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tmss ict bogra


Skills for Employment investment Program (SEIP)

Outsourcing (ICT) 3 months

Course Module


Foundation Office, Rangpur Road, Bogra


class 1

Class -1:

Introducing Freelancing and Outsourcing:

What is Freelancing:

A freelancer is someone who doesn’t work for one company full-time, but is hired by different companies for certain jobs. For

example, a magazine or website will have a core team of editors who hire freelance writers to write articles, or a TV production

crew might hire freelance cameramen to work on one series of programs.

Freelancing Marketplace:

Most of the sites listed here are free to use in their most basic form both for freelancers and employers, however

some of the sites have fees for at least one party and most of the sites have paid premium features.

Most Popular Freelancing Marketplaces Name:





PeoplePer Hour

Introducing task that is available on freelancing Marketplaces:

Web/Software Design

Web and Software Development

Graphic Design and Creative

Administrative Support

2D/3D Engineering Design

Writing and Translation

Sales and Marketing

Accounting and Consulting

What is Outsourcing:

When businesses need expertise or skills that they don't have within their organization, they often turn to

outsourcing to solve their problems.

Outsourcing means just what it says -- going "out" to find the "source" of what you need. These days

many business outsource for what they need to serve their customers, both internal and external. An

external customer is the entity that ultimately purchases a company's product or services, while an

internal customer is the company's own employees or shareholders. Business can obtain both products

like machine parts, and services like payroll, through outsourcing.

History of Outsourcing:

Since the Industrial Revolution, companies have grappled with how they can exploit their competitive advantage

to increase their markets and their profits. The model for most of the 20th century was a large integrated

company that can “own, manage, and directly control” its assets. In the 1950s and 1960s the rallying cry was

diversification to broaden corporate bases and take advantage of economies of scale. By diversifying, companies

expected to protect profits, even though expansion required multiple layers of management. Subsequently,

organizations attempting to compete globally in the 1970s and 1980s were handicapped by a lack of agility that

resulted from bloated management structures. To increase their flexibility and creativity, many large companies

developed a new strategy of focusing on their core business, which required identifying critical processes and

deciding which could be outsourced.


class 2

Class -2:

Benefit of Outsourcing:

●Increased efficiency.

●Focus on core areas.

●Save on infrastructure and technology.

●Access to skilled resources.

●Time zone advantage.

●Faster and better services.

Outsourcing Technique:

Cost advantages. The most obvious and visible benefit relates to the cost savings that outsourcing brings about.

Outsourcing can seem like a daunting strategy that adds more moving pieces to your business. But done

correctly, it can add layers of expertise, release you from tedious chores and let you concentrate on

running your business more effectively.

 Identify Needs

 Start New Vendors on Small Projects

 Create the Paperwork

 Be Open to Vendor Ideas

 See Outsourcing as an Opportunity

Why People Outsource Service:

Now We Will Discuss about Top 5 reason for Outsourcing Services-

1.Lower operational and labor costs are among the primary reasons why companies choose to outsource.

When properly executed it has a defining impact on a company's revenue recognition and can deliver

significant savings.

2.Companies also choose to outsource or offshore so that they may continue focusing on their core business

processes while delegating mundane time consuming processes to external agencies.

3.Outsourcing and offshoring also enable companies to tap in to and leverage a global knowledge base,

having access to world class capabilities.

4.Freeing up internal resources that could be put in to effective use for other purposes is also one of the

primary benefits realized when companies outsource or offshore.

5.Many times stranded with internal resource crunches, many world class enterprises outsource to gain

access to resources not available internally.

6.Outsourcing, many a time is undertaken to save costs and provide a buffer capital fund to companies that

could be leveraged in a manner that best profits the company.

7.By delegating responsibilities to external agencies companies can wash their hands off functions that are

difficult to manage and control while still realizing their benefits.

8.Outsourcing and especially offshoring helps companies mitigate risk and is also among the primary reasons

embarked upon.

9.Outsourcing also enables companies to realize the benefits of re-engineering.

10.Some companies also outsource to help them expand and gain access to new market areas, by taking the













class 03

Class 03:

Occupational Health and Safety:

Unprepared employers could be caught off-guard by the rapid evolution of workforce mobility trends resulting

from developments in technology and infrastructure. With a recent report by the University of South Australia's

Centre for Work + Life calling for targeted campaigns addressing employee requests for flexible working

arrangements, public awareness of work flexibility options continues to grow.

One solution is to break down processes or tasks and access cloud-based freelance workers offering specialized

skills, services or task based solutions to facilitate work transactions between user companies and service

providers without forming a binding employment relationship. The parties may never meet or even speak to one

another. But what impact do such transient and commercial relationships have on traditional workplace


At first glance, online freelancing appears to be a business owner's' dream. Workers with the exact expertise

needed can be engaged for specific tasks from across the globe without lengthy and expensive recruitment

processes, payment of comprehensive salary packages, complicated and costly migration and visa issues and the

legal risks associated with traditional forms of engagement.

However, there are a number of legal and practical issues arising from the use of online freelancing platforms and

other cloud-based solutions.

Who determines the terms and conditions of the relationship?

Typically online platforms prescribe standard terms and conditions governing their use and your engagement of a

freelancer. Negotiating additional terms and conditions may be prohibited, or at least precluded to the extent the

additional terms and conditions conflict with the standard terms.

What is the nature of the relationship between the user company and the freelancer?

Online freelancing is based on the premise that freelancers are engaged as independent contractors. Legally, the

usual indicia for assessing whether the relationship is one of employer/employee or principal/contractor will

apply. Assuming your company is engaging an independent contractor based on the mere fact that the service

provider's standard terms and conditions prescribe as much carries obvious risks.

Who owns the intellectual property arising from the relationship?

When posting a project to a website, are you granting a license to the website provider or the freelancer to use

your intellectual property? Once the project work is completed by the freelancer, who owns the intellectual

property in the work they have created for you? This will be of particular concern if the standard terms and

conditions are silent on the issue of intellectual property, especially if there is an inherent prohibition on

negotiating additional terms and conditions directly with the freelancer.

What if the freelancer has employees?

Significant costs savings can be achieved as a result of freelancers bidding against each other for your work. What

if the only way the freelancer can afford to make a competitive bid is by underpaying their own employees? Do

you owe any obligation to the freelancer's employees?

Coles Supermarkets is currently the subject of prosecution by the Fair Work Ombudsman (FWO) in which the FWO

alleges Coles should have known that the contractors it engaged to provide trolley collection services in South

Australia could not provide those services and still pay their employees minimum wage rates based on the

contract price it negotiated. If the prosecution is successful Coles faces maximum penalties of $33,000 for each

breach of the Fair Work Act. Watch this space for further developments in these proceedings.

Who is responsible for work health and safety?

In this month's Top 6 we highlighted the need for employers to conduct home-based assessments before allowing

employees to work from home. If online freelancing arrangements are accurately described as independent

contractor arrangements, the principal's duties extend work health and safety obligations to include the working


arrangements of freelancers consider

arrangements of freelancers. Consider how you might go about conducting a home-based assessment in a

scenario where you never actually meet the freelancer you engage.


Workplace Communication:

Different Types of Workplace Communication Strategy

Has your boss ever treated you unfairly or blamed you for a failure that was beyond your control? Recently, a

friend came to me in distress about a critical hand-written memo that he and his colleagues had received from

their superior, the manager of a national retail chain store. The chain, formerly a Wall Street darling, had fallen

from favor with the failure of the company to renew an annual contract with one of their larger customers. As a

result, the stock price had dropped by a third, cash flow had decreased, layoffs were anticipated, and morale was

in the dumps. Every employee felt the pressure.

The young assistant, vacillating between resentment and hopelessness, didn’t know how to respond to the three-

page memo which listed failure after failure of tasks and expectations that had not been met by the group. The

memo concluded with a threat that “things had to change or else,” and that he, the manager, no longer cared

about the individuals due to their shortcomings. My friend, torn between quitting for what he believed to be an

unfair assessment or staying when further advancement might be delayed or impossible, asked me, “What should

I do? Quit or stay there hoping I will not be fired?”

Results-Oriented Communication in the Workplace

All communications have a result. But was the result in this case the one desired by the manager who penned the

memo? Business relationships, especially those between superiors and subordinates, are often rocky due to poor

communication, a lack or misinterpretation of facts, pressurized environments, and a mutual commitment to

success. As in sports and politics, many business errors are unforced. Mole hills become mountains, and mistakes

become disasters due to emotions and overreactions.

Research has proven that emotions often overrule intellect, a consequence of having to fight or flee eons before

when beasts ate people who were slow to decide whether they were dangerous. Fortunately, most businesses do

not have a “kill or be killed” environment –but we’re still conditioned to react to one.

In this case, the manager’s effort to motivate his employees backfired. Even though there were apparent

shortcomings in the store’s appearance and operations that needed to be fixed, the result of the memo was to

focus attention on personalities, not performance. While the memo was no doubt cathartic for the manager in the

short-term, the long-term impact was a loss of trust and confidence in his ability to lead, an increase in day-to-day

tensions between the manager and the other employees, and a likelihood of a significant loss of future potential

managers and their accumulated institutional knowledge. How could the manager have handled the situation


Communicating Effectively: The Manager

There are a number of things a manager can do to improve his or her communication skills:

1. Consider the Situation Before Taking Any Action

Our emotions tempt us to make quick decisions based upon superficial evidence which may not reflect the true

nature of the problem. The manager assumed that the poor appearance of the store was due to the employees’

lack of effort or attention. He failed to consider that several store employees had been terminated due to the

financial situation, while the store’s workload remained the same. Each assistant manager was responsible for

more areas with fewer people to do the work.

Furthermore, each assistant had been required to take a pay reduction due to the loss of the large customer, and

each was concerned that the customer loss would slow their own promotion to store manager. Though not

intended, their effort probably suffered due to their own worries.

2. Gather and Confirm Information Before Making a Decision

We have a tendency to confuse symptoms with disease, and consequently treat the symptom rather than the

underlying illness. Technology enables us to capture massive amounts of data and slice and dice it to make it

appear any way we want. But data is a representation of the problem, not the problem itself. Observing the work


of the assistants and talking and listening

of the assistants and talking and listening to them about the aspects of their job might have led to a different

conclusion than the one the manager reached.

3. Focus on Problems, Not Personalities

The manager’s memo attacked the character of each assistant by implying they were lazy, derelict, or had

betrayed him. The implications intensified the emotional context of the memo, overshadowing its factual content

and purpose.

The assistants, in response, reacted with emotion without stopping to consider the validity of the facts or

attempting to give the manager any explanations. Whenever dealing with any issue that might have emotional

content, the “24-Hour Rule” should be in effect: Don’t send any email, message, letter, memo, or report to others

until you’ve had a day to reflect upon its content and are sure it communicates the facts and the tone you wish.

4. Manage Individuals, Not Groups

The manager’s memo was directed to everyone and no one. The lack of specificity enabled each recipient to avoid

personal responsibility, since each felt his own effort had met expectations. As a consequence, the memo failed to

get the desired result and aggravated an already touchy work environment. Group communications are perfect for

providing general information, education, and praise; however, they should not be used for individual direction or

criticism. Remember, praise in public and criticize in private.

5. Meet Subordinates Face-to-Face

The meaning and intent of written words without the context of a physical presence is often misunderstood, and

can lead to confusion and conflict. There is no substitute for looking someone in the eye and seeing their reaction

to your conversation to clarify content and assure comprehension and agreement.

Managers often hide behind memos and notes as if their subordinates were robots to be moved into place and

programmed. However, successful leaders seek personable commitment and build bridges of trust, mutual

respect, and shared experience. Be physically available and “walk the walk,” and let your people know you are

with them through the good and the bad.

