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The Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat Professional Learning Series. Comprehending in Action: . Module. 2. Evaluating . Contents. Welcome Session Session Session Session Session . LNS Professional Learning Series Slides 1 to 6 An Introduction to Evaluating Slides 7 to 27

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contents
Contents

Welcome

Session

Session

Session

Session

Session

LNS Professional Learning Series

Slides 1 to 6

An Introduction to Evaluating

Slides 7 to 27

Thinking Aloud

Slides 28 to 45

Scaffolding the Learning

Slides 46 to 61

Moving into Guided Reading

Slides 62 to 83

Moving into Guided Writing

Slides 84 to 100

1

2

3

4

5

welcome
Welcome

The Literacy and

Numeracy Secretariat

Professional

Learning Series

Module

2

why a professional learning series
Why a Professional Learning Series?

Job-embedded professional learning addresses teacher isolation by providing opportunities for shared teacher inquiry, study, and classroom- based research.

aims of the literacy professional learning series
Aims of the Literacy Professional Learning Series
  • Introduce engaging texts for junior students
  • Integrate reading and writing instruction
  • Make connections to Literacy for Learning: TheReport of the Expert Panel on Literacy in Grades 4 to 6 in Ontario, A Guide to Effective Literacy Instruction in Grades 4 to 6, Volumes One and Two,and the revised language curriculum
overview of module
Overview of Module
  • Five sessions
  • 60–75 minutes each
  • Divided into before/during/after reading experiences plus classroom inquiry
  • Integration of speaking, listening, reading, writing, viewing, and representing
  • Time to explore current ministry support documents
session 1
Session 1

An Introduction

to

Evaluating

learning goals
Learning Goals

This module is intended to:

  • broaden understanding of the integrated nature of comprehension strategies;
  • demonstrate the model of the gradual release of responsibility in the context of a junior classroom;
  • introduce high-yield strategies for “accountable talk”;
  • make connections to professional readings.
something to think about
Something to Think About …

Turn and talk to a neighbour about your initial reactions to this media clip.

High-Yield Strategy: Turn and Talk

why revisit text
Why Revisit Text?

“On a first reading, aspects of craft are transparent, because you are responding to the deeper meanings. Revisiting a text, however, leaves more attention free for analysis and can add to the enjoyment and interpretation of a text.”

Fountas & Pinnell, 2006, p. 41

revisiting the text
Revisiting the Text …

Turn and talk a different member of your table group.

Discuss the intended message of the clip.

How accurate is the message?

High-Yield Strategy: Turn and Talk

one last look
One Last Look …

Turn and talk to a different member of your table group.

Discuss the validity of the message.

What are you basing your perceptions on?

High-Yield Strategy: Turn and Talk

what is evaluating
What is Evaluating?

When you evaluate, you combine information in your head with information from the text to assess and make judgments based on standards or criteria.

High-Yield Strategy: Summarizing Key Information

slide14

Interacting with Text

Author’s Words

Vocabulary

Punctuation

Style

Syntax

Strategies

Using cueing systems

Activating prior knowledge

Predicting

Visualizing

Questioning

Drawing inferences

Finding important information

Summarizing

Synthesizing and evaluating

Monitoring/ revising comprehension

Language Knowledge

Phonology

Morphology

Syntax

Vocabulary

Text Features

Use of organizational tools

Use of informational

tools (glossary, captions)

Format/Layout

Use of space and graphics

Use of illustrations

Author’s Purpose

Topic

Ideas

Message

Text Knowledge

Organizational & informational structure

Artistic elements of text

Print concepts

Text type

Self-Concept as a Reader

Purpose for reading

Interests & Experiences

Factual Knowledge

High-Yield Strategy: Visual Representation

making judgments
Making Judgments

When you evaluate text, you can assess and make judgments about:

  • the suitability of the text for the intended purpose;
  • the quality of the writer’s craft;
  • the authenticity, accuracy or

reliability of the content;

  • the validity of the perspectives presented.

High-Yield Strategy: Anchor Chart

connecting to classroom practice
Connecting to Classroom Practice

Why

teach

evaluating?

High-Yield Strategy: Placemat

curriculum expectations
Curriculum Expectations

Overall Expectation:

  • Read and demonstrate an understanding of a variety of literary, graphic, and informational texts, using a range of strategies to construct meaning.

