The Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat Professional Learning Series Comprehendingin Action: Module 2 Evaluating
Contents Welcome Session Session Session Session Session LNS Professional Learning Series Slides 1 to 6 An Introduction to Evaluating Slides 7 to 27 Thinking Aloud Slides 28 to 45 Scaffolding the Learning Slides 46 to 61 Moving into Guided Reading Slides 62 to 83 Moving into Guided Writing Slides 84 to 100 1 2 3 4 5
Welcome The Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat Professional Learning Series Module 2
Why a Professional Learning Series? Job-embedded professional learning addresses teacher isolation by providing opportunities for shared teacher inquiry, study, and classroom- based research.
Aims of the Literacy Professional Learning Series • Introduce engaging texts for junior students • Integrate reading and writing instruction • Make connections to Literacy for Learning: TheReport of the Expert Panel on Literacy in Grades 4 to 6 in Ontario, A Guide to Effective Literacy Instruction in Grades 4 to 6, Volumes One and Two,and the revised language curriculum
Overview of Module • Five sessions • 60–75 minutes each • Divided into before/during/after reading experiences plus classroom inquiry • Integration of speaking, listening, reading, writing, viewing, and representing • Time to explore current ministry support documents
Session 1 An Introduction to Evaluating
Learning Goals This module is intended to: • broaden understanding of the integrated nature of comprehension strategies; • demonstrate the model of the gradual release of responsibility in the context of a junior classroom; • introduce high-yield strategies for “accountable talk”; • make connections to professional readings.
Something to Think About … Turn and talk to a neighbour about your initial reactions to this media clip. High-Yield Strategy: Turn and Talk
Why Revisit Text? “On a first reading, aspects of craft are transparent, because you are responding to the deeper meanings. Revisiting a text, however, leaves more attention free for analysis and can add to the enjoyment and interpretation of a text.” Fountas & Pinnell, 2006, p. 41
Revisiting the Text … Turn and talk a different member of your table group. Discuss the intended message of the clip. How accurate is the message? High-Yield Strategy: Turn and Talk
One Last Look … Turn and talk to a different member of your table group. Discuss the validity of the message. What are you basing your perceptions on? High-Yield Strategy: Turn and Talk
What is Evaluating? When you evaluate, you combine information in your head with information from the text to assess and make judgments based on standards or criteria. High-Yield Strategy: Summarizing Key Information
Interacting with Text Author’s Words Vocabulary Punctuation Style Syntax Strategies Using cueing systems Activating prior knowledge Predicting Visualizing Questioning Drawing inferences Finding important information Summarizing Synthesizing and evaluating Monitoring/ revising comprehension Language Knowledge Phonology Morphology Syntax Vocabulary Text Features Use of organizational tools Use of informational tools (glossary, captions) Format/Layout Use of space and graphics Use of illustrations Author’s Purpose Topic Ideas Message Text Knowledge Organizational & informational structure Artistic elements of text Print concepts Text type Self-Concept as a Reader Purpose for reading Interests & Experiences Factual Knowledge High-Yield Strategy: Visual Representation
Making Judgments When you evaluate text, you can assess and make judgments about: • the suitability of the text for the intended purpose; • the quality of the writer’s craft; • the authenticity, accuracy or reliability of the content; • the validity of the perspectives presented. High-Yield Strategy: Anchor Chart
Connecting to Classroom Practice Why teach evaluating? High-Yield Strategy: Placemat
Curriculum Expectations Overall Expectation: • Read and demonstrate an understanding of a variety of literary, graphic, and informational texts, using a range of strategies to construct meaning. What specific expectations address “evaluating” for your grade level?
Critical Literacy “The ultimate requirement of the reader is to take a critical stance. Reading critically is a necessity in a free society. Not everything you read is accurate, often persuasive material must be judged on its merit and connected to its source. One perspective may be presented but the reader must seek other perspectives. Moreover, readers are required to judge the quality of a text.” Fountas & Pinnell, 2006, p. 59
Literacy Goals for Junior Learners • To become a strategic reader, writer, and oral communicator • To expand thinking skills (including metacognitive and critical-literacy skills), developing the necessary habits of mind • To deepen the motivation to learn • To develop independence as a learner
Researching theFour Literacy Goals Have each person in a table group of four choose one of the literacy goals to research more deeply using the following references from A Guide to Effective Literacy Instruction, Volume One: Goal 1: pp. 5–6 Goal 2: pp. 6–7 Goal 3: p. 7 Goal 4: p. 8 Use Teacher Resource 3 to record key information from your reading. High-Yield Strategy: Jigsaw
Organizing for Instruction in the Junior Grades • Insert “Organizing for Instruction”clip Run Time: 6:32 minutes
Collaborative Learning In your expert groups, discuss your observations and recordings listed on column two of Teacher Resource 3. Complete column three in your expert groups. Return to your home table groups and share your learning. High-Yield Strategy: Jigsaw
Making the Links to Research Move to one of the four corners in the room labelled: Agree Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree to share your thoughts and experiences related to each of the following statements. High-Yield Strategy: Four Corners
What Do You Think? “Without challenge, there is no learning.” Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development “Scaffolding may be the single most important approach to teaching that makes a difference in how well learners succeed.” Strickland, Ganske, & Monroe, 2002, p. 48 “Eighty per cent of what we learn and remember comes to us in a visual format.” Importance of non-linguistic representations of knowledge-like graphic organizers High-Yield Strategy: Summarizing Key Information
Think-Pair-Share What connections can you make between this final four corners activity and the content of this session?