6. Assign Tasks Directly and Clearly

People work best when they know what is expected of them. Good managers identify the goals and measures in

simple, understandable terms, assign responsibility unequivocally, and confirm that the information is understood

by those to whom it is directed. Good managers follow up and give corrective input to ensure that each of his

subordinates is on the same page and working toward the same objective.

Managers should always remember that no employee takes a job with the expectation that he or she will be

overlooked, ignored, or insignificant at work. Employees want to be liked and respected by their peers and proud

of their employer. Management’s challenge is to maintain and further develop this employee enthusiasm and

commitment, even during times of stress.

Mistakes are part of growing, and falling short and correcting the course are regular occurrences in business and

in life. Dealing with subordinates the way you would wish to be dealt with in a similar situation is the best course

any manager can take.


communicating effectively the employee

Communicating Effectively: The Employee

My friend, the assistant manager, could also learn from this event. His reaction, though understandable,

exacerbated the situation needlessly. As a consequence, he and the other assistants suffered from useless worry

and wasted time and effort commiserating with each other about the perceived injustice they had experienced.

This time and energy could have been better spent addressing the problems of the store and improving customer

service. While neither he nor the other assistants could affect the manager’s feelings that led to the memo, their

response to it was within their control.

If you are placed in a similar situation, you should:

1. Never Personalize Criticism

Whether you’re giving or receiving criticism, it should be based upon observed actions and results, not intent. It is

impossible to know the motivations behind any activity, only the physical actions and outcome of the activity. As a

consequence, criticism should be given and accepted unemotionally, considered for its validity and pertinence,

and implemented when action is justified.

In other words, don’t be too sensitive or defensive when you receive feedback. Consider the information received

as intended to get a different result, not a personal attack.

2. Understand the Situation

In this case, the precipitating cause for the criticism was the physical condition and appearance of the store. At

other times, constructive criticism is part of a regular employee performance review, designed to give both parties

feedback. Use both opportunities to build your relationship and get information. Use a review as an opportunity

to receive and give intelligence that might otherwise be missed.

3. Be Understanding

Whenever you receive what you consider to be an unjustified personal attack or criticism, recognize the source

and their circumstances before jumping to a conclusion. Unfortunately, people have bad days, and they often

respond by assailing others for little or no reason. When heads are cooler and pressures are less, contact the

assailant to learn more about the problem and how you can be part of the solution. You may discover that the

stimulus for the assault was an overreaction on the sender’s part or had nothing to do with you or your work.

4. Learn From Your Mistakes

Whatever the stage of your career, you can and should continue to learn. Over your working life, you’ll work for

and with superiors of varying capabilities and talents. Some you will remember because of their great leadership,

while others you’ll remember because they were such poor managers. Even the latter can teach you something.In

this case, my friend learned how he felt when unjustly accused of poor performance. Hopefully, he will remember

his feelings before he makes the same mistakes with the people who report to him currently or in the future.

Sometimes, the bad examples are more effective than the good.

Final Word

Management and leadership is a learned skill. Effective managers have experience on both sides of the spectrum,

taking directions as well as giving them. And the success of a company is directly related to the skill of its

managers and their ability to lead employees through difficult and testing times.

By analyzing and being thoughtful in your communications with both your subordinates and superiors, you can

better learn how to lead in whatever position you have. In this way, you’ll not only secure your future prospects to

rise up your company’s ranks, but you’ll also create a more productive and better working environment for

yourself and your colleagues.


class 05


Workplace Communication Tools:


Open the Gmail account that you want to forward from.

1.At the top right, click the gear.

2.Select Settings.

3.Select the Forwarding and POP/IMAP tab.

4.Click Add a forwarding address in the “Forwarding” section.

5.Enter the email address you want to forward to.




Use a valid email address. You'll need it to sign in.

1.Choose a Skype Name. It must be between 6 and 32 characters, start with a letter and can contain only letters,

numbers, full stops, commas, dashes and underscores.

2.Choose a password.

Basic Internet and Freelancing:

1. Browser Name

Google Chrome

Mozilla Firefox

Internet Explorer


Safari & More

2. Search Engine Name


google yahoo bing pipilika





3.Online File Sharing Sites

Google Drive

Google Docs



class 06


Microsoft Office:

From desktop to web for Macs and PCs, Office delivers the tools to get work done. View product information or

sign in to Office 365.

Microsoft Word

Word 2010 is a word processor that allows you to create various types of documents such as letters, papers,

flyers, and faxes. In this lesson, you will be introduced to the Ribbon and the new Backstage view, and you'll learn

how to create new documents and open existing ones.

The new tabbed Ribbon system was introduced in Word 2007 to replace traditional menus. The Ribbon

contains all of the commands you'll need in order to perform common tasks. It contains multiple tabs,

each with several groups of commands, and you can add your own tabs that contain your favorite

commands. Some groups have an arrow in the bottom-right corner that you can click to see even more


Certain programs, such as Adobe Acrobat Reader, may install additional tabs to the Ribbon. These

tabs are called add-ins.

To minimize and maximize the Ribbon:

The Ribbon is designed to be easy to use and responsive to your current task; however, you can choose to

minimize it if it's taking up too much screen space.

1.Click the arrow in the upper-right corner of the Ribbon to minimize it.

2.To maximize the Ribbon, click the arrow again. When the Ribbon is minimized, you can make it

reappear by clicking on a tab. However, the Ribbon will disappear again when you're not using it.


to customize the ribbon

To customize the Ribbon:

You can customize the Ribbon by creating your own tabs with the commands you want. Commands are

always housed within a group, and you can create as many groups as you want in order to keep your tab

organized. If you want, you can even add commands to any of the default tabs, as long as you create a

custom group in the tab.

1.Right-click the Ribbon and select Customize the Ribbon. A dialog box will appear.

2.Click New Tab. A new tab will be created with a new group inside it.

3.Make sure the new group is selected.

4.Select a command from the list on the left, then click Add. You can also drag

commands directly into a group.

5.When you are done adding commands, click OK.

6.If you don't see the command you want, click the Choose commands from: drop-

down box, then select All Commands.


the quick access toolbar the quick access toolbar

The Quick Access toolbar

The Quick Access toolbar, located above the Ribbon, lets you access common commands no matter which

tab you're on. By default, it shows the Save, Undo, and Repeat commands. You can add other commands

to make it more convenient for you.

To add commands to the Quick Access toolbar:

1.Click the drop-down arrow to the right of the Quick Access toolbar.

2.Select the command you want to add from the drop-down menu. It will appear in the

Quick Access toolbar.


the ruler

The Ruler

The Ruler is located at the top and to the left of your document. It makes it easier to adjust your

document with precision. If you want, you can hide the Ruler to free up more screen space.

To hide or view the Ruler:

1.Click the View Ruler icon over the scrollbar to hide the ruler.

2.To show the ruler, click the View Ruler icon again.

To create a new blank document:

1.Click the File tab. This takes you to Backstage view.

2.Select New.

3.Select Blank document under Available Templates. It will be highlighted by default.

4.Click Create. A new blank document appears in the Word window.


to save time you can create your document from

To save time, you can create your document from a template, which you can select from the New

Document pane. We'll talk about templates in a later lesson.

To open an existing document:

1.Click the File tab. This takes you to Backstage view.

2.Select Open. The Open dialog box appears.

3.Select your document, then click Open.

If you've opened a file recently, you can also access it from the Recent Documents list. Justclick on

theFile tab and select Recent.


compatibility mode

Compatibility mode

Sometimes you may need to work with documents that were created in earlier versions of Microsoft

Word, such as Word 2007 or Word 2003. When you open these types of documents, they will appear in

Compatibility mode.

Compatibility mode disables certain features, so you'll only be able to access commands found in the

program that was used to create the document. For example, if you open a document created in Word

2007, you can only use tabs and commands found in Word 2007.

In the image below, you can see how Compatibility mode can affect which commands are available.

Because the document on the left is in Compatibility mode, it only shows commands that were available in

Word 2007.

To exit Compatibility mode, you'll need to convert the document to the current version type. However,

if you're collaborating with others who only have access to an earlier version of Word, it's best to leave

the document in Compatibility mode so the format will not change.

You can review this support page from Microsoft to learn more about which features are disabled in

Compatibility mode.

To convert a document:

If you want access to all Word 2010 features, you can convert the document to the 2010 file format.

Note that converting a file may cause some changes to the original layout of the document.

1.Click the File tab to access Backstage view.

2.Locate and select the Convert command.

3.A dialog box will appear. Click OK to confirm the file upgrade.

4.The document will be converted to the newest file type.




1.Open Word 2010 on your computer. A new blank document will appear on the screen.

2.Make sure the Ribbon is maximized.

3.Display the Ruler.

4.Add any commands you want to the Quick Access toolbar.

5.Close Word without saving the document.


class 07

Class 07:

Microsoft Office:


The tabs on the ribbon are: File, Home, Insert, Page layout, Formulas, Data, Review and View. The Home tab

contains the most frequently used commands in Excel.

Note: the File tab in Excel 2010 replaces the Office Button in Excel 2007.

Minimize the Ribbon

You can minimize the ribbon to get extra space on the screen. Right click anywhere on the ribbon, and then click Minimize the

Ribbon (or press CTRL + F1).



customize the ribbon excel 2010 makes it possible

Customize the Ribbon

Excel 2010 makes it possible to easily create your own tab and add commands to it. If you are new to Excel, you can skip this


1. Right click anywhere on the ribbon, and then click Customize the Ribbon.

2. Click New Tab.


4 rename the tab and group

4. Rename the tab and group.

Note: you can also add new groups to existing tabs. To hide a tab, uncheck the corresponding check box. Click Reset, Reset all

customizations, to delete all ribbon and Quick Access Toolbar customizations.




Open an Existing Workbook

To open a workbook you've created in the past, execute the following steps.

1. Click on the green File tab.

What you see next is called the backstage view and it contains all the workbook related commands.

2. Recent shows you a list of your recently used workbooks. You can quickly open a workbook from here.

3. Click Open to open a workbook that is not on the list.

Close a Workbook


if you are new to excel it s good to know

If you are new to Excel, it's good to know the difference between closing a workbook and closing Excel. This can be confusing in

the beginning.

1. To close an Excel workbook, click the lower X.

2. If you have multiple workbooks open, clicking the upper right X closes the active workbook. If you have one workbook open,

clicking the upper right X closes Excel.

Create a New Workbook

Although Excel creates a blank workbook when you open it, sometimes you want to start all over again.


1 to create a new workbook click new and then

1. To create a new workbook, click New and then click Create.

Select a Worksheet

When you open Excel, Excel automatically selects Sheet1 for you. The name of the worksheet appears on its sheet

tab at the bottom of the document window.


to select one of the other two worksheets simply

To select one of the other two worksheets, simply click on the sheet tab of Sheet2 or Sheet3.

Rename a Worksheet

By default, the worksheets are named Sheet1, Sheet2 and Sheet3. To give a worksheet a more specific name, execute the

following steps.

1. Right click on the sheet tab of Sheet1.

2. Choose Rename.

3. For example, type Sales 2010.


insert a worksheet you can insert as many

Insert a Worksheet

You can insert as many worksheets as you want. To quickly insert a new worksheet, click the Insert Worksheet tab at the

bottom of the document window.


Move a Worksheet

To move a worksheet, click on the sheet tab of the worksheet you want to move and drag it into the new position.

1. For example, click on the sheet tab of Sheet4 and drag it before Sheet2.


Delete a Worksheet

To delete a worksheet, right click on a sheet tab and choose Delete.

1. For example, delete Sheet4, Sheet2 and Sheet3.



copy a worksheet imagine you have got the sales

Copy a Worksheet

Imagine, you have got the sales for 2010 ready and want to create the exact same sheet for 2011, but with different data. You

can recreate the worksheet, but this is time-consuming. It's a lot easier to copy the entire worksheet and only change the


1. Right click on the sheet tab of Sales 2010.

2. Choose Move or Copy...

The 'Move or Copy' dialog box appears.