What specific expectations

address “evaluating” for

your grade level?

critical literacy
Critical Literacy

“The ultimate requirement of the reader is to take a critical stance. Reading critically is a necessity in a free society. Not everything you read is accurate, often persuasive material must be judged on its merit and connected to its source. One perspective may be presented but the reader must seek other perspectives. Moreover, readers are required to judge the quality of a text.”

Fountas & Pinnell, 2006, p. 59

literacy goals for junior learners
Literacy Goals for Junior Learners
  • To become a strategic reader, writer, and oral communicator
  • To expand thinking skills (including metacognitive and critical-literacy skills), developing the necessary habits of mind
  • To deepen the motivation to learn
  • To develop independence as a learner
researching the four literacy goals
Researching theFour Literacy Goals

Have each person in a table group of four choose one of the literacy goals to research more deeply using the following references from A Guide to Effective Literacy Instruction, Volume One:

Goal 1: pp. 5–6

Goal 2: pp. 6–7

Goal 3: p. 7

Goal 4: p. 8

Use Teacher Resource 3 to record key

information from your reading.

High-Yield Strategy: Jigsaw

organizing for instruction in the junior grades
Organizing for Instruction in the Junior Grades
  • Insert “Organizing for Instruction”clip

Run Time:

6:32 minutes

collaborative learning
Collaborative Learning

In your expert groups, discuss your observations and recordings listed on column two of Teacher Resource 3.

Complete column three in your expert groups.

Return to your home table groups and share your learning.

High-Yield Strategy: Jigsaw

making the links to research
Making the Links to Research

Move to one of the four corners in the room labelled:

Agree

Strongly Agree

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

to share your thoughts and

experiences related to each

of the following statements.

High-Yield Strategy: Four Corners

what do you think
What Do You Think?

“Without challenge, there is no learning.”

Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development

“Scaffolding may be the single most important approach to teaching that makes a difference in how well learners succeed.”

Strickland, Ganske, & Monroe, 2002, p. 48

“Eighty per cent of what we learn and remember comes to us in a visual format.”

Importance of non-linguistic representations of knowledge-like graphic organizers

High-Yield Strategy: Summarizing Key Information

think pair share
Think-Pair-Share

What connections

can you make between

this final

four corners activity

and the content

of this session?

classroom inquiry
Classroom Inquiry
  • What concept, observation, or discussion point from today’s session has intrigued you?
  • Create a question to take back to your class for the purposes of inquiry.
  • Bring an artefact to the next session to illustrate what you learned.
session 2
Session 2

Thinking

Aloud

chatting about classroom inquiry
Chatting about Classroom Inquiry
  • Find someone in the room who is wearing the same colour shoes.
  • Spend a few minutes chatting about the inquiry question that you took away from the last session.
  • Briefly describe what your question was and what you learned through your classroom inquiry.

High-Yield Strategy: Working with Partners

learning goals30
Learning Goals

This session is intended to:

  • reinforce the use of comprehension strategies in an integrated fashion;
  • introduce the language of evaluating;
  • model the joint construction of anchor charts;
  • explore aspects of critical literacy and media literacy;
  • introduce new strategies for accountable talk;
  • make links to professional readings.
place yourself on the line
Place Yourself on the Line

Consider the following statement:

“I am comfortable using a think-aloud to demonstrate my thinking to my students.”

Place yourself on the line from Very Comfortable to Very Uncomfortable. Be prepared to share why you chose your particular spot on the line.

High-Yield Strategy: Value Line

some evaluating activities
Some Evaluating Activities
  • Value Lines (p. 154)
  • Four Corners (p. 129)
  • Questioning the Author (p. 144)
  • Ranking Ladder (p. 145)

The page numbers indicate information found in A Guide to Effective Literacy Instruction, Grades 4 to 6, Volume One

High-Yield Strategy: Accountable Talk

revisiting session 1
Revisiting Session 1
  • Comprehension is an active,

on-going process.

  • When you evaluate, you combine information in your head with information from the text to assess and make judgments based on standards or criteria.
revisiting session 134
Revisiting Session 1
  • Evaluating involves the interweaving of a variety of processing skills or strategies in order to make a range of decisions or judgments about text and ideas.
  • Evaluating is an essential element of critical literacy.
types of evaluations
Types of Evaluations

Readers can evaluate:

  • the suitability of the text for the intended purpose;
  • the quality of the writer’s craft;
  • the authenticity, accuracy or reliability of the content;
  • the validity of the perspectives presented.

