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James A. Lovell Jr. Born: March 25, 1928 in Cleveland Ohio Status: Retired Time in space: 29 days, 19 hours, 3 minutes Missions: Gemini 7, Gemini 12, Apollo 8, Apollo 13
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Born:March 25, 1928 in Cleveland Ohio Status: Retired Time in space: 29 days, 19 hours, 3 minutes Missions: Gemini 7, Gemini 12, Apollo 8, Apollo 13 Education: Attended the University of Wisconsin and received a Bachelor of Science degree from the United States Naval Academy (1952). He attended Test Pilot School at the Naval Air Test Center in Maryland, and then was a test pilot for four years, serving as the program manager for the F4H Phantom Fighter. Lovell completed the Advanced Management Program at Harvard Business School in 1971 (after his many NASA missions) Other: Tom Hank’s played Lovell in the movie Apollo 13.
Early ‘Unmanned’ Space Mission Sputnik 1 Launched October 4, 1957 at 19:12:00 UTC Sputnik 1 was the first artificial satellite successfully placed in orbit around the Earth. It was launched from the small town of Baikonur) in Kazakhstan, then part of the former Soviet Union. The Russian word "Sputnik" means "companion" ("satellite" in the astronomical sense). In 1885 Konstantin Tsiolkovsky first described in his book, Dreams of Earth and Sky, how such a satellite could be launched into a low altitude orbit. It was the first in a series of four satellites as part of the Sputnik program of the former Soviet Union and was planned as a contribution to the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958). Three of these satellites (Sputnik 1, 2, and 3) reached Earth orbit. The Sputnik 1 satellite was a 58.0 cm-diameter aluminum sphere that carried four whip-like antennas that were 2.4-2.9 m long. The antennas looked like long "whiskers" pointing to one side. The spacecraft obtained data pertaining to the density of the upper layers of the atmosphere and the propagation of radio signals in the ionosphere. The instruments and electric power sources were housed in a sealed capsule. Since the sphere was filled with nitrogen under pressure, Sputnik 1 provided the first opportunity for meteoroid detection but no such events were reported. The satellite transmitters operated for three weeks, until the on-board chemical batteries failed, and were monitored with intense interest around the world. The orbit of the then inactive satellite was later observed optically to decay 92 days after launch (January 4, 1958) after having completed about 1400 orbits of the Earth over a cumulative distance traveled of 70 million kilometers. The orbital apogee declined from 947 km after launch to 600 km by December 9. The Sputnik 1 rocket booster also reached Earth orbit and was visible from the ground at night. Several replicas of the Sputnik 1 satellite can be seen at museums in Russia and another is on display in the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.
Early ‘Manned’ Space Missions Project Mercury: Began on October 7, 1958, one year and three days after the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1 and was the United States' first manned space program. The objectives of the program, which was made up of six manned flights from 1961 to 1963, were specific: 1) to orbit a manned spacecraft around Earth 2) to investigate and evaluate man's ability to function in space 3) to recover both man and spacecraft safely. However, three weeks after Alan Shepard's first U.S. human suborbital flight, on May 5, 1961, and with only 15 minutes of U.S. space flight experience, President John F. Kennedy announced the goal of landing a man on the moon before the end of the decade. Project Mercury was American's first "small steps" toward that "Giant Leap for mankind."
Project Mercury Freedom 7: • 1st U.S. Human Flight, Suborbital Mission (not a full orbit), 5,134 mph • Evaluate pilots capabilities, craft maneavors, landing & recovery • Astronaut: Allan B. Shepard Jr. • May 5, 1961, lasted 15 minutes • Water landing • Name: Freedom" because it was patriotic and "Seven" because it was the seventh Mercury capsule produced. • Alan Shepard ‘had to pee’, went in his suit • Many risks taken, none was quite sure how things would turn out
Project Mercury Liberty Bell 7: • 2nd U.S. Human Flight, Suborbital Mission, 5,168 mph • Improved explosive hatch and escape methods, larger viewing window, new controls (altitude, speed, turns…) • Astronaut: Gus Grissom • July 21st, 1961, lasted 16 minutes • Water landing • Escape hatch blew without notice and the craft sank to the ocean floor almost taking Grissom with it
Project Mercury Friendship 7: • 1st American to Orbit the Earth, three earth orbits, 17,544 mph • Astronaut: John H. Glenn Jr. • The mission objectives were fairly simple by today standards: Place a man into earth orbit, observe his reactions to the space environment and safely return him to earth to a point where he could be readily found. The U.S.A. had been taking a backseat to the U.S.S.R. (Space Race) and it was time for America to send a man into orbit. • February 20th, 1962, lasted 4 hours and 55 minutes • Glenn made his planned star, weather, and landmark observations. Upon re-entry, Glenn felt extreme heat and saw pieces of the craft fly by. The heat shield held.
Project Mercury Aurora 7: • Six complete earth orbits, 17,549 mph • The mission objectives included experiments for color visibility and atmospheric drag. The flight further qualified the Mercury spacecraft systems for manned orbital operations and provided evidence for progressing into missions of extended duration and consequently more demanding systems requirements. • Astronaut: Water M. Schirra Jr. • October 3rd, 1962, lasted 9 hours and 13 minutes • All mission objects were achieved. The craft landed 400 km beyond target.