3. Select (move to end) and check Create a copy.

4. Click OK.


Note: you can even copy a worksheet to another Excel workbook by selecting the specific workbook from the drop-down list

(see the dialog box shown earlier).



to quickly find specific text execute

To quickly find specific text, execute the following steps.

1. On the Home tab, click Find & Select, Find...

The 'Find and Replace' dialog box appears.

2. Type the text you want to find. For example, type Ferrari.

3. Click 'Find Next'.

Excel selects the first occurrence.


4 click find next to select the second occurrence

4. Click 'Find Next' to select the second occurrence.

5. To get a list of all the occurrences, click 'Find All'.


replace to quickly find specific text and replace


To quickly find specific text and replace it with other text, execute the following steps.

1. On the Home tab, click Find & Select, Replace...

The 'Find and Replace' dialog box appears (with the Replace tab selected).

2. Type the text you want to find (Veneno) and replace it with (Diablo).

3. Click 'Find Next'.

Excel selects the first occurrence. No replacement has been made yet.


4 click replace to make a single replacement

4. Click 'Replace' to make a single replacement.

Note: use 'Replace All' to replace all occurrences.

Go To Special

You can use Excel's Go To Special feature to quickly select all cells with formulas, comments, conditional formatting, constants,

data validation, etc. For example, to select all cells with formulas, execute the following steps.

1. Select a single cell.

2. On the Home tab, click Find & Select, Go To Special...

Note: Formulas, Comments, Conditional formatting, Constants and Data Validation are shortcuts. They can also be found under

Go to Special.


3 select formulas and click ok

3. Select Formulas and click OK.

Note: you can search for cells with formulas that return Numbers, Text, Logicals (TRUE and FALSE) and Errors. These check

boxes are also available if you select Constants.

Excel selects all cells with formulas.

General note: if you select a single cell before you click Find, Replace or Go To Special, Excel searches the entire worksheet. To

search a range of cells, first select a range of cells.


class 08


Different searching technique

Introduction of Different Search Technique:

This section describes some important methods you can use to search efficiently and effectively. It gives you

guidance on:

●using symbols to search for alternative word endings and spellings

●combining your concepts in a search statement

●searching for phrases

●performing more specific searches


Use to: widen your search and ensure that you don't miss relevant records

Most databases are not intelligent - they just search for exactly what you type in. Truncation and wildcard symbols

enable you to overcome this limitation. These symbols can be substituted for letters to retrieve variant spellings

and word endings.

●a wild card symbol replaces a single letter - useful to retrieve alternative spellings and simple plurals

●egwom?n will find woman or women

●a truncation symbol retrieves any number of letters - useful to find different word endings based on the

root of a word

●egafrica* will find africa, african, africans, afrikaans

●eg agriculture* will find agriculture, agricultural, agriculturalist

Important hint! Check the online help screens for details of the symbols recognised by the database you are

searching - not all databases use the ?and * symbols.


Use to: combine your search words and include synonyms

Also known as Boolean operators, search operators allow you to include multiple words and concepts in your

searches. The shaded areas on the diagrams below indicate the records retrieved using each operator.

●AND retrieves records containing both words.

●In this example the shaded area contains records with both women and africa in the text.

●It narrows your search.

●Some databases automatically connect keywords with and.


or retrieves records containing either word

●OR retrieves records containing either word.

●In this example the shaded area contains records with women, or gender, or both words in the text.

●It broadens your search.

●You can use this to include synonyms in your search.

●NOT retrieves your first word but excludes the second.

●In this example the shaded area indicates that only records containing just Africa will be retrieved (not

those with both Africa and Asia)

●Beware! By using this operator you might exclude relevant results because you will lose those records

which include both words.

Creating Search Statement:

Use to: combine multiple search words

On most databases you can type in a search statement, which involves combining your search words using search

operators. When creating a search statement you must use brackets to ensure correct processing of the search.

●Words representing the same concept should be bracketed and linked with OR

●eg (women or gender)

●Groups of bracketed terms can then be linked with AND or NOT

This is an example search statement bringing together all the techniques described above:

(wom?n or gender) and agriculture* and africa*

Searches enclosed within brackets will be performed first and their results combined with the other searches.

This is how the search would look when entered into the CAB Abstracts database



phrase searching use to make your search more

Phrase searching

Use to: make your search more specific

Phrase searching is a useful technique which can increase the relevance of your results. Sometimes your search

may comprise common words which, when combined in an AND search, retrieve too many irrelevant records.

Databases use different techniques to specify phrase searching - check the online help.

Some web search engines and databases allow you to specify a phrase using inverted commas.

eg "agricultural development"

eg "foot and mouth"

Hint! Some databases automatically perform a phrase search if you do not use any search operators eg agriculture

africa is not a phrase used in English so you may not find any items on the subject. Use AND in between your

search words to avoid this.

Proximity searching

Use to: make a search more specific and exclude irrelevant records

Some databases use 'proximity operators'. These enable you to specify how near one word must be to another

and, in some cases, in what order. This makes a search more specific and excludes irrelevant records. For instance,

if you were searching for references about women in Africa, you might retrieve irrelevant records for items about

women published in Africa. Performing a proximity search will only retrieve the two words in the same sentence,

and so exclude those irrelevant records.

Databases which have this facility vary considerably in their methods

eg: Web of Science - women same africa - retrieves records where the two words appear in the same sentence.

Hint! Check the online help for details of proximity operators recognised by the database you are searching.


Many databases offer other more advanced features which you can use to refine your searches further. These

techniques include:

●Search sets

●Your results are displayed as "sets", which can be combined with other searches or new words.

●Field-specific searching

●Most database records are made up of different fields (eg author, title etc.). Field-specific searching

allows you to select a particular field in which to search, rather than performing a keyword search across

all fields. Some databases allow you to type words into specific search boxes, whereas in others you will

need to type in the field name or its code.

●Hint! Check help screens for field names or codes, and other hints on searching specific fields.

●Searching using indexes

●It is possible to search some databases using indexes, which are usually alphabetical lists of authors or

subjects. They allow you to refine your search using the correct form of names or terms as defined on

that particular database.

●Hint! Not all databases allow searching using indexes. Check the online help on a particular database for

more information.



many databases allow you to limit your search

Many databases allow you to limit your search in various ways. Limits are usually available on advanced search

screens, or you can apply them after doing your keyword search. An example of the search limits from the CAB

Abstracts database is shown on the left.

Check the help pages on the database you are using for detailed instructions on applying these limits.

Examples of the types of limits you can apply include:

●by date

●by language

●by publication type (eg journal articles, chapters in books, review articles that provide detailed

summaries of research, book reviews)


class 08 1

Class 08:

Targeted Consumer Mailing Lists

Being in front of your target audience and regularly promoting your products or services is necessary to generate

new business. No matter what niche market you’re targeting, we have the right mailing list for you. We have

pinpointed the top consumer prospects from our database of more than 210 million consumers, enabling you to

pursue your marketing goals. With the demographic selections already in place, you just need to choose the

geographic area you want to target.

Email Collection Technique:

But an opt-in list--the only kind you should have, since no reputable email service provider will let you use rented

or purchased lists--is not something that materializes out of thin air. It starts small; you have to nurture it and

grow it over time.

Given that I've led my email marketing company, VerticalResponse, for the last 13 years, I might know a thing or

two about building an email list. Here are my 15 top faves, in no particular order:

1. For brick-and-mortar locations, the sign-up sheet at the register is an oldie but goodie. Yes, it still works, even in

this digital age.

2. If your business involves physical products that are shipped, include an insert in each package with instructions

on how to subscribe to your email list. Or, include a link to a signup form on every printed invoice.

3. Set up a fishbowl to collect business cards, letting people know that they'll get special offers or discounts if they

opt-in to your email list.

4. Events are a great place to get email addresses as well, whether you're collecting business cards or having

people fill out a form to join your list.If you've got an iPad, use that for people to enter their email addresses


5. Feature a signup form on your website. State what they'll get for signing up, e.g., newsletters every two weeks,

deals and steals, etc. Also, the shorter the form, the better! (Just a name and email address, for example.)

6. While website pop-up windows can be mildly annoying, if it pops up while people leave your site (this assumes

they were interested enough in your company to poke around), it's actually pretty efficient. It can ask them to sign

up for your offers or newsletter, which many of your readers are likely to do on their way out.

7. If you sell products or services online, ask customers at the end of their online shopping experience to sign up

for your newsletter.

8. Add an opt-in/signup form to your Facebook page, or include a link to your hosted opt-in form and write a

Facebook status to your fans every now and again, asking them to join your email list.

9. Create Facebook ads around an offer or incentive, or even your newsletter itself. Link people back to your opt-

in form/signup landing page from that ad. Here's a step-by-step Process.

10. Include a link to your opt-in page in your email signature, so people emailing with questions can learn about

your list.


class 09

Class: 09


Are you thinking about starting a business where you sell your products online? If so, then you'll be joining the

millions of entrepreneurs who have carved out a niche in the world of e-commerce.

# Amzon # Ebay # Ali-Express

# Ajker Deal

Class -10 :

What is business directory:

A business directory is a website or printed listing of information which lists all businesses within some

category. Businesses can be categorized by business, location, activity, or size. Business may be compiled either

manually or through an automated online search software.

There are multitudes of online directories, and plenty will also give free links. The major search engines such as

Google and Yahoo add more value to one way links from human edited directories, as they are seen as trusted


A Business directory is a website or publishes media listing of information which lists all businesses within some

group. Businesses can be categorized by :

business type





Business may be compiled either manually or through automated online search software. The information

provided in a business directory will be different. They may include following information:

Business name


Telephone numbers


Type of service

Products the business provides

Number of employees

The service region

Any professional media associations such as twitter, YouTube Chanel, Facebook Group

Video Profile

A lot of business directories suggest complimentary listings in addition to the premium options. There are several

business directories and some of these have moved over to the internet and away from printed format. Whilst not

being search engines, business directories often have a search facility.


online business directories can receive

"Online Business Directories can receive a bad press, and they vary in quality and content. There is a balance

between professional advertising, value for money and quality of service. Business owners are looking for ROI,

web traffic, exposure for their business, plus SEO benefits of backlinks."

Top Online Directory Sites






6.Better Business Bureau

7.Angie's List

8.Merchant Circle









class 11


Basic Internet and Freelancing

Data Entry

Data entry is the act of entering information into electronic formats by using word processing or data processing

software hosted on a computer and it's data entry operators who perform these tasks. In truth, though "data

entry" sounds technical, you can get many of these jobs with no previous experience.

Web Research

Internet research is the practice of using Internet information, especially free information on the World Wide

Web, in research. It is: focused and purposeful (so not recreational browsing), uses Internet information or

Internet-based resources.

LinkedIn Account Creation

LinkedIn is a social networking site used for professional purposes. You can use it to connect to your existing

professional network as well as expand your network to your secondary and tertiary connections through those

you already know. It doesn't have all the bells and whistles that other social networking sites have, but it really

works to serve its core purpose. Once you create your own LinkedIn account, you can begin to expand your

professional horizons.



1 go to linkedin at www linkedin com if you want

1. Go to LinkedIn at you want to learn more, click on the “What is

LinkedIn?” option on the menu across the top of the page. If not, go ahead and sign up by

entering you name, email and a password in the “Join LinkedIn Today” box on the right of the


2.Confirm your account through your email address. Once you’ve done this, sign in and get



4 edit your profile editing and updating your

4.Edit your profile.Editing and updating your profile is quick and easy, so there’s absolutely no

need for advanced technical know-how. Enter you sub-heading, area and industry underneath your

name, and add a profile picture of yourself.