High-Yield Strategy: Anchor Charts

thinking aloud about evaluating
Thinking Aloud about Evaluating
  • Insert Thinking Aloud clip

Run Time:

15:17 minutes

Wolves

Written and Illustrated by Emily Gravett

Published by Macmillan Children’s Books London, UK

sticky note sort
Sticky Note Sort
  • With your table group, sort your sticky notes into piles of similar language or text characteristics.
  • Read through the lesson plan on Teacher Resource 6 to find other examples to add to your sticky note piles.

High-Yield Strategy: Sticky Note Sort

when evaluating you might say
When Evaluating You Might Say …
  • I like this because …
  • It is really clever to …
  • This is effective/not effective because …
  • This information sounds/does not sound correct because …
  • I’m sure/not sure … is accurate because …
  • I don’t think it is fair to … because …
  • That doesn’t sound right to me because …
  • That sounds biased to me because …

High-Yield Strategy: Anchor Charts

promoting critical literacy
Promoting Critical Literacy
  • “Texts that engage students in deep thinking about societal values provide opportunities for rich dialogue and learning in the junior classroom.”
  • “Picture books for mature readers have many layers of meaning and are ideal for teaching critical literacy skills.”

A Guide to Effective Literacy Instruction,

Grades 4 to 6, Volume One,p. 63

concepts of media literacy
Concepts of Media Literacy

1. Construction: All media messages are constructions.

2. Beliefs/Values: Media messages contain beliefs and convey values.

3. Audience: Each person interprets a message differently.

4. Intent: Media messages serve commercial, social, and/or political interests.

5. Form: Each medium has its own language, style, form, techniques, conventions, and aesthetics.

http://www.eworkshop.on.ca

deconstructing graphic images
Deconstructing Graphic Images

What inferences and evaluations are you making?

What inferences can you make about the way the illustration was constructed to support your conclusions?

Low angle

Wide shot – wolf is larger than life

deconstructing graphic images42
Deconstructing Graphic Images
  • Normal or straight angle
  • Close up – strong sense of wolf’s intent

What inferences and evaluations are you making?

What inferences can you make about the way the illustration was constructed to support your conclusions?

deconstructing graphic images43
Deconstructing Graphic Images

What inferences and evaluations are you making?

What inferences can you make about the way the illustration was constructed to support your conclusions?

  • Extreme close up – can sense the

discomfort felt by rabbit

promoting classroom dialogue
Promoting Classroom Dialogue
  • “ … questions from both teachers and students have the power to generate vivid ideas, spur the imagination and provoke both teacher and student into a shared creative learning experience.”

(p. 17)

  • “A good question is an expressive demonstration of genuine curiosity… rich with possibilities for discussion of issues [that] challenge existing thinking and encourage reflection.”

(p. 77-78)

High-Yield Strategy: Summarizing Key Information

classroom inquiry45
Classroom Inquiry
  • How do you promote critical dialogue in your classroom?
  • Document some of the questions that you find particularly effective in engaging students in critical discussion.
  • Be prepared to share some of these highly effective questions at the start of the next session.
session 3
Session 3

Scaffolding

the

Learning

chatting about classroom inquiry47
Chatting about Classroom Inquiry
  • Find a partner and number yourselves “one” and “two.”
  • All “ones” stand in a circle facing out. All “twos” stand facing your partners.
  • Share your effective questions with your partner.
  • At the signal, rotate the outside circle, one person to the left.

High-Yield Strategy: Inside-Outside Circle

let s review evaluating
Let’s Review Evaluating
  • When you evaluate, you combine information in your head with information from the text to assess and make judgments based on standards or criteria.
  • When evaluating is at work in the foreground, other comprehension strategies are at work in the background.

High-Yield Strategy: Summarizing Key Concepts

let s review evaluating49
Let’s Review Evaluating

Readers can evaluate:

  • the suitability of the text for the intended purpose;
  • the quality of the writer’s craft;
  • the authenticity, accuracy or reliability of the content;
  • the validity of the perspectives presented.

