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Poetry, Part II. Sound and Structure (Pattern). Chapter 14, Perrine’s. Structure – the arrangement of ideas, images, thoughts, and sentences Form – refers to the “shape” of the poem… internal order of materials and external shape.

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poetry part ii

Poetry, Part II

Sound and Structure (Pattern)

chapter 14 perrine s
Chapter 14, Perrine’s
  • Structure – the arrangement of ideas, images, thoughts, and sentences
  • Form – refers to the “shape” of the poem… internal order of materials and external shape.
  • Poems have three broad forms:A) Continuous B) Stanzaic C) Fixed
more on forms
More on Forms…
  • Continuous – lines follow one another without formal grouping; breaks are dictated by units of meaning.
  • Stanzaic – written in a series of stanzas; repeated units have the same number of lines and often identical rhyme scheme. (More formal pattern)
  • Fixed – traditional pattern (i.e. sonnet)
  • Sonnet - classified as a fixed form; 14 lines in length (usually iambic pentameter). A) Most sonnets follow two models: Italian or English
  • Italian (Petrarchan)- divided between eight lines called the octave. Rhyme = abbaabba or six lines/ setset = cdcdcd and cdecde
  • Division between octave and setset corresponds to a division in thought.
  • English (Shakespearean) – consists of 3 quatrains[4 line stanza] and a concluding couplet.
  • Division is marked by the development of thought.
  • Villanelle – Fixed Form; 19 lines consisting of five tercets rhymed aba [3 line stanza] and a concluding quatrain rhymed abaa.
  • Rhyme – repetition of accented vowel sound and any succeeding consonant soundsA) Masculine – rhyme sounds involves only one syllable (decks and sex or support and retort)B) Feminine – rhyme sounds involve two or more syllables (turtle and fertile or spitefully and delightfully)
  • Approximate – (slant rhymes) words with any kind of sound similarity(lightly and frightfully or yellow and willow)
  • Internal – one or more rhyming words within the line
  • End – rhyming words at the ends of lines
  • Refrain – repetition of whole words, phrases, lines, or groups of lines (mostly songs)
rhythm and meter
Rhythm and Meter
  • Rhythm – any wavelike recurrence of motion or sound; the natural rise and fall of language.
  • Accented (stressed) one or more syllables receiving prominence in pronunciation.
  • Rhetorical Stresses – stressing of words so as to emphasize meaning. (ex. I don’t believe YOU)
  • Caesuras – pauses within lines (grammatical or rhetorical) – a way to vary rhythm in lines.
rhythm and meter1
Rhythm and Meter
  • Meter – identifying characteristic of rhythmic language.