4. Edit your qualifications. Add your current and past employment as well as your education. Be sure to include

descriptions of your past jobs and degrees earned––this way, people will be able to more clearly see your

experiences and know what to contact you for. LinkedIn can also tailor job suggestions to send you if you've

provided adequate details.

○Keep your details short, sweet, and informative.


5 add a summary this is a chance to write a more

5. Add a Summary. This is a chance to write a more in-depth paragraph to give people an idea of where you stand

now in your career, what your strengths are, where you want to go and what you have to offer. Although it's a

summary, it can take some time to write a good one, so don't be afraid to edit it ruthlessly until it reads well.

6. Add Specialties. This is located directly below. It acts as an extension of the Summary section but in

short form. You can list specific skills and areas of expertise.

○Choose wisely––other members of LinkedIn can endorse you for these specialties, so

avoid choosing something people don't have any clue you're capable of doing!


7 add connections you can have linkedin search

7. Add Connections. You can have LinkedIn search through your email address book to find people you know. You

can also search by a person’s name, job title or company.

8. Add Websites.Link in your company’s website, your own personal site, your blog, and/or your Twitter account.

This will allow visitors to your page to see different aspects of your professional self.

Be cautious of linking in your Facebook page if you have questionable photos of yourself, or to your Twitter

account, depending on the language of your tweets.


9 get recommendations if you re trying to find

9. Get Recommendations.If you’re trying to find a job through LinkedIn, it is suggested that you have at least

three professional recommendations. Ask your former bosses or colleagues. Return the favor and recommend

others as well.

Add Applications. These are not necessary, but having them can make your profile more complete. For

example, you can add Blog Link for a stream of your blog or other website updates. You can add the

Reading List application by Amazon to let everyone know what books you’re reading and which ones you

recommend. With other applications, you can share files or presentations.


class 12

Class 12:

Convert Pdf to Excel

How to convert a PDF file to Excel:

1.Open a file in Acrobat.

2.Click on the Export PDF tool in the right pane.

3.Choose spreadsheet as your export format, and then select Microsoft Excel Workbook.

4.Click Export.

5.Name the Excel file and save it in a desired location.

Class 13 and 14 :

Find Targeted People Email Address

In business, data is synonymous with answers—evidence, objectivity, hidden insight. This perception of

data as the magic key that opens doors holding information to anything we’ve ever wanted to know makes

us obsessed with the latest ways to get it: Big Data, data visualization, open-source data, data scientists.

But, as marketers, are we doing data right?

While Big Data and data-driven everything have been framed as universal analytics solutions, their

effectiveness can be threatened by the same issue that faces all innovative tools: if you haven’t set proper

goals you want to achieve using social media data, you risk making a lot of false conclusions.

Whether you or your company are early adopters of social media data, or just looking into better ways of

using this information to inform business decisions, to get the most out of the social media data available

to your business, you should go back to basics. Use the following 3 questions to evaluate your perception

of data and the effectiveness of your data strategies.

What is social media data?

When considering any new tool, it’s important to set your definitions straight in order to ensure that you

are exploring these tools to their full potential. Social media data typically describes information created

and curated by individual users and collected from public spaces, such as:

●Social media networks: Tweets, posts, favourites, sentiment

●Social search: keyword analysis and hashtag tracking

●Long-form publishing platforms: blogs, wikis, and social opinion sites such as Yelp

●Public multimedia content-sharing platforms: SlideShare, YouTube, Flickr, etc.

This list may not sound exhaustive, and that’s because it’d be extremely difficult to define all the currently

available sources for social media data. An easier way to explain the evolution of social media data is to

contrast it with the “Web of the past,” what assistant professor of computer science at Stanford University

Jure Leskovec described as “a universal static library,” a place where users search and index resources

offered by a comparatively small number of sources; versus a “current awareness medium,” a place where

Internet users from all over the world can create and share information in real-time. This creation process

is both the biggest advantage and the biggest potential hurdle of social media intelligence—on one hand,


it s instantly accessible genuine information

it’s instantly accessible genuine information produced in real time by real people; but this also means that

in order to reach a meaningful conclusion from this data, you have to set the right parameters for its use.

How can I use social media data for business?

‘Social media data’ and ‘social media intelligence’ are often used interchangeably, but I like to use a natural

resources analogy (since the process of gathering social media data is called “mining” after all): social

media data is the raw material, and social media intelligence is the finished good you get when you collect

data with set goals and criteria in mind. Thus, the first and most important step in turning social media

data into social media intelligence is determining the business goals you want to achieve with the help of

that information. Some typical goals are the improvement of customer service, instant feedback on

products and services through sentiment analysis, target group discovery and modification, and

measurement of social media strategy ROI. You can use different metrics to reach different goals, but it’s

also possible to conduct a single analysis to inform several of these objectives.

For example, let’s say you want to turn social media data into social media intelligence to find out how

your brand’s customer service efforts measure up. In order to do this, it might be helpful to collect social

media content containing mentions of your brand. A good place to start would be to conduct a Google

search, and set up keyword search streams with mentions of your brand’s Twitter handle, official hashtags,

and commonly misspellings of the brand names and products. You can conduct a sentiment analysis for

mentions of your brand to see what percentage of mentions consist of complaints, inquiries or positive

feedback. You can then record response times of your customersuccess agents or social media managers,

and calculate the average response time to different categories of customer feedback. Thus, social media

intelligence on customer interactions can shed light on the general feelings surrounding your brand on

social, as well as provide quantifiable results on how your social customer service efforts stack up.

The second crucial skill in social media data use is knowledge of its limitations, which assumes insight into

some key user behaviors. For example, you have to account for the social media spiral of silence

phenomenon, which shows that the “loudest” opinion on social may not be the most commonly shared

one. Another hurdle is that the major demographics by age and gender on certain networks may be largely

skewed towards a certain group—such as Pinterest for female users, or Snapchat for Gen Z—which may

not be representative of your target audience. Finally, while major social platforms are constantly involved

in the process of cleaning out fake accounts—Instagram comes to mind as the most recent drastic

example—they can still influence your results for data such as Likes, follower counts, and reach. All these

limitations can create gaps in your data, or form a picture that isn’t reflective of the real state of affairs.

Before you choose your methods for collecting and sorting through your social media data, consider all the

limitations that may get in the way of getting the correct picture.

Class 15:

Ecommerce Product Upload and Analysis

While listing products on Amazon is a great way to sell your products and expose them to millions of customers,

adding multiple items to your merchant account can be a time-consuming process. Instead of adding products

one-by-one, sellers with Pro Merchant Subscription accounts can use Amazon’s tools to upload product details in


Step 1

Download Amazon’s pre-built inventory file template from that fits your product category (link in

Resources). This template is a Microsoft Excel file. You can use free programs such as Apache OpenOfficeCalc and

LibreOfficeCalc to open and edit the file if you do not own Excel (links in Resources).

Step 2

Open the template in a spreadsheet program. Each template has detailed instructions specific to your product

category at the top of the document. Carefully read the instructions before entering your product details so you

do not make any mistakes.

Related Reading: How to List Bulk on Amazon

Step 3


print the data definitions tab in the spreadsheet

Print the “Data Definitions” tab in the spreadsheet. This worksheet includes important details on the acceptable

values and formats you can enter into the template. Keep it handy as a reference when filling out the template.

Step 4

Add your inventory items to the template. Pay close attention to template columns to make sure you enter

product details in the correct cell. Enter details such as SKU, product ID, title, brand, manufacturer, description

and more. You can also add bullet points to expand on the description of your item in the cells labeled

"BulletPoint1," "BulletPoint2," "BulletPoint3" and so on.

Step 5

Save the file in the .xls format when you are finished entering product details. In Excel, OpenOfficeCalc and

LibreOfficeCalc, select “File” from the program menu, then click “Save As.”

Step 6

Save the file again as a tab-delimited .txt file, per Amazon’s instructions. This is the file format needed for

uploading on If a dialog pops up that says the file format does not support files containing multiple

worksheets or something similar, click “OK.” If another warning says the document contains features incompatible

with the file format, click “Yes.”

Step 7

Log in to your Amazon seller account. Click “Upload multiple items,” then select the template type for the file you

want to upload. To completely replace all of the items in your inventory, select “Purge and Replace.”

Step 8

Click “Select File Upload,” then “Browse.” Locate your product file on your computer using the dialog box, select

it, then click “Upload Now.” After you upload the document, the page shows the status of the upload. Refresh the

page to see the upload progress. Files over 5MB may take several hours to process.

Class 16:

What Is SEO / Search Engine Optimization?

SEO stands for “search engine optimization.” It is the process of getting traffic from the “free,” “organic,”

“editorial” or “natural” search results on search engines.

All major search engines such as Google, Bing and Yahoo have primary search results, where web pages and other

content such as videos or local listings are shown and ranked based on what the search engine considers most

relevant to users. Payment isn’t involved, as it is with paid search ads.


why seo is important

Why SEO is Important ?

An important aspect of SEO is making your website easy for both users and search engine robots to understand.

Although search engines have become increasingly sophisticated, they still can't see and understand a web page

the same way a human can. SEO helps the engines figure out what each page is about, and how it may be useful

for users.

A Common Argument Against SEO

We frequently hear statements like this:

"No smart engineer would ever build a search engine that requires websites to follow certain rules or principles in

order to be ranked or indexed. Anyone with half a brain would want a system that can crawl through any

architecture, parse any amount of complex or imperfect code, and still find a way to return the most relevant

results, not the ones that have been 'optimized' by unlicensed search marketing experts."

But Wait ...

Imagine you posted online a picture of your family dog. A human might describe it as "a black, medium-sized dog,

looks like a Lab, playing fetch in the park." On the other hand, the best search engine in the world would struggle

to understand the photo at anywhere near that level of sophistication. How do you make a search engine

understand a photograph? Fortunately, SEO allows webmasters to provide clues that the engines can use to

understand content. In fact, adding proper structure to your content is essential to SEO.

Understanding both the abilities and limitations of search engines allows you to properly build, format, and

annotate your web content in a way that search engines can digest. Without SEO, a website can be invisible to

search engines.

How Search Engine Works:

Search engines have two major functions: crawling and building an index, and providing search users with a

ranked list of the websites they've determined are the most relevant.

Imagine the World Wide Web as a network of stops in a big city subway system.

Each stop is a unique document (usually a web page, but sometimes a PDF, JPG, or other file). The search

engines need a way to “crawl” the entire city and find all the stops along the way, so they use the best path


1.Crawling and Indexing

2.Crawling and indexing the billions of documents, pages, files, news, videos, and media on

the World Wide Web.


3 providing answers 4 providing answers to user

3.Providing Answers

4.Providing answers to user queries, most frequently through lists of relevant pages that

they've retrieved and ranked for relevancy.

The link structure of the web serves to bind all of the pages together.

Links allow the search engines' automated robots, called "crawlers" or "spiders," to reach the many billions of

interconnected documents on the web.

Once the engines find these pages, they decipher the code from them and store selected pieces in massive

databases, to be recalled later when needed for a search query. To accomplish the monumental task of

holding billions of pages that can be accessed in a fraction of a second, the search engine companies have

constructed datacenters all over the world.

These monstrous storage facilities hold thousands of machines processing large quantities of information very

quickly. When a person performs a search at any of the major engines, they demand results instantaneously;

even a one- or two-second delay can cause dissatisfaction, so the engines work hard to provide answers as fast

as possible.


search engines are answer machines when a person

Search engines are answer machines. When a person performs an online search, the search engine scours its

corpus of billions of documents and does two things: first, it returns only those results that are relevant or

useful to the searcher's query; second, it ranks those results according to the popularity of the websites

serving the information. It is both relevance andpopularity that the process of SEO is meant to influence.

