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Crane and Hoist Safety. PUBH 3310 November 13, 2009. Objectives. Know hazards associated with cranes Become familiar with common types of industrial and construction cranes Understand rigging basics, including the importance of “sling angle”

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crane and hoist safety
Crane and Hoist Safety

PUBH 3310

November 13, 2009

objectives
Objectives
  • Know hazards associated with cranes
  • Become familiar with common types of industrial and construction cranes
  • Understand rigging basics, including the importance of “sling angle”
  • Be familiar with methods of controlling crane hazards and preventing accidents
outline
Outline
  • Crane Hazards
  • Crane types
    • Industrial cranes
    • Construction cranes
    • Rigging (and “sling angle”)
  • Controlling hazards
    • Inspections and training
    • Power lines
    • Equipment failure and crane stability
    • Other
crane hazards
Crane Hazards
  • Over 250,000 cranes in operation
    • 125,000 in construction
    • 80,000 general and maritime
  • 80 fatalities per year
  • One death per thousand crane operators in their working lifetime (45 years)
  • Risk to citizens and other workers
causes of crane fatalities
Causes of Crane Fatalities

A. Suruda,et al, Crane-Related Deaths in the U.S. Construction Industry, 1984-94

crane types
Crane Types
  • "Industrial cranes“
    • Overhead
    • Gantry
    • Jib
  • "Construction cranes“
    • Mobile
    • Tower
    • Derricks
industrial cranes
Industrial Cranes
  • Overhead Cranes
    • Common in industrial facilities
    • Supported by overhead rails
    • Components
      • Bridge
      • Trolley
      • Hoist
    • Often pendant or remote operated
    • Easy to use, little training required, no stability problems
industrial cranes8
Industrial Cranes
  • Gantry cranes
    • Similar to overhead cranes, but supported by a mobile frame which travels on the ground

Small (1000 – 10,000 pound

capacity) gantry crane

Large (600 ton capacity)

gantry crane

industrial cranes9
Industrial Cranes
  • Jib cranes
    • Pivot mounted boom with trolley and hoist

Floor-mounted

jib crane

Wall-mounted jib crane

industrial cranes10
Industrial Cranes
  • Power hoist
    • Usually electric or air operated
  • Chain hoist (or "chain fall")
    • Hand operated
construction cranes
Construction Cranes
  • Tower cranes
    • Variable height “climbing cranes”
    • Used for building construction
construction cranes12
Construction Cranes
  • Mobile cranes
    • Crawler cranes
    • Truck cranes
    • Hydraulic cranes
      • Boom telescopes
      • May have jib
  • Equipped with outriggers for stability
construction cranes15
Construction cranes
  • Derricks
    • Boom angle changes to adjust horizontal distance
    • Often used in shipyards, building construction, etc.
      • Gin pole
      • Chicago boom
      • Stiff-leg
      • Etc.
slide16

Mine-shaft rescue using a

gin pole derrick improvised

from an extension ladder

Stiff-leg construction derrick

rigging
Rigging
  • Rigging: The hardware and equipment used to safely attach a load to a lifting device
    • Wire rope
      • Usually a "core" member to increase flexibility
        • Fiber Core (FC)
        • Wire Strand Core (WSC)
        • Independent Wire-rope Core (IWRC)
rigging19
Rigging
  • Fittings, sheaves
    • Shackles
    • Blocks
    • Sockets
    • Hooks
      • May have safety latch
    • Eyes
    • Turnbuckles
rigging20
Rigging
  • Always use rigging to connect the load to the hook
  • Materials
    • Wire rope
    • Fabric
    • Chain
  • Slings
    • Straight (regular)
    • Choker
    • Basket
    • Double, triple, etc.
rigging21
Rigging
  • Sling angle
    • Stress on sling legs varies with the angle
    • Divide the load by the number of sling legs, and divide by sin of the angle
      • For a two-legged sling, 2000 lb load and 60 degree, stress = 1155 lbs on the sling leg
controlling crane hazards
Controlling Crane Hazards
  • Operators
    • 18 years old
    • Physical exam
    • Knowledge (training)
      • Estimating load weight
      • Signals
      • Operation
    • Skill (demonstration)
controlling crane hazards23
Controlling Crane Hazards
  • Inspection
    • Frequent
      • Daily, monthly
      • Hooks, rope, crane operation
    • Periodic
      • At least annually
      • Complete inspection - wear, damage, deterioration, operation
      • slings
  • Testing
  • Records
preventing crane accidents
Preventing Crane Accidents
  • Contact with energized power lines (45% of accidents)
    • De-energize overhead lines
    • Maintain minimum distance
      • 10 feet distance for 50 kv
      • Over 50 kv, add 4 inches per 10 kv
    • Use proximity alarms
      • Warn when energized line is near
      • “No fatalities” in 25 years, according to mfg.
    • Warning signs
      • I-15 construction was a good example

Sigalarm®

preventing crane accidents26
Preventing Crane Accidents
  • Under hook lifting device problems
    • Inspect, proper use, etc.
  • Overturned cranes
    • Assure a level and stable base for the crane
    • Comply with load charts
      • Weight
      • Boom angle and extension
      • Only vertical loads
    • Wind can cause a significant side load
load chart
Load Chart
  • Load charts inside the cab include Structural capacity and tipping limits for the crane
  • Capacity is highest for short radius “over front” loads with outriggers extended.
load chart28

Radius

Rear Over

Over Side

Over Front

18.8' Boom

24' Boom

29.8' Boom

18.8' Boom

24' Boom

29.8' Boom

18.8' Boom

24' Boom

29.8' Boom

6

65,600*

65,600*

66,720*

8

57,250*

56,510*

57,250*

56,510*

61,150*

56,510*

10

50,760*

49,230*

47,060*

50,760*

49,230*

47,060*

52,520*

49,230*

47,060*

12

44,970

43,250*

41,310*

45,540*

43,250*

41,310*

46,390*

43,250*

41,310*

15

33,180

33,290

33,350

39,370

37,090

35,080

39,620

37,090

35,080

18

25,960

26,250

26,310

27,540

28,370

28,490

27,540

32,471

30,730

20

22,940

23,010

22,910

23,030

29,820

28,430

25

16,910

15,330

23,770

29

13,030

11,870

16,750

Load Chart
preventing crane accidents29
Preventing Crane Accidents
  • Dropped loads
    • Operating anti-two block device (upper limit switch)
    • Proper rigging
    • Inspection
  • Boom collapse
    • Inspection
    • Stable base
    • No overloading
    • No horizontal loading
  • Crushing by the counter weight
    • Stay away from the rear of the crane
preventing crane accidents30
Preventing Crane Accidents
  • Proper outrigger use
    • Level
    • Fully extended
    • Stable base
      • Use cribbing to distribute the load
outrigger use
Outrigger Use

Outrigger

with

cribbing

preventing crane accidents32
Preventing Crane Accidents
  • Rigging failure
    • Inspection
    • Proper use
      • temperature, angles, etc.
  • Falls
    • Fall protection for workers suspended by crane "man basket" or "suspended work platform“
links
Links
  • Managing Mobile Crane Hazards
    • http://www.elcosh.org/en/document/96/d000104/managing-mobile-crane-hazards.html
  • Crane, Derrick, and Hoist Safety
    • http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/cranehoistsafety/index.html