Unit 3 Culture and Strategy. Risk Management and Strategic Planning. Reading. Objectives. After studying this chapter and related materials you should be able to understand: Culture, difference and reproduction Organisational culture Cultural web
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Culture and Strategy
What is Culture?
Why is organisational culture important??
Larry Lynch of the Disney Institute, Walt Disney World, Florida, explains the role of the WDC “university” in inducting new staff:
“… it all begins the day new Cast Members arrive for orientation at Disney University, the company's internal training operation. The timing couldn't be better to show them how our company thinks, to offer concrete examples of how creativity and innovation have helped us grow, and to emphasize how our ongoing traditions have been the steady hand that guides us. Those traditions are pointed out again when new Cast Members are introduced to their assigned workplaces. As they learn the culture of the company, they recognize the traditions in the standard operating procedures and established norms of their work areas…”Case Study 3: The Walt Disney Company
“a Florida, explains the role of the WDC “university” in inducting new staff: set of shared values, attitudes, goals, and practices that characterise a group of people.”Culture
Organisational culture refers to organisational beliefs, values and attitudes (Schein, 1985; Martin and Siehl, 1983).
It describes out the way things are done in a particular organisation and forms the basis for the rules of acceptable and unacceptable behaviour. Organisational culture is thus the arbiter of organisational norms and it therefore acts as a powerful force in encouraging or frustrating the emergence of new missions and strategies. This is particularly so where culture is deeply embedded.
The term cultural web (Johnson and Scholes 1993) is a useful device for highlighting the different strands of an organisation's culture - symbols, rituals, stories and power, which add up to a paradigm - an agreed way of going about things.Organisational Culture
Cultural variance between countries in which tourism organisations operate can be understood by reference to differences in:
attitudes to authority
attitudes to work and leisure
beliefs including religion and materialism
pursuit of individual or community goals
definitions of good and bad, worthy and unworthy (the moral and ethical system)
sources of status
Cultural norms are transmitted by and changed by
governmentMission and Culture
Cultural reproduction (Bourdieu, 1973) refers to the way in which culture (including values, attitudes, goals, and practices) is maintained over time and transmitted from one generation to the next.
Acculturation refers to the process by which new members are inducted into the value systems of a culture.
Path dependency occurs when certain decisions and events create paths or routes into the future and exert long term effects on subsequent decisions and events.Reproduction and Path Dependency
A cultural web (Johnson et al., 2008) is a useful device for highlighting the different strands of an organisation's culture. These include:
rituals and routines
power structures and organisational structures
control systemsThe Cultural Web
Defenders highlighting the different strands of an organisation's culture. These include:
set in their ways
responsive to environment
Miles and Snow (1978) distinguish between defender types, and prospector types of cultures in organisations.
Prepare Vision, Mission and Objectives for your organisation
Unit 3 highlighting the different strands of an organisation's culture. These include:
Culture and Strategy