use substations with City of Ames
  • 13,800 Volts
    • Utilized as a transmission voltage to 5 main campus substations
    • Utilized in service area north of Union Pacific Railroad and south of main campus
operating voltages73
Operating Voltages
  • 13,800 volts
    • Systems served by City of Ames and Operated by ISU
    • Configured as a loop system
  • 4,160 Volts
    • Utilized throughout main campus
    • Configures more as a mesh type network but operated as a radial feeder system
substations 69 kv primary
Substations-69 kV Primary
  • Jointly operated with City of Ames
  • ISU owns the 69:13.8 KV transformer
  • Main Campus Transformer-20/26/30 MVA
  • Vet Med Complex Transformer- 5/6.25 MVA
substations 13 8 kv primary
Substations-13.8 kV Primary
  • Transformers-2.5 MVA, 5/6.25 MVA or 7.5/9.75/10.5 MVA sizes
  • Utilized to step voltage from 13,800 to 4,160 volts
  • Switch/Fuse with single phase detection on 4,160 volt campus feeders
switchgear
Switchgear
  • S&C Custom (Air insulated)
  • S&C PMH (Air Insulated)
  • S&C Vista (SF6 Insulated)
  • G&W RAC (SF6 Insulated)
  • G&W VI (SF6 Insulated)
  • G&W Trident (Solid Di-electric)
switchgear82
Switchgear
  • Oil Filled equipment
  • Have 17 Oil Filled G&W switchgear yet to replace (had 45 plus when process was started)
  • Have 36 Oil Filled Fused Cutouts to replace (had 270 plus when process was started)
transformers
Transformers
  • 440 in service, 85 in storage
  • 192 Oil filled single phase pole top type transformers in three phase installations
  • 158 Three phase transformers
  • 84 Single phase pad mounted transformers
  • 6 Oil filled PT’s and Ct’s
transformers84
Transformers
  • Utilizing Cooper FR3 fluid in most new pad-mounted transformers
  • Standard for new installation is outdoor pad-mounted transformers
metering
Metering
  • All buildings are metered
    • Most are secondary metered
    • Utilizing the Elster Alpha Plus meter as standard
    • Also utilize building energy management system utilizing Veris Industries N2 Bus compatible meters for real time data
telecommunications
Telecommunications
  • Work with Information Technology Services to install all underground Telecommunications copper and fiber optic cables, conduits and vaults.
  • Service to new buildings is 24 strand singlemode fiber and 100 pair copper.
campus lighting
Campus Lighting
  • Operates and maintains all pole mounted lighting throughout campus
  • All lighting is HPS, wattages of 150 through 1000.
  • All new fixtures are full cutoff design.
  • No LED’s to date (but researching them)
traffic signals
Traffic Signals
  • Operate and maintain 7 sets of traffic signals on ISU Roadways
  • Converting all lamps to LED as failures occur
utility locates
Utility Locates
  • Locate all ISU owned and operated utilities though out Story and Boone County
  • Member of Iowa One Call
  • ISU staff may request a locate through FP&M web page
utility locates91
Utility Locates
  • Electric Systems
  • Telecommunications Systems
  • Steam and Tunnel Systems
  • Domestic Water Systems
  • Chilled Water Systems
  • Raw Water systems
  • Sanitary Sewer Systems
  • Storm Sewer Systems
  • Natural Gas Systems
  • Irrigation Systems
  • Traffic Signals
staffing
Staffing
  • Electrical Engineers-2
  • Engineering Tech (Microstation) -1
  • Electric Shop Manager-1
  • High Voltage Electrican-4
  • Electrican-2
  • Facility Mechanic (Locator)-1
challenges concerns
Challenges/Concerns
  • Aging work force-Retirements
  • Hiring High Voltage Staff
  • Budget concerns
  • Arc Flash Standards
  • System Reliability-Meeting campus growth
  • Changing Technology