How do search engines determine relevance and popularity?

To a search engine, relevance means more than finding a page with the right words. In the early days of the

web, search engines didn’t go much further than this simplistic step, and search results were of limited value.

Over the years, smart engineers have devised better ways to match results to searchers’ queries. Today,

hundreds of factors influence relevance, and we’ll discuss the most important of these in this guide.

Search engines typically assume that the more popular a site, page, or document, the more valuable the

information it contains must be. This assumption has proven fairly successful in terms of user satisfaction with

search results.

Popularity and relevance aren’t determined manually. Instead, the engines employ mathematical equations

(algorithms) to sort the wheat from the chaff (relevance), and then to rank the wheat in order of quality


These algorithms often comprise hundreds of variables. In the search marketing field, we refer to them as

“ranking factors.” Moz crafted a resource specifically on this subject: Search Engine Ranking Factors.

When and Why Outsource Service in SEO:

To make sure you find a partner that understands SEO and where it’s headed, that can serve you and your clients

competently, ask them these 7 questions.

1. How do you measure the success of your SEO campaigns?

You want a partner that uses metrics like leads, online sales, phone calls generated, etc. to measure success. Be

wary of firms that tout their ability to get you “#1 Rankings”. Ultimately, being ranked #1 has zero direct revenue

benefits. You also want to see regular reporting that focuses on those relevant metrics, not just your search


2. How do you determine which search terms to focus on?

Here, you’re looking for some sort of detailed search term analysis, combined with a thorough evaluation of the

business model of the site to be optimized. Partners that mention testing terms to determine which will generate

best results get extra credit.

3. How do you create content for search optimization?

At present, search-friendly content is the name of the game. Carefully crafting content that addresses key search

terms and making sure that content is legitimately interesting to both real people and Google is the critical. Big


bonus points for partners that create multi modal

bonus points for partners that create multi-modal content (photo galleries and videos) and partners that have

dedicated search copywriters on staff. Make sure you ask for samples of their content creation.

4. How do you integrate search optimization efforts with other aspects of the marketing program?

Here, you’re looking for partners that recognize that good SEO isn’t done in a vacuum. Integrating SEO with public

relations, making sure that search terms related to a new product or campaign are optimized. That’s what you

want to see in this response.

5. What is your approach to getting more links?

Links are the coin of the realm in search. If you don’t have links from at least semi-popular Web sites pointing to

your search-optimized content, it’s going to be an uphill battle (unless you’re emphasizing highly obscure search

terms). Consequently, you want a partner that has a clearly defined process and proven expertise in finding

quality links for their clients. Directories, blogs, one-to-one link requests, competitive analysis, etc. Ask to see

samples of their link acquisition campaigns.

6. After the initial setup, what services do you provide month-to-month?

Some SEO firms will put real effort into getting the search program set up (pick terms, write copy, establish

reports, get a few links) in the first 60 days, but then charge the client hundreds or thousands of dollars each

month thereafter for essentially very little work. Find out precisely what they will do to improve the campaign on

an ongoing basis. You want a partner that will create content on a regular basis, be garnering new links

continuously, and be monitoring competitors.

7. What’s your best success story?

Ultimately, search optimization is about results. If a potential vendor can’t point to a series of clients for whom

they dramatically increased sales, leads, etc. through measured SEO, stay away.

SEO Factors:

Off Page SEO and Off Page SEO

What is SEO?

Search engine optimization is the term used to describe a set of processes that aim in optimizing a website for

search engines. SEO is important not only for getting high quality visitors but it is also a way to increase the

credibility of a website and to expand brand awareness.

Search engines are using complex algorithms to determine which pages to include in their index and the order

they show these pages in the search results. SEO is the way to ‘speak’ to search engines in a language they can

understand and provide them with more details about a website.

SEO has two major components, On Page and off page SEO.

On Page SEO

On Page SEO refers to settings you can apply on the website so that it is optimized for search engines. The most

important on Page SEO Tips are:

●Optimized titles and descriptions


proper url structures user friendly navigation

●Proper URL Structures

●User friendly navigation (breadcrumbs, user sitemaps)

●Optimized internal links

●Text Formatting (use of h1,h2,bold etc)

●Image optimization (image size, proper image names, use of ALT tag)

●User friendly 404 pages

●Fast loading pages

●Google Authorship verification for all pages

●Top quality fresh content (This is always the most important SEO factor!)

●External links (no broken links or links to ‘bad’ sites)

You can find out more details about all the above tips in the SEO Tips for beginners article.

Off Page SEO

Unlike On- page SEO, off-page SEO refers to activities outside the boundaries of the webpage. The most important


●Link Building

●Social Media

●Social bookmarking

We will look at these in detail below but first let me explain about the importance and benefits of off-page SEO.

Why is Off-Page SEO important?

Search engines have been trying for decades to find a way to return the best results to the searcher. To do that,

they take into account the on-site SEO factors (described above), some other quality factors and off-page SEO.

Off page SEO gives them a very good indication on how the World (other websites and users) perceive the

particular website. A web site that is useful is more likely to have references (links) from other websites; it is more

likely to have mentions on social media (Facebook likes, tweets, Pins, +1’s etc.) and it is more likely to be

bookmarked and shared among communities of like-minded users.

What are the benefits of ‘off-site SEO’ to website owners?

A successful off-site SEO strategy will generate the following benefits to website owners:

Increase in rankings – The website will rank higher in the SERPs and this also means more traffic.


increase in pagerank pagerank is a number between

Increase in PageRank – PageRank is a number between 0 and 10 which indicates the importance of a website in

the eyes of Google. It is the system invented by Larry Page (one of Google’s founders) and one of the reasons that

Google was so successful in showing the most relevant results to the searcher. Pagerank today is only one out of

the 250 factors that Google is using to rank websites.

More exposure – Higher rankings also means greater exposure because when a website ranks in the top positions:

it gets more links, more visits and more social media mentions. It’s like a never ending sequence of events where

one thing leads to another and then to another etc.

Link Building

Link building is the most popular off-Page SEO method. Basically by building external links to your website, you

are trying to gather as many ‘votes’ as you can so that you can bypass your competitors and rank higher. For

example if someone likes this article and references it from his/her website or blog, then this is like telling search

engines that this page has good information.

Over the years webmasters were trying to build links to their websites so that they rank higher and they ‘invented’

a number of ways to increase link count. The most popular ways were:

Blog Directories – something like yellow pages but each entry was a link back to a website

Forum Signatures – Many people where commenting on forums for the sole purpose of getting a link back to their

website (they included the links in their signature)

Want to improve your website but don't know where to start?Stop Guessing! Everything you need to know to

Improve your Rankings, SEO, User Experience and Conversions.

Comment link – The same concept as forum signatures where you comment on some other website or blog in

order to get a link back. Even worse, instead of using your real name you could use keywords so instead of writing

‘comment by Alex Chris’, you wrote ‘comment by How to lose weight’ or anything similar.

Article Directories – By publishing your articles on an article directory you could get a link (or 2) back to your

website. Some article directories accepted only unique content while other directories accepted anything from

spin articles to already published articles.

Shared Content Directories – Websites like hubpages and infobarrel allowed you to publish content and in return

you could add a couple of links pointing to your websites.

Link exchange schemes – Instead of trying to publish content you could get in touch with other webmasters and

exchange links. In other words I could link your website from mine and you could do the same. In some cases you

could even do more complicated exchanges by doing a 3-way link, in other words I link to your website from my

website but you link to my website from a different website.

Notice that I used the past tense to describe all the above methods because not only they do not work today, you

should not even try them because you are more likely to get a penalty rather than an increase in rankings

(especially when it comes to Google).

The birth of black hat SEO

Link building was an easy way to manipulate the search engine algorithms and many spammers tried to take

advantage of this by building link networks which gradually lead to the creation of what is generally known as

black hat SEO.

Google has become very intelligent in recognizing black hat techniques and with the introduction of Panda and

Penguin they have managed to solve the problem and protect their search engine from spammers. Of course

there are still exceptions but they are doing advances in every new release of their ranking algorithm and very

soon none of these tricks will work.

To “follow” or “nofollow”

In addition to the above and in order to give webmasters a way to link to a website without passing any ‘link juice’

(for example in the case of ads), search engines introduced what is known as the “nofollow” link. This is a special


tag you can add to a link for example a href http

tag you can add to a link (for example: “<a href= rel=”nofollow”>Some Site</a>) that

tells search engines not to count the particular link as a ‘vote’ to the referenced website.

This was done so that you can link other websites from yours without taking the risk of being caught for selling or

exchanging links.

As a rule of thumb, you should add the nofollow tag on all your external links (within your pages) that go to

websites you cannot trust 100%, to ALL your comment links, to ALL your blogroll links and to ALL banner ad links.

What is a good link?

So, if the above links are not useful, what is a good link?

First you should understand that link building it’s not only a matter of quantity but it is a matter of quality as well.

In other words it no longer matters how many links are pointing to your website but it is more important from

where these links are coming. For example a link from a normal blog does not have the same weight as a link from

New York Times or a link from Matt Cutts blog (head of Google Quality team) is not the same as a link from my


The obvious question is how to you get these links?

If you ask Google they will tell you that any links pointing to your website has to be natural links. Natural links are

exactly what their name implies. A website owner or blogger likes another website or blog and naturally adds a

link to his/her blog.

Does this happen in reality or is it another myth?

It certainly does but you have to try really hard to get to this point. Take for example this blog, there are many

incoming links because other webmasters find the content interesting and I also link to other sites in my articles

because I find their content interesting and want to inform my readers about it. This is natural link building where

a link has more value from the readers’ point of you rather than the search engine point of view. The best way to

attract links is to publish content (text, images, videos, infographicsetc) that other people would like to link.

If natural links are what I have just described above, in which category do all other links belong?

They belong in the category of artificial links and by adopting such techniques you increase the risk for getting a

manual or algorithmic penalty by Google.

Is guest blogging a valid way to build links?

Guest posting can be a valid way to get links back to your website provided that you don’t do it just for links and

that you don’t overdo it. You can read these 2 articles to get a complete picture as to when to accept guest posts

on your blogand when to guest post on other blogs.

Social Media

Social media is part of ‘off-site SEO’ and if you think about it, it’s also a form of link building. It should be noted

that almost all of the links you get from social media sites are “nofollow” but this does not mean that they do not

have any value.

Social Media mentions are gaining ground as ranking factors and proper configuration of social media profiles can

also boost SEO.

Social Bookmarking

Social bookmarking is not as popular as it used to be in the past but it is still a good way to get traffic to your

website. Depending on your niche you can find web sites like,,,

and (to name a few) to promote your content.



off page seo is as important as on site

Off-page SEO is as important as on-site SEO. If you want your SEO campaigns to be successful you have to do both.

When thinking about link building don’t take the easy way, but try to get links from hard-to-get places. The more

difficult is to get a link, the more value it has.

In the past you could easily get thousands of links and rank higher but nowadays you have to do more than that.

My advice is to forget about link building all together and put all your efforts in making a great website, promote it

correctly and everything else will follow.

Class 17:

Website analysis: What Is Website Analysis, and Why Is It So Important?

Website analysis is a very useful tool for any website owner. If you are running an SEO campaign, it can tell you

exactly how well it is working and will assist you with repairing the areas that are not working. When using

website analysis you are given information such as:

Total amount of visitors to your site

What percentage of visitors came from outside sources such as: inbound links, search engines, etc.

Total amount of new visitors

Where your page ranks in the search engine results for the keywords on your site

With this information you are able to benchmark your campaigns in order to show what is working and what is



why website analysis is so important

Why Website Analysis Is So Important

There are many reasons why the analysis is important to your website. Below are a list of a few of the top reasons

it can help your business grow:

Keywords and Search Results

It can be difficult choosing the right keywords for your target audience. Using the analysis, you will be able to see

what keywords are working for you and which ones are not. The search engines rank your page based on what

position it ranks in searches. The analysis tool shows you exactly where you stand and what keywords are the

most effective.

