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BLOOD GAS TRANSPORT PART 2 Instructor Terry Wiseth PowerPoint Presentation
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BLOOD GAS TRANSPORT PART 2 Instructor Terry Wiseth

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BLOOD GAS TRANSPORT PART 2 Instructor Terry Wiseth

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  1. BLOOD GAS TRANSPORTPART 2 Instructor Terry Wiseth

  2. PHYSIOLOGY OF DIVING

  3. PHYSIOLOGY OF DIVING • Aquatic mammals can spend up to 10 minutes under water without breathing • ex: whales, seals, dolpins etc • Trained free divers (human) can spend a minute or more under water without breathing

  4. PHYSIOLOGY OF DIVING • Needs of O2 for metabolism is provided by: • O2 stored in lungs • O2 bound to Hb • Myoglobin • Dissolved O2 in body fluids

  5. PHYSIOLOGY OF DIVING • Largest physiological problem in diving is maintaining heart and brain function

  6. PHYSIOLOGY OF DIVING • Diving reflex • Cardiovascular response to immersion of the head in water • Slowing of the heart rate by several beats per minute • More profound if the water is cold

  7. PHYSIOLOGY OF DIVING • Combines with peripheral vasoconstriction and reduced metabolism induced by hypothermia • Increases the chances of survival for drowning victims in cold water

  8. PHYSIOLOGY OF DIVING • Aquatic animals • Reflexive bradycardia and peripheral vasoconstriction • Effect is to force skeletal muscle to draw on its store of O2 in myoglobin and then shift to anaerobic glycolysis

  9. PHYSIOLOGY OF DIVING • Various marine mammals have been found to have adapted special abilities which help in their respiratory processes, enabling them to remain down at great depths for long periods of time

  10. PHYSIOLOGY OF DIVING • The Weddell seal only stores 5% of its oxygen in its lungs, and keeps the remaining 70% of its oxygen circulating throughout the blood stream • Humans are only able to keep a small 51% of their oxygen circulating throughout the blood stream, while 36% of the oxygen is stored in the lungs

  11. PHYSIOLOGY OF DIVING • The explanation for this is that the Weddell seal has approximately twice the volume of blood per kilogram as humans • As well, the Weddell seal's spleen has the ability to store up to 24L of blood

  12. PHYSIOLOGY OF DIVING • It is believed that when the seal dives the spleen contracts causing the stored oxygen enriched blood to enter the blood stream

  13. PHYSIOLOGY OF DIVING • Also, these seals have a higher concentration of a certain protein found within the muscles known as myoglobin, which stores oxygen • The Weddell seal contains 25% of its oxygen in the muscles, while humans only keep about 12% of their oxygen within the muscles

  14. PHYSIOLOGY OF DIVING • Not only does the Weddell seal store oxygen for long dives, but they consume it wisely as well • A diving reflex slows the pulse, and an overall reduction in oxygen consumption occurs due to this reduced heart rate

  15. PHYSIOLOGY OF DIVING • Regulatory mechanisms reroute blood to where it is needed most (brain, spinal cord, eyes, adrenal glands, and in some cases placenta) by constricting blood flow where it is not needed (mainly in the digestive system)

  16. PHYSIOLOGY OF DIVING • Blood flow is restricted to muscles during long dives and they rely on oxygen stored in their myoglobin and make their ATP from fermentation rather then from respiration

  17. PHYSIOLOGY OF DIVING • scuba divers • If working at depths greater than 30 meters a diver breathes air at higher than atmospheric pressure and can accumulate dissolved gases in blood and tissues

  18. PHYSIOLOGY OF DIVING • If diver’s return to the surface is too rapid the dissolved gas comes out of solution forming bubbles in tissues and blood vessels (mainly N2) “bends” • Condition is prevented by controlled decompression

  19. SCUBA DIVER

  20. PHYSIOLOGY OF DIVING • Diving animals exhale at the start of a dive • Increased pressure of diving to considerable depths decreases the volumes of gases in the lungs to the point of causing the lungs to collapse

  21. PHYSIOLOGY OF DIVING • Reduced air volume in lungs where gases are exposed to capillaries minimizes the transfer of dissolved N2 to the animal’s blood • Bubble formation is not a problem when the animal returns to the surface

  22. ENDBLOOD GAS TRANSPORTPART 2