High-Yield Strategy: Summarizing Key Concepts

learning goals50
Learning Goals

This session is intended to:

  • model the use of comprehension strategies in an integrated fashion with evaluating in the foreground;
  • demonstrate the link between assessment and instruction;
  • provide evidence of the gradual release of responsibility model;
  • deconstruct the language of evaluating;
  • model the use of graphic organizers;
  • introduce high-yield strategies for accountable talk.
the assessment cycle
The Assessment Cycle

Compare your puzzle to p. 12 of A Guide to Effective Literacy Instruction, Grades 4 to 6, Volume Two

To Improve

Student Learning …

using diagnostic information
Using Diagnostic Information

Take a look at the sample of assessment information gathered at the closure of last session’s think-aloud lesson.

What do the students know?

What do the students need to learn next?

What strategies could be used to promote this new learning?

I liked…

I liked…

High-Yield Strategy: Graffiti Activity

strategy instruction
Strategy Instruction

High-Yield Strategy: Using Graphic Representations

scaffolding the learning
Scaffolding the Learning
  • Watch the following video clips to see how one teacher utilizes scaffolding and the gradual release of responsibility model to teach her students how to formulate more effective evaluation statements.
  • After watching each segment, record your observations on the first section of Teacher Resource 12.

Here’s What

So What

Now What

High-Yield Strategy: Questioning the Author

deconstructing the evaluation process
Deconstructing the Evaluation Process

Insert Scaffolding the Learning – Deconstucting the Evaluation Process

Run Time:

5:11 minutes

Wolves

Written and Illustrated by Emily Gravett

Published by Macmillan Children’s Books London, UK

using a graphic organizer
Using a Graphic Organizer

Scaffolding – Using a Graphic Organizer

Run Time:

5:16 minutes

graphic organizers
Graphic Organizers

“A graphic organizer is a visual diagram that shows the relationships among a number of ideas. Use graphic organizers to help students see the important interrelationships in the information they are reading or to become aware of the way authors have structured a text.”

Fountas & Pinnell, 2001, p. 441

High-Yield Strategy:Check for Understanding

evaluating text
Evaluating Text
  • Scaffolding – Evaluating Text

Run Time:

8:04 minutes

gathering formative data
Gathering Formative Data

Effective literacy assessment:

  • is linked to planning and instruction;
  • encourages all students to succeed;
  • involves students in the assessment process;
  • involves all stakeholders.

A Guide to Effective Literacy Instruction,

Grades 4 to 6, Volume Two

saying something about direct observation
Saying Something about Direct Observation
  • “Say something” is a paired learning strategy developed by Egawa & Harste (2001).
  • A selection of text is divided into segments.
  • When each partner has reached the chosen stopping point, both partners exchange comments, questions, key points, or new connections.
  • Partners continue saying something until all segments of the selection have been discussed.

With a partner, read and say something about pp. 36–38 in A Guide to Effective Literacy Instruction, Volume Two

High-Yield Strategy: Accountable Talk

classroom inquiry61
Classroom Inquiry
  • Which tool do you find more effective when directly observing student learning?

- a checklist rubric?

- an anecdotal record?

  • Gather evidence from your classroom.
  • Bring an artefact to the next session to illustrate what you learned.
session 4
Session 4

Moving into

Guided

Reading

chatting about classroom inquiry63
Chatting about Classroom Inquiry
  • In pairs, take five minutes to share your evaluations of a checklist rubric and an anecdotal record using a “rallyrobin” strategy.
  • Like tennis players, toss your ideas back and forth without repeating the same idea until you hear the signal to stop.

High-Yield Strategy: Accountable Talk

learning goals64
Learning Goals

This session is intended to:

  • model the use of comprehension strategies in an integrated fashion with evaluating in the foreground;
  • link diagnostic assessment with small-group instruction;
  • encourage discussion about graphic novels;
  • model small-group instruction through guided reading;
  • introduce new strategies for accountable talk;
  • make links to professional readings.
let s review evaluating65
Let’s Review Evaluating
  • When you evaluate, you combine information in your head with information from the text to assess and make judgments based on standards or criteria.
  • When evaluating is at work in the foreground, other comprehension strategies are at work in the background.