Traffic Volume

If you want more traffic on your site, you first have to know where it is coming from. The analysis will show you

exactly where your traffic is generated and show you the quality of your traffic. This can really help you improve

the quality of your site.

Link Checking

Bad links can destroy your website’s professional appearance. With the analysis, you are able to quickly check all

of the links connected to your site: external, internal, outbound or inbound.

Web Content

The tool can check your website for original content, let you know if there is irrelevant content on your page, and

even help you create SEO friendly content. It does this by offering details on the most effective keywords and

phrases on your site.

Class 18:

Search Engine Optimization

Website Ranking Factor:

Every two years, Moz surveys the opinions of dozens of the world's brightest search marketers and runs

correlation studies to better understand the workings of search engine algorithms. We gather this data to gain

insight into the factors that may help—or hurt—a website's visibility in search engines.

This year, Moz surveyed over 150 leading search marketers who provided expert opinions on over 90 ranking


In addition, the Data Science team at Moz, lead by Dr. Matthew Peters, ran an extensive correlation study to

determine which features of websites and webpages are associated with higher search rankings. For the first time

this year, Moz partnered with several data partners to enhance the study, including SimilarWeb, DomainTools,

and Ahrefs.

Note that these factors are not "proof" of what search engines use to rank websites, but simply show the

characteristics of web pages that tend to rank higher. Combining this understanding with both experience and

knowledge of search engine algorithms can help lead to better SEO practices.


web rank and pagerank

Web Rank and Pagerank :

When a user types in a search query, the search engine’s number one goal is to return results that are high-

quality, relevant, and able to best give them what they want. One of the 200+ factors Google takes into

consideration to determine which web pages best fit the bill is PageRank.

What is Google PageRank?

PageRank is a link analysis algorithm used by Google to help determine the relative importance of a website.

Every website is given a Google PageRank score between 0 and 10 on an exponential scale. The handful of

PageRank 10 domains, including, and Adobe Reader Download, has the highest volume of

inbound links of any sites on the web. The top sites set the bar, so to speak, and the 10-point scale plummets

exponentially down from there. and are PR 9. PageRank 5 websites have a good

number of inbound links, PR 3 and 4 sites have a fair amount, and brand new websites without any inbound links

pointing to them start at PageRank 0.

Since Google wants to return page one results that are high quality, relevant, and trustworthy, it may return web

pages with better PageRank scores higher up in the SERPs, although PageRank is only one of many ranking factors

taken into consideration.

Since PageRank is only one factor in the Google ranking algorithm, it’s important to remember that a high

PageRank does not guarantee high rankings – but it can significantly help.

What is “Link Juice” and What are PageRank “Points”?

When Site A links to your web page, Google sees this as Site A endorsing, or casting a vote for, your page. Google

takes into consideration all of these link votes (i.e., the website’s link profile) to draw conclusions about the

relevance and significance of individual web pages and your website as a whole. This is the basic concept behind


When a website links to your site, or when you link internally from one of your pages to another, the link passes

PageRank points. This passing of PageRank points is also commonly called “link juice” transfer.

The amount of link juice passed depends on two things: the number ofPageRank points of the web page housing

the link, and the total number of links on the web page that are passing PageRank. It’s worth noting here that

while Google will give every website a public-facing PageRank score that is between 1 and 10, the “points” each

page accumulates from the link juice passed by high-value inbound links can – and do – significantly surpass ten.

For instance, web pages on the most powerful and significant websites can pass link juice points in the hundreds

or thousands. To keep the rating system concise Google uses a lot of math (ask me in the comments if you want to

hear about it) to correlate very large (and very small) PageRank values with a neat and clean 1–10 rating scale.


class 19

Class 19:

Search Engine Optimization

What is Meta Tag:

There are several kinds of meta tags, but the most important for search engine indexing are the keywords meta

tag and the description meta tag. The keywords meta tag lists the words or phrases that best describe the

contents of the page. The description meta tag includes a brief one- or two-sentence description of the page. Both

the keywords and the description are used by search engines in adding a page to their index. Some search engines

also use the description to show the searcher a summary of the page's contents.

Although most search engines also use the contents of a page as a way to determine how to index it, the creator

of a Web page should be sure to include meta tags with appropriate keywords and description. Well-written meta

tags can help make the page rank higher in search results.

What is Meta Title:

The meta title is the HTML code that specifies the title of a certain web page. It appears at the top left corner of

your browser when you visit a web page. In coding, the meta title is embedded at the header of a web page,

above the meta description and meta keywords tags.


class 20

Class 20:

Search Engine Optimization

Whats is internal linking

An internal link is a type of hyperlink on a webpage to another page or resource, such as an image or document,

on the same website or domain. Hyperlinks are considered either "external" or "internal" depending on their

target or destination.


class 21

Class 21:

Search Engine Optimization

URL Structure:

URL, or Uniform Resource Locator, is a subset of the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that specifies where an

identified resource is available and the mechanism for retrieving it.


class 22

Class 22:

Search Engine Optimization

What is Website Content:

A web content management system (WCMS) is a software system that provides website authoring, collaboration,

and administration tools designed to allow users with little knowledge of web programming languages or markup

languages to create and manage website content with relative ease.


what is content structure

What is Content Structure:

Content is the most important aspect of any site. So let’s design for the content and not let the design dictate the

content. In this guide, we identify the content we need first, create a page structure based on this content, and

then present the page in a simple linear layout that works well on narrow and wide viewports.

Content Optimization:

On site optimization accounts for around twenty five percent (25%) of your entire SEO factor. This is a simplified,

Complete On Site Optimization Tutorial for anyone who is new to SEO and wants to know how to make the most

out of their on site optimization.

The guide includes the following:


the title tag is one of the oldest attributes

The title tag is one of the oldest attributes there is to a webpage’s layout. Title Tags have been existent since

websites came to being. Title tags are also one of the most important attributes that you will ever get to use in

your on site optimization. This is a Tutorial to Title Tags.

Keywords are vital to your site’s SEO. Keywords are the cornerstone of your entire SEO campaign. Without the

right keywords, your SEO structure has no foundation and will get you nowhere. Understanding keyword density is

one step to leveraging your website’s on-site optimization. This is a Tutorial to Keyword Density.


Now that we’ve discussed keyword density, it’s time you know the other factors when it comes to keywords in

your on-site optimization. Understanding keyword prominence, frequency and proximity can help you leverage

the power and placing of your keywords in your website. This is a tutorial for Keyword Prominence, Frequency and


You’ve got a link here and a link there. The internet is full of links. Each time you click a link, chances are, it means

you’re traveling from a certain webpage to another. In SEO, understanding the outbound link is one step forward

for your on-site optimization. I’ll also be talking about hidden keywords in your links below. This is a Tutorial for

Outbound Links.

Now that we have established outbound links, here’s one more that could help you with your on site optimization

– image SEO. How do you do optimization for images? How do you use image alt text? How do you use image

title? Does changing an image filename help? This is an Image Optimization Tutorial

Now that we’ve covered how you can optimize images in your website, let’s move on to understanding Sitemaps

and its effects to your on site SEO structure. This is a Tutorial to Sitemaps.

URL slugs are the exact address of a specific website. It is the location where webpages are accessed when typing

their URL in the address bar. Optimizing URL slugs is not a very hard thing to do. But if you ask me, it is one of the

most important things you can do in your on site optimization process. This is a Tutorial for URL Slugs.

Internal linking

Internal linking is all about getting your webpages interconnected with each other. The world wide web is made

up of links – you navigate from webpage to webpage through links. You recommend another webpages through

links. But internal linking is more than just about navigation and recommendation. This is a Tutorial for Internal


“Yeah, so which is better, a subdomain or subfolder when it comes to SEO?” This is perhaps one of the frequently

asked questions by clients who have an in-house IT team. I don’t blame them. Sometimes even SEO specialists ask

me this question when I bump into them.

Class 23:

Search Engine Optimization


what is keyword research keyword research

What is Keyword Research: Keyword research is a practice search engine optimization (SEO) professionals use to

find and research actual search terms that people enter into search engines. Search engine optimization

professionals research keywords, which they use to achieve better rankings in search engines.

Google Keyword Planner Tool:

Keyword Planner is a free AdWords tool that helps you build Search Network campaigns by finding keyword ideas

and estimating how they may perform.

Class 23:

Search Engine Optimization


what is google s search algorithm

What is Google's search algorithm?

PageRank is an algorithm used by Google Search to rank websites in their search engine results. PageRank was

named after Larry Page, one of the founders of Google. PageRank is a way of measuring the importance of

website pages. According to Google:

What is Google Algorithm:

PageRank is an algorithm used by Google Search to rank websites in their search engine results. PageRank was

named after Larry Page, one of the founders of Google.PageRank is a way of measuring the importance of website


2016 Updates:

AdWords Shake-up — February 23, 2016

Google made major changes to AdWords, removing right-column ads entirely and rolling out 4-ad top blocks on

many commercial searches. While this was a paid search update, it had significant implications for CTR for both

paid and organic results, especially on competitive keywords.

For the past couple of months, Google has been testing SERPs with 4 ads at the top of the page (previously, the

top adblock had 1–3 ads), leading to a ton of speculation in the PPC community. Across the MozCast data set, 4

ads accounted for only about 1% of SERPs with top ads (which matches testing protocol, historically), until about 2

weeks ago:

On the morning of February 18, the percentage of top ads blocks displaying 4 ads jumped to

18.9%. As of this morning (February 23), that percentage has jumped again, to 36.4%. Of the

5,980 page-1 SERPs in our tracking data that displayed top ads this morning, here’s how the ad

count currently breaks down:


as you can see 4 ad blocks have overtaken

As you can see, 4-ad blocks have overtaken 2-ad and 3-ad blocks and now account for over one-third of all top ad

blocks. Keep in mind that this situation is highly dynamic and will continue to change over time.

Sample SERPs & keywords

The 4-ad blocks look the same as other, recent top ad blocks, with the exception of the fourth listing. Here’s one

for “used cars,” localized to the Chicago area:


here s another example from an equally

Here’s another example, from an equally competitive search, “laptops”.

As you can see, the ads continue to carry rich features, including site-links and location enhancements. Other

examples of high-volume searches that showed 4 top ads in this morning’s data include:

○“royal caribbean”

○“car insurance”




○“job search”


○“global warming”


○“bridesmaid dresses”

Please note that our data set tends toward commercial queries, so it’s likely that our percentages of occurrence

are higher than the total population of searches. Public statements from Google are suggesting that 4-ad blocks

are only occurring on highly commercial searches, but we're seeing some exceptions (here's one for "child



class 24 25

Class 24 & 25:

Search Engine Optimization

While search engine submission is often presented as a way to promote a web site, it generally is not necessary

because the major search engines like Google, Yahoo, and Bing use crawlers, bots, and spiders that eventually

would find most web sites on the Internet all by themselves.

To submit your sitemap:

1.Select your site on your Google Search Console home page.

2.Click Crawl.

3.Click Sitemaps.


5.Type sitemap.xml.

6.Click Submit Sitemap

Search Engine Submission Technique:

Submit Site to Google. Google's URL submit is very quick and easy. Just go to Google's web page for URL

submitting, type in your URL, type in the message that ensures Google you are an individual not a software robot

and click "add URL." You can also submit your sitemap to Google via their Webmaster Tools.


class 26

Class 26:

Search Engine Optimization

Discussion on Backlinks:

In search engine optimization (SEO) terminology a backlink is a hyperlink that links from a Web page, back to your

own Web page or Website. Also called an Inbound Link (IBL) these links are important in determining the

popularity (or importance) of your Web site. Some search engines, including Google will consider Web sites with

more backlinks more relevant in search results pages. May also be written as two separate words, backlink.