Project Mercury Sigma 7: • 3rd American orbital space flight, six complete orbits, 17,558 mph • The mission objectives to carefully manage the limited amounts of electricity and fuel necessary for longer, more complex, missions. • Astronaut: M. Scott Caprenter • May 24th, 1962, lasted 4 hours and 56 minutes • All mission objects were achieved. Landed approx 4.5 miles from target.
Project Mercury Faith 7: • 1st U.S. flight exceeding 24 hours, 22.5 orbits, 17,547 mph • The mission objectives included a space flight of over 24 hours. • Astronaut: L. Gordon Cooper Jr. • May 15th, 1963, lasted 34 hours and 19 minutes • All mission objects were achieved.
Project Gemini Project Gemini: • A transitional step between the pioneering Mercury Program and the actual landing a man on the moon. Its success was critical to achieving the goal of reaching the Moon and was not without its problems and difficulties. The main objectives of the ten Gemini missions spanning a period of 20 months from 1965 to 1966, were to learn how to "fly" a spacecraft by 1) maneuvering it in orbit and by 2) rendezvousing and docking with other vehicles, which were essential skills for the later Apollo missions. One of these missions, Gemini VIII, nearly killed the man who would go on to be the first person to walk on the moon, Neil Armstrong.
Project Gemini Gemini 3 The primary objectives of Gemini 3 were: 1) demonstrate manned orbital flight 2) evaluate the two-man design 3) demonstrate and evaluate the tracking network 4) demonstrate the Orbital Attitude and Maneuvering System (OAMS) capability in orbital maneuvers and in retrofire backup 5) demonstrate controlled reentry and landing 6) evaluate major spacecraft subsystems 7) demonstrate systems checkout, prelaunch, and launch procedures, 8) demonstrate and evaluate recovery procedures and systems. This was primarily a testing shakedown for the new, maneuverable Gemini capsule.
Project Gemini Gemini 4 Primary objectives: • Evaluate effects of prolonged space flight. • Demonstrate and evaluate performance of spacecraft and systems in 4-day flight. • Evaluate procedures for crew rest and work cycles, eating schedules, and realtime flight planning.
Project Apollo • Apollo missions were developed in response to President Kennedy's challenge to land an astronaut on the Moon by the end of the 1960's. The missions consisted of twelve piloted launches and three unpiloted launches between 1967 and 1972. • Six missions landed on the moon. All manned moon landings were launched by Saturn V Rocket and consisted of 3 crew. Apollo 4, 5 and 6 were unpiloted test flights flown in 1967 and 1968. • APOLLO 1 Mission: (January 27, 1967)Crew: Virgil 'Gus' Grissom, Edward White, Roger Chaffee. Summary:- Crew died when the capsule caught fire during a countdown test.- The scheduled lift-off was on 21 February 1967.
Project Apollo • APOLLO 7 MISSION: (October 11-22, 1968)Crew: Walter M. Schirra, Donn F. Eisele and Walter CunninghamLaunch Vehicle: Saturn IB • Summary:- Apollo 7 was the first manned Apollo launch.- First live TV broadcast from a manned spacecraft. • APOLLO 8 MISSION: (December 21-27, 1968)Crew: Frank Borman, James A. Lovell Jr. and William A. AndersLaunch Vehicle: Saturn V • Summary:- The Apollo 8 astronauts were the first astronauts lunched by Saturn V rocket.- First humans to orbit the Moon.
Project Apollo • APOLLO 9 MISSION: (March 3-13, 1969)Crew: James A. McDivitt, David R. Scott and Russell L. SchweickartCommand Module:Gumdrop.Lunar Module:Spider. Summary:- First Flight test of Lunar Module (LM) in Earth Orbit. The Apollo Lunar Module was the lander portion of the Apollo spacecraft which held a crew of two from lunar orbit to the surface and back. Six such craft successfully landed on the Moon between 1969–1972. - First space walk testing new lunar space suit. • APOLLO 10 MISSION: (May 18-26, 1969)Crew: Stafford, Young and CernanCommand Module:Charlie BrownLunar Module:Snoopy Summary:- Tested the Lunar Module in Lunar Orbit.
Project Apollo • APOLLO 11 MISSION: (July 16-24, 1969)Crew:Neil Armstrong, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Michael CollinsCommand Module:ColumbiaLunar Module:EagleMoon Landing Date: 20 July 1969Landing Site: Sea of Tranquillity - Mare TranquillitatisTime on Moon: 22 hours Summary:- Apollo 11 was the first moon landing mission. - Neil Armstrong was the first astronaut to walk on the moon.- The USS Hornet aircraft carrier recovered the Apollo 11 crew after their return from the first lunar landing.
Project Apollo • APOLLO 12 MISSION: (November 14-24, 1969)Crew: Charles Conrad, Richard F. Gordon Jr, Alan L. BeanCommand Module:Yankee ClipperLunar Module:IntrepidLanding Date: 19 November 1969Landing Site: Ocean of Storms (Oceanus Procellarum) Summary:- The second moon landing mission.- Performed first major experiments.- Retrieved pieces of Surveyor spacecraft.- Richard Nixon was the first US President to attend the launch of a manned spacecraft. He viewed Apollo 12 on November 14, 1969.
Project Apollo • APOLLO 13 MISSION: (Near Disaster: April 11-17, 1970)Crew: James A. Lovell (Commander), John L. Swigert Jr. and Fred W. Haise Jr.Command Module:OdysseyLunar Module:Aquarius Summary: *Apollo 13: Deep Space abort due to explosion in Service Module. Lunar Module used as lifeboat. The Crew returned safely.