High-Yield Strategy: Summarizing Key Concepts

minds on activity
Minds-On Activity

High-YieldStrategy: Activating Prior Knowledge

why graphic novels
Why Graphic Novels?
  • As you watch the segment from the webcast “Making Sense of Reading Instruction: Grades 4 to 6”, record your ideas in your section of the placemat.
  • Share ideas one at a time using “round robin”.
  • Place the top four ideas in the centre of the placemat.

High-Yield Strategy: Placemat

here s what the experts say
Here’s what the Experts Say…
  • Insert clip from David Booth webcast(Making Sense of Reading Instruction: Grades 4 to 6 January 31, 2007)

www.curriculum.org

Run Time:

3:30 minutes

using graphic novels
Using Graphic Novels

How has your evaluation of graphic novels changed as a result of the webcast and discussion?

What concerns do you have about using graphic novels with your students?

High-Yield Strategy: Making Connections

in graphic detail
In Graphic Detail
  • New literacies are concerned with multimodal texts.
  • Graphic novels generate enthusiasm, reading, and reflection, especially for reluctant readers or students at risk.
  • Negative perceptions about the genre exist – many of these perceptions stem from myths or misinformation about this popular text form.
  • When students explore different elements of this narrative genre, they become aware of how their own graphic components and writing convey meaning for different purposes and audiences.

High-Yield Strategy: Summarizing Information

graphic novels for evaluating
Graphic Novels for Evaluating

Insert Graphic Novels of Evaluating

Run Time:

2:30 minutes

questions to promote evaluating
Questions to Promote Evaluating

What was the author’s intent in using captions? Speech bubbles for the woman?

How would the meaning change if the author had given the little girl thought bubbles here? Speech bubbles?

questions to promote evaluating73
Questions to Promote Evaluating

Why did the author not include a thought bubble here?

questions to promote evaluating74
Questions to Promote Evaluating

How does the close-up used by the author influence your thinking?

How might you imply sound and movement in your writing?

guided reading
Guided Reading
  • Before you watch a Grade 6 guided reading lesson, record your thoughts on how an author’s choice of visual and textual features in a graphic novel might impact on meaning making.
  • Record your ideas and questions in the K and W columns of your chart.

High-Yield Strategy: Activating Prior Knowledge

guided reading a quick review
Guided Reading – A Quick Review
  • In small-groups, students read text chosen by the teacher to provide moderate challenge.
  • Students use previously taught skills and strategies to construct meaning during independent reading of the text.
  • Teacher coaches and prompts the students in the use of effective reading strategies.
planning for the guided reading lesson
Planning for the Guided Reading Lesson

Insert Guided Reading – Planning for the Reading

Run Time:

1:03 minutes

In a Class of Her Own

Written by Kathy Gould Lundy

Illustrated by Jeff Alward

Published by Rubicon Publishing Inc.

before reading
Before Reading

Run Time:

8:08 minutes

  • Insert – Guided Reading- Activating Background Knowledge/ Introducing the Text
during reading
During Reading

Run Time:

6:23 minutes

Insert Guided Reading – During Reading-Looking for Information

after reading
After Reading

Run Time:

9:43 minutes

  • Insert Guided Reading – After – Discussing the Text
reflecting on guided reading
Reflecting on Guided Reading
  • Review what you wrote in column three
  • Share your reflections with a partner

High-Yield Strategy: Working in partners

using graphic novels82
Using Graphic Novels

How has your evaluation of graphic novels changed as a result of this session?

What concerns do you still have about using graphic novels with your students?

  • Rank your concerns from most significant (at the top of the ladder) to least significant (at the bottom of the ladder).
  • What comprehension strategies are you using to help you make these evaluations?

High-Yield Strategy: Ranking Ladder

classroom inquiry83
Classroom Inquiry
  • What concept, observation, or discussion point from today’s session has you intrigued?
  • Create a question to take back to your class for the purposes of inquiry.
  • Bring an artefact to the next session to illustrate what you learned.

High-Yield Strategy:Application

session 5
Session 5

Moving into

Guided

Writing

classroom inquiry85
Classroom Inquiry
  • Think about your classroom inquiry in Session 4.
  • Turn to a partner at your table and describe:

- what you tried in the classroom;

- what you learned from

the activity.