18 Types of Backlinks Violating Google’s Guidelines

When doing SEO for your website, it’s vital to know what are the backlinks that are violating Google’s webmaster

guidelines. These backlinks can cause vulnerability and eventually a penalty. In this article, I will talk about the

unnatural backlinks that you should avoid, along with Matt Cut’s take on these links.

1. Link exchanges

Back in 2007, this was a very common way to build backlinks. Webmasters started doing hundreds of link

exchanges, and eventually, Google had to take action against this method. If you are pointing a few backlinks to

some of your friends, there is no reason to worry. But, doing this on hundreds of websites will raise a flag to

Google that you are doing something suspicious.

2. Participating in blog networks1

Starting 2012, Google has started to penalize numerous blog networks and websites that have such backlinks.

Almost every month, Matt Cutts announces that they have penalized a new network. If your website has backlinks

from blog networks, you are in danger of being penalized.

3. Widget backlinks

Google recommends including rel= “nofollow” to widgets. Very important websites, such as Godaddy, have been

penalized for utilizing widgets as a link building method.

If you have a plugin, or a badge, and you want people to be able to embed it on their website, give them the

possibility to choose to link or not to.

4. Advertorials

If you are doing sponsored articles or if you accept such posts on your website, which include a dofollow backlink,

Google will consider that you are violating their guidelines. Matt recommends to nofollow all the advertorial


Google has penalized important websites for using this method as a link building technique, and some include:

InterFlora and a few well known newspaper websites.

5. Paid links that pass PageRank

Whether we are talking about text links or image links, Google doesn’t want you to pass PageRank with the links

you paid for. They consider this link as unnatural, and recommend you to add a relnofollow to all of your

sponsored backlinks.


6 article directories

6. Article directories

Websites such as EzineArticles and ArticleBase don’t provide real value to users, and, therefore, Google devalued

them. Their only purpose is to generate endless articles on the same topic, with a dofollow link at the bottom of

the content.

7. Hacking and hiding links in CSS and Javascript

The worst thing you can do is to hack other websites to leave your backlink. Search engine robots have evolved,

and they are now able to understand what backlinks they are crawling. Hiding your backlinks on other websites,

or even yours, it’s a sneaky way to build backlinks, and you should avoid it.

8. Site-wide and footer backlinks

Backlinks from blog sidebars and footers will be placed on every page of your website. Therefore, it can be the

case that some of the links will not be relevant, and may look like a spammy way to build backlinks.

9. Low distribution of anchor text

No matter from what platform the backlinks are coming from, if you are building backlinks and repeating the same

keyword over and over again, most likely your website will be penalized. Google has become very good at

detecting patterns.

10. Backlinks fro1m foreign language websites

If you have a website written in English and you have hundreds of backlinks coming from Russian or Indian

websites, this will raise a flag to Google that something suspicious is going on with your website. Relevancy it’s

highly important, and it’s best to avoid building backlinks from websites written in a foreign language.

11. Low quality guest posting1

There has been a long debate about guest blogging, and Matt Cutts has done numerous videos about this. Like any

link building method, eventually it gets abused, and Google has to take action against it.

Quality guest blogging will never die, as I demonstrated a few weeks ago here, but spammy guest posting will get

you penalized in the coming future.

12. Backlinks that are automatically generated

Even if it may sound like a fantastic deal to buy 10.000 backlinks for $5 on Fiverr, don’t! All those backlinks are

automatically generated, and they will get your website penalized in days. Stay away from all the backlinks that

can be generated by bots, such as comments, forum posts, web 2.0 websites (Squidoo, Hubpages), and others.

13. Low quality web directories

Directories are another old technique that used to work a while ago, but not today. Paid or free, it doesn’t matter.

Instead of building hundreds of links from directories, concentrate your efforts on submitting your website on the

most popular directories such as Dmoz, Yahoo directory and Best of the web.


14 bookmark websites

14. Bookmark websites

Just as the other automated techniques, websites where users can place their personal bookmarks should be


15. Irrelevant backlinks

Relevancy is crucial. If you have a website that sells car parts, and you have hundreds of backlinks from websites

that sell baby toys, it makes no sense. Google’s algorithm can determine if a backlink is relevant or irrelevant.

16. Backlinks from websites with duplicate and spanned content

Google encourage publishers to write unique and useful content, that provides real value to users. On the other

side, they devalues websites with low quality and duplicate content. Therefore, backlinks coming from websites

with spinned or copied articles, will bury your rankings.

17. Low quality backlinks

If it’s easy to build a backlink to your website, it means it doesn’t carry much value. The harder it is for you to earn

it, the more valuable it is. Backlinks such as forum profiles and signatures, free directories, wiki pages and other

similar platforms, will violate Google’s webmaster policy.

18. Any link intended to manipulate PageRank

What a surprise, right? Google is against any type of backlink that intends to manipulate search engine rankings.

What does this mean to SEOs? Well, it means that link building must be done with cautious, and you should never

leave footprints. Avoid participating in the link schemes that are violating their guidelines.

Importance of backlink:

If you've read anything about or studied Search Engine Optimization, you've come across the term "backlink" at

least once. For those of you new to SEO, you may be wondering what a backlink is, and why they are important.

Backlinks have become so important to the scope of Search Engine Optimization, that they have become some of

the main building blocks to good SEO. In this article, we will explain to you what a backlink is, why they are

important, and what you can do to help gain them while avoiding getting into trouble with the Search Engines.

What are "backlinks"? Backlinks are links that are directed towards your website. Also knows as Inbound links

(IBL's). The number of backlinks is an indication of the popularity or importance of that website. Backlinks are

important for SEO because some search engines, especially Google, will give more credit to websites that have a

good number of quality backlinks, and consider those websites more relevant than others in their results pages for

a search query.

When search engines calculate the relevance of a site to a keyword, they consider the number of QUALITY

inbound links to that site. So we should not be satisfied with merely getting inbound links, it is the quality of the

inbound link that matters.

A search engine considers the content of the sites to determine the QUALITY of a link. When inbound links to your

site come from other sites, and those sites have content related to your site, these inbound links are considered

more relevant to your site. If inbound links are found on sites with unrelated content, they are considered less

relevant. The higher the relevance of inbound links, the greater their quality.

Backlink Building Strategy:

For search engines that crawl the vast metropolis of the web, links are the streets between pages. Using

sophisticated link analysis, the engines can discover how pages are related to each other and in what ways.


since the late 1990s search engines have treated

Since the late 1990s search engines have treated links as votes for popularity and importance in the ongoing

democratic opinion poll of the web. The engines themselves have refined the use of link data to a fine art, and

use complex algorithms to perform nuanced evaluations of sites and pages based on this information.

Links aren't everything in SEO, but search professionals attribute a large portion of the engines' algorithms to

link-related factors (see Search Engine Ranking Factors). Through links, engines can not only analyze the

popularity websites and pages based on the number and popularity of pages linking to them, but also metrics

like trust, spam, and authority. Trustworthy sites tend to link to other trusted sites, while spammy sites receive

very few links from trusted sources (see MozTrust). Authority models, like those postulated in the Hilltop

Algorithm, suggest that links are a very good way of identifying expert documents on a given subject.

Link Signals

How do search engines assign value to links? To answer this, we need to explore the individual elements of a link,

and look at how the search engines assess these elements. We don't fully understand the proprietary metrics that

search engines use, but through analysis of patent applications, years of experience, and hands-on testing, we can

draw some intelligent assumptions that hold up in the real world. Below is a list of notable factors worthy of

consideration. These signals, and many more, are considered by professional SEOs when measuring link value and

a site's link profile. You may also enjoy some further on the Moz Blog reading about search engine valuation of



global popularity the more popular and important

Global Popularity

The more popular and important a site is, the more links from that site matter. A site like Wikipedia has thousands

of diverse sites linking to it, which means it's probably a popular and important site. To earn trust and authority

with the engines, you'll need the help of other link partners. The more popular, the better.

Local/Topic-Specific Popularity

The concept of "local" popularity, first pioneered by the Teoma search engine, suggests that links from sites within

a topic-specific community matter more than links from general or off-topic sites. For example, if your website

sells dog houses, a link from the Society of Dog Breeders matters much more than one from a site about roller


Anchor Text

One of the strongest signals the engines use in rankings is anchor text. If dozens of links point to a page with the

right keywords, that page has a very good probability of ranking well for the targeted phrase in that anchor text.

You can see examples of this in action with searches like "click here," where many results rank solely due to the

anchor text of inbound links.


It's no surprise that the Internet contains massive amounts of spam. Some estimate as much as 60% of the web's

pages are spam. In order to weed out this irrelevant content, search engines use systems for measuring trust,

many of which are based on the link graph. Earning links from highly-trusted domains can result in a significant

boost to this scoring metric. Universities, government websites and non-profit organizations represent examples

of high-trust domains.

Link Neighborhood

Spam links often go both ways. A website that links to spam is likely spam itself, and in turn often has many spam

sites linking back to it. By looking at these links in the aggregate, search engines can understand the "link

neighborhood" in which your website exists. Thus, it's wise to choose those sites you link to carefully and be

equally selective with the sites you attempt to earn links from.


Link signals tend to decay over time. Sites that were once popular often go stale, and eventually fail to earn new

links. Thus, it's important to continue earning additional links over time. Commonly referred to as "FreshRank,"

search engines use the freshness signals of links to judge current popularity and relevance.

Social Sharing

The last few years have seen an explosion in the amount of content shared through social services such as

Facebook, Twitter, and Google+. Although search engines treat socially shared links differently than other types of

links, they notice them nonetheless. There is much debate among search professionals as to how exactly search

engines factor social link signals into their algorithms, but there is no denying the rising importance of social



class 2 7

Class 27:

Search Engine Optimization

What is online directory:

An online directory definition is: A website submission service where your website is added to the proper category

in a searchable online directory which enhances your site’s visibility and creates relevant inbound links to your


How to do Directory Submission for SEO?

Now that we know what blog directories are and how they can help us in blogging, not signing up would be a

mistake. So here are some simple steps to get your site submitted to various blog directories and make backlinks.

Step:1 Some pre-submission work.

Before submitting your site here is a simple task to perform. This will actually help in easy submission without

much hassle.

1.Create a notepad file and save the following there.

2.Your blog URL,

3.Your blog’s RSS feed URL,

4.Your social profile links.

5.And a brief excerpt describing your site (some directories need this.)

Step: 2 Find some awesome and huge lists of blog directories. You can find two most popular blog directory lists

here and here.

Step: 3 Choose the blog directories based on your choices, like number of blogs associated, PR of the site (if you

are solely considering backlinks), alexa rank, domain authority, no. of indexed pages in Google etc.

Step: 4 Suppose you choose a directory named

Step: 5 Choose a relevant category for your submission.

Step: 6 Dig deeper to choose a preferable sub-category.

Step: 7 Choose the category/sub-category that fits your blog’s niche accurately.


step 8 once you found the appropriate

Step: 8 Once you found the appropriate sub category click on submit your site on the top right of the page.

Step: 9 Fill on the details from the notepad file you just created.

Step: 10 Submit.

Voila you’re done!

Certain tips for safe playing:

1.Do not submit your site to the wrong category in lieu of lucrative listings and earning opportunities.

2.Submit your site to the most accurate sub category.

3.Do not spam a directory.

4.Do not provide wrong physical address or blog stats.

5.Do not prefer submitting to a site that requires reciprocal link back or banners on your site. Having

badges and site wide linkbacks to the directories may harm your site’s SEO score. So stay safe.