Classroom Inquiry • What concept, observation, or discussion point from today’s session has intrigued you? • Create a question to take back to your class for the purposes of inquiry. • Bring an artefact to the next session to illustrate what you learned.
Session 2 Thinking Aloud
Chatting about Classroom Inquiry • Find someone in the room who is wearing the same colour shoes. • Spend a few minutes chatting about the inquiry question that you took away from the last session. • Briefly describe what your question was and what you learned through your classroom inquiry. High-Yield Strategy: Working with Partners
Learning Goals This session is intended to: • reinforce the use of comprehension strategies in an integrated fashion; • introduce the language of evaluating; • model the joint construction of anchor charts; • explore aspects of critical literacy and media literacy; • introduce new strategies for accountable talk; • make links to professional readings.
Place Yourself on the Line Consider the following statement: “I am comfortable using a think-aloud to demonstrate my thinking to my students.” Place yourself on the line from Very Comfortable to Very Uncomfortable. Be prepared to share why you chose your particular spot on the line. High-Yield Strategy: Value Line
Some Evaluating Activities • Value Lines (p. 154) • Four Corners (p. 129) • Questioning the Author (p. 144) • Ranking Ladder (p. 145) The page numbers indicate information found in A Guide to Effective Literacy Instruction, Grades 4 to 6, Volume One High-Yield Strategy: Accountable Talk
Revisiting Session 1 • Comprehension is an active, on-going process. • When you evaluate, you combine information in your head with information from the text to assess and make judgments based on standards or criteria.
Revisiting Session 1 • Evaluating involves the interweaving of a variety of processing skills or strategies in order to make a range of decisions or judgments about text and ideas. • Evaluating is an essential element of critical literacy.
Types of Evaluations Readers can evaluate: • the suitability of the text for the intended purpose; • the quality of the writer’s craft; • the authenticity, accuracy or reliability of the content; • the validity of the perspectives presented. High-Yield Strategy: Anchor Charts
Thinking Aloud about Evaluating • Insert Thinking Aloud clip Run Time: 15:17 minutes Wolves Written and Illustrated by Emily Gravett Published by Macmillan Children’s Books London, UK
Sticky Note Sort • With your table group, sort your sticky notes into piles of similar language or text characteristics. • Read through the lesson plan on Teacher Resource 6 to find other examples to add to your sticky note piles. High-Yield Strategy: Sticky Note Sort
When Evaluating You Might Say … • I like this because … • It is really clever to … • This is effective/not effective because … • This information sounds/does not sound correct because … • I’m sure/not sure … is accurate because … • I don’t think it is fair to … because … • That doesn’t sound right to me because … • That sounds biased to me because … High-Yield Strategy: Anchor Charts
Promoting Critical Literacy • “Texts that engage students in deep thinking about societal values provide opportunities for rich dialogue and learning in the junior classroom.” • “Picture books for mature readers have many layers of meaning and are ideal for teaching critical literacy skills.” A Guide to Effective Literacy Instruction, Grades 4 to 6, Volume One,p. 63
Concepts of Media Literacy 1. Construction: All media messages are constructions. 2. Beliefs/Values: Media messages contain beliefs and convey values. 3. Audience: Each person interprets a message differently. 4. Intent: Media messages serve commercial, social, and/or political interests. 5. Form: Each medium has its own language, style, form, techniques, conventions, and aesthetics. http://www.eworkshop.on.ca
Deconstructing Graphic Images What inferences and evaluations are you making? What inferences can you make about the way the illustration was constructed to support your conclusions? Low angle Wide shot – wolf is larger than life
Deconstructing Graphic Images • Normal or straight angle • Close up – strong sense of wolf’s intent What inferences and evaluations are you making? What inferences can you make about the way the illustration was constructed to support your conclusions?
Deconstructing Graphic Images What inferences and evaluations are you making? What inferences can you make about the way the illustration was constructed to support your conclusions? • Extreme close up – can sense the discomfort felt by rabbit
Promoting Classroom Dialogue • “ … questions from both teachers and students have the power to generate vivid ideas, spur the imagination and provoke both teacher and student into a shared creative learning experience.” (p. 17) • “A good question is an expressive demonstration of genuine curiosity… rich with possibilities for discussion of issues [that] challenge existing thinking and encourage reflection.” (p. 77-78) High-Yield Strategy: Summarizing Key Information
Classroom Inquiry • How do you promote critical dialogue in your classroom? • Document some of the questions that you find particularly effective in engaging students in critical discussion. • Be prepared to share some of these highly effective questions at the start of the next session.
Session 3 Scaffolding the Learning
Chatting about Classroom Inquiry • Find a partner and number yourselves “one” and “two.” • All “ones” stand in a circle facing out. All “twos” stand facing your partners. • Share your effective questions with your partner. • At the signal, rotate the outside circle, one person to the left. High-Yield Strategy: Inside-Outside Circle
Let’s Review Evaluating • When you evaluate, you combine information in your head with information from the text to assess and make judgments based on standards or criteria. • When evaluating is at work in the foreground, other comprehension strategies are at work in the background. High-Yield Strategy: Summarizing Key Concepts
Let’s Review Evaluating Readers can evaluate: • the suitability of the text for the intended purpose; • the quality of the writer’s craft; • the authenticity, accuracy or reliability of the content; • the validity of the perspectives presented. High-Yield Strategy: Summarizing Key Concepts
Learning Goals This session is intended to: • model the use of comprehension strategies in an integrated fashion with evaluating in the foreground; • demonstrate the link between assessment and instruction; • provide evidence of the gradual release of responsibility model; • deconstruct the language of evaluating; • model the use of graphic organizers; • introduce high-yield strategies for accountable talk.