High-Yield Strategy: Working in Partners

learning goals86
Learning Goals

This module is intended to:

  • review the use of comprehension strategies in an integrated fashion with evaluating in the foreground;
  • introduce new strategies for accountable talk;
  • establish links between reading and writing;
  • demonstrate how to create and use an anchor chart with students;
  • explore critical literacy through writers’ workshop;
  • make direct links to professional reading.
tea party evaluating
Tea Party … Evaluating
  • Key information about evaluating has been written on snippets of paper.
  • Read your snippet and think about what the phrase or sentence means to you.
  • At the signal, mingle with others in the room pairing up to share your ideas and connections.
  • How has your understanding about evaluating changed as a result of this activity?

High-Yield Strategy: Tea Party

comprehending in action88
Comprehending in Action

Literacy for Learning, 2004, p. 32

reading writing connection
Reading-Writing Connection

“As they talk about texts, students have opportunities to explore the reading-writing connection.”

Literacy for Learning, 2004, p. 56

“Writing competence develops hand in hand with skills in other areas of language, especially reading. In many ways, the development of writing and reading skills is reciprocal.”

Language Curriculum, 2006, p. 12

  • What role might evaluating play?

High-Yield Strategy: Making Connections

recursive writing process
Recursive Writing Process

Literacy for Learning, 2004, p. 84

what is writer s workshop
What is Writer’s Workshop?
  • In groups of four, reflect on the question:

What is Writer’s Workshop?

  • Compare your discussion with pp. 86–88, Literacy for Learning (2004).

High-Yield Strategy: Activating Prior Knowledge

writer s workshop in action
Writer’s Workshop in Action

Visit www.eworkshop.on.ca for more information on the Writer’s Workshop, 4–6 eLearning module

examining guided writing

The teacher selects just-right texts for students to study and write.

Examining Guided Writing

What steps are involved in a guided writing lesson?

  • As a table group, place the arrows in the proper order to depict the flow of an effective guided writing lesson.

The teacher guides students to write their own text independently applying the focus skill.

High-Yield Strategy: Visual Representation

guided writing

Students work as a group to compose a text, applying the focus skill.

Students share their writing, as a whole group, with a partner, or with the teacher.

The teacher selects just-right texts for students to study and write.

Based on assessment data, the teacher selects a group of students with similar needs to work on a particular writing focus skill.

Students are immersed in the focus skill through examination and discussion of models with the teacher.

Guided Writing

The teacher guides students to write their own text independently applying the focus skill.

High-Yield Strategy: Visual Representation

guided writing95
Guided Writing

Insert Guided Writing clip

Run Time:

11:16 minutes

issues in writer s workshop
Issues in Writer’s Workshop

What could the other students be doing during a guided writing lesson?

What are the implications for effective, on-going assessment with this model?

Use a round robin strategy to discuss these questions in your table groups.

www.eworkshop.on.ca

High-Yield Strategy: Round Robin

critical literacy and writer s workshop
Critical Literacy and Writer’s Workshop
  • Think about possible choices for writing activities.
  • How does the lens of critical literacy promote the evaluation of writing?
  • Read and highlight the review of Critical Literacy and Writer’s Workshop.
  • Compare your highlighting with that of the person sitting across from you.
critical literacy98
Critical Literacy

“In past classrooms, my students wrote outrageous and goofy fantasy stories, often about characters from television or movies.

At first, I worked to teach students how to be better fiction writers. Eventually, I turned to personal narratives as a way to get students to explore overall writing quality, and writer’s workshop became consistently popular among my students.

A shift to critical literacy in writer’s workshop, however, brought purposeand passion to student writing by providing students with the resources for connecting their personal and social worlds.”

personal action plan
Personal Action Plan

Before leaving today, take a few moments to plan your next steps.

Make sure your goals are:

Specific

Measurable

Attainable

Results-based

Time-bound

High-Yield Strategy: Action Planning

ways ontario teachers continue their professional learning
Ways Ontario Teachers Continue Their Professional Learning …

Collaborate through:

  • Co-teaching
  • Coaching
  • Teacher inquiry/Study groups

View:

  • Archived webcasts from The Literacy and Numeracy Secretariatwww.curriculum.org
  • eWorkshops www.eworkshop.on.ca
  • Coaching website www.curriculum.org/LNS/coaching