What is Social Bookmarking:

Social bookmarking is a user-defined taxonomy system for bookmarks. Such a taxonomy is sometimes called a

folksonomy and the bookmarks are referred to as tags. Unlike storing bookmarks in a folder on your computer,

tagged pages are stored on the Web and can be accessed from any computer.


how to do social bookmarking for seo

How To Do Social Bookmarking For SEO?

SEO companies and firms charge dollars for professional SEO services to their clients and the clients pays them

happily because they get effective results.

Why these people pay dollars to the company if they can learn SEO themselves by reading online tutorials and

practicing on them? The reason behind this is that if perfect Search Engine Optimization can build up your blog

ranking then over and bad SEO can ruin your blog completely.

That’s why it’s a better option to invest some money on your blog optimization. This investment will give you

multiple times of benefits and your online business will grow. These companies works on many strategies to

optimize a website to bring it at top in major search engines and today in this post I’ll discuss about one of the

best SEO strategies that is Social Bookmarking which comes under Off Page SEO.

Most of the newbie bloggers who start learning SEO from reading online tutorials exclude this strategy from their

SEO plans because of the following reasons.

1.They don’t aware with Social Bookmarking.

2.They don’t have proper knowledge of how to do it for SEO.

3.They feel it as a waste of time to submit links on various social bookmarking sites.

Whatever the reason but we should not ignore Social Bookmarking for better blog optimization. Today in this post

we will discuss about what is Social Bookmarking, how it works in SEO and what are its benefits.

What is Social Bookmarking?

Social bookmarking is a way to bookmark our favorite web pages online to read them anytime and anywhere if we

are connected with the internet.

Why Social Bookmarking Comes?

When we surf the internet for the information, we bookmarked some web pages in our browser so that we can

read them later without surfing the internet again.

But because of any reason if our browser get crashed or our system get formatted or if we are not at the front of

that computer where we save our bookmark then we can’t access them.

We have to again surf the internet to search those pages. To overcome this issue social bookmarking comes. Now

we can use our bookmarks easily from any location using any computer which is connected by the internet.

How Social Bookmarking Helps in SEO?

The web pages we bookmarked at social bookmarking sites is considered as a quality backlink in the eyes of search


And we all know that the quality backlinks helps us to increase blog traffic and Google Pagerank. That’s why SEO

professionals include SB in their search engine optimization practices.

How to do Social Bookmarking for SEO?

Doing SB is not a tough job. Everyone can do it after learning how to do it.

First you have to collect a list of top social bookmarking sites so that you can easily start your work on them. You

can use this Social Bookmarking List to start the process.


once you are ready with the list follow below

Once you are ready with the list, follow below steps to do SB.

In this tutorial I’m taking an example of a very famous SB site i.e

1.Go to

2.Create an account or you can also log in with your facebook account.

3.Now click on the little drop down arrow along with your username at the top right corner and

choose Add a Page.

1.Now fill a simple form with the appropriate information about your web page like web page

address, category, tags etc. and click on Add This Page button.


1 you are done

1. You are done!

Note: Don’t start submitting your links in social bookmarking sites after reading this tutorial.

The submission should be in a proper way so that you blog always get free from any SEO penalties because I have

already said that wrong SEO can ruin your blog ranking.

There are lot of things which we should keep in mind during submission. So make sure to do social bookmarking

carefully. Thanks!


class 28

Class 28:

Search Engine Optimization

Article Submission:

Article submission is a powerful internet marketing service in which we write articles related to our industry and

then do manual submissions in quality article directories, relevant blogs and content rich websites. For which our

website link will appear faster in the Search Engines because these directories are regularly crawled, also get more

amount of visitors and backlinks as well which indirectly helps for ranking well in search engines.

How to Submit Article:

How to submit your content to article sites

Submitting articles can be a great SEO tactic if it is done correctly. A successful article submission campaign can

lead to you getting you lots of quality links and high rankings on Google. This tutorial will provide detailed

information on how to get the most out of article directories for SEO and which article sites you should use.

Keep your best work

Don't post your very best content to article directories, publish the best stuff on your own site in a blog or articles

category and publish all of your OK articles on article directories.

1 article per directory

Don't publish any of your articles in more than 1 place. This rule will help you on so many different levels with

SEO. If someone re-publishes your article then that's fine, but don't go out of your way to get an article published

twice, only one copy will rank in the search engines and pass link juice to your site.

Add keyword text links to your signature

Make sure the article directory you are submitting to provides dofollow links, and add a keyword text link or two

to your author signature. Generally speaking you should not add links to your own site in the main content area -

E-zine Articles and quite a few others add the nofollow tag to these links so they won't pass search engine value

there, plus your article will probably come off as being less professional because you will have plugged yourself.

The only time this is OK is if you are linking to something that genuinely ads value to your article.

Don't overdo it

If you are trying to optimize a regular site for the search engines then 1 article submission per month is more then

enough. If you have a huge holiday website or something with lots of categories to rank, then maybe do one a

week. Any more time then that spent on it will be wasted, spend your time figuring out how to linkbait instead.

Submit to quality directories

Use the very best article directories that you can get published at and never submit more than 2 articles to each

one, once you have a couple of links from an article directory don't use it again, find new ones because the links

will count more. Here are links to my top 4 general article directories to get you started, the current Google

PageRank score is listed next to each one:

●E-zine Articles - PageRank 6/10

●Buzzle - PageRank 5/10

●Go Articles - PageRank 6/10

●Article Dashboard - PageRank 4/10

Submit to niche directories

You should also search for article directories in your niche, there are some amazing ones for online marketing and

SEO such as WebProNews and Sitepoint to name a couple. The best way to find article directories in your niche is

to search on Google, for example if you want to find a place to post a search engine optimisation article then go to

Google and search for SEO articles or SEO article directory, the ones that come up highest are usually the best

ones to get published at.


Follow this guide, start submitting your work and you are on your way towards great Google rankings.


class 28 1

Class 28:

Search Engine Optimization

What is Blog Posting:

Blog" is an abbreviated version of "weblog," which is a term used to describe websites that maintain an ongoing

chronicle of information. A blog features diary-type commentary and links to articles on other websites, usually

presented as a list of entries in reverse chronological order

How to Posting on Blog:

Actions you can take:

1.To make a post-show on your blog, click Publish.

2.To see how a post will look, click Preview.

3.To remove a post from your blog, click Revert to draft.

4.To delete a post, click Delete under the post title.

5.To delete multiple posts, check the posts to delete and click Delete

What is Blog Comments:

Many blogs allow a space at the end of each post for a blog reader to leave a comment. The blog commenting

field typically asks for the name of the commenter, their email address, and their website.

The blog commenting space is important because it adds an interactive element to the blog. Readers can share

their thoughts on the topic and start a discussion with the blogger. Blog comments are what create a sense of

community among loyal blog readers.

Blog commenting is a popular online marketing strategy. By leaving thoughtful comments on a blog post, an

individual or a business is able to gain exposure among that blog’s audience. Blog comments can establish an

individual or a business as a thought leader in a particular industry which may lead to new business opportunities.

Blog commenting is also a link building tactic, since the comment links back to the page that was submitted in the

“Website” field. Blog commenting should not be done only for link building, but it is an added benefit. To get the

most out of blog commenting, it’s important to spend time researching high quality blogs in your niche and visit

them on a regular basis.

How to Comments on a Blog:

1.Google Account: If you choose this option, your comment will be attributed to your Blogger display name,

which will then link to your Blogger profile. ...

2.Anonymous: If the blog owner has allowed anonymous comments, then you'll also have the option to

leave a comment anonymously.


class 29

Class 29:

Search Engine Optimization

What is web 2.0:

Web 2.0 describes World Wide Web sites that emphasize user-generated content, usability, and interoperability.

The term was popularized by Tim O'Reilly and Dale Dougherty at the O'Reilly Media Web 2.0 Conference in late

2004, though it was coined by Darcy DiNucci in 1999.

How to Create Web 2.0:


Most automated programs cannot post on the web 2.0s above, so you’re going to put some work into creating

these properties. You need to remember that your first tier of links MUST BE high-quality.

The days of spamming thousands of links to your site are long gone.

Google wants authoritative, relevant, and trusted links hitting your site. If you fulfill all three of these important

goals, then you will see the rankings you desire. It sounds so simple right?


You’ll have to make accounts for these web 2.0s, so I recommend making a default email for this purpose. It

doesn’t matter if you use the same email account to create the properties. Some SEOs freak out about leaving

footprints because they think Google cares about what they’re doing.


There is no specific reason why I chose “10”, but it’s a good place to start. Depending on your keyword

competition, you will probably need to make more than this.

If you’re super paranoid, then use proxies when you create the properties. Hide My Ass will do the job.


Now that you’ve created your accounts, you will be prompted to create a URL that should look something like this:

“”. Because we are looking to improve the relevancy of our backlinks, you want to

include keywords related to the niche.

If your main site is about NBA basketball (sorry just got done watching the Lakers), then your URLs should include

a specific keyword you’re trying to rank or related LSI words. For example, let’s say our primary keyword is “NBA


Here are how some of your web 2.0 URLs should look:


nbabasketballpro wordpress com basketballblogger





You see how these URLs look natural? If every web 2.0 you make includes “NBA basketball” in the URL, then it

may throw up some red flags.

Diversify, diversify, DIVERSIFY.

I can’t say this enough.

BE RANDOM when you make these properties… seriously. I’m not kidding.


Creating your content to post on the 2.0s is the most important part! There are few different ways you can

approach the content creation. Deciding on which technique to use completely depends on your resources and


1. Write it yourself (BEST)

Writing purely unique content for all your web 2.0s is the absolute best thing to do. If you can afford to, you need

to consider outsourcing it. Writing content for your web 2.0 will be extremely time-consuming and you should

definitely be spending your time developing your site instead. HOWEVER, if your budget is extremely limited, then

just write it yourself or consider the following option.

2. Advanced Spinning (Most Effective)

If your budget is really tight and you need to produce a lot of content, then you might want to consider spinning.

I’m going to be honest with you, I don’t use spun content on tier one EVER. I always use unique, manually written

content. This isn’t to say spun content doesn’t work, but I just sleep better at night knowing my content on tier

one is 100% unique. And the trust is, it just plain out works better.

If you decide to take the spinning route, you have to use ADVANCED spinning, not low-quality one-click spins…

With truly advanced spin you will probably spend anywhere between 2-4 hours to complete an entire spun article.

In this amount of time, you will have produced an article with thousands of different variations.

3. Scraping Content (Not Recommended)

There’s nothing wrong with scraping content for your tier two or three, but I definitely advise against it for your

tier one. I’m not saying it won’t work, but it’s a risky move if you’re trying to build a long-term authoritative




no matter what type of content creation

No matter what type of content creation you decide on, you must make sure your articles are 400 + words. Try to

naturally include your primary keyword throughout the article without keyword stuffing. We want these

properties to look natural. 1-3% keyword density is more than enough.


Simply paste your article inside the editor for whatever web 2.0 you choose. At this point, you will need to gather

photos and videos for your post.

You can include one photo and one video, two videos, three videos, three pictures… you see where I am going

with this? Keep it random! To mix it up, sometimes I won’t even include a picture OR video.

After you have inserted your photos and videos, it’s time for you to insert your links. One link will obviously be for

the page you are targeting, and the other be will to a relevant or authority website. Be random with link

placement and use many different types of supporting outbound links.

And after I have a few posts on a single web 2.0, I also like to interlink. This gives the 2.0 even more credibility

because it’s linking just like a normal site would. Don’t worry about securing every last bit of “link juice”.

Worry more about quality and relevancy for your web 2.0 links.

It will pay off in the long run.

At this point, your post should be completely ready to publish, but STOP right there! We need to talk about filler

content before you publish that post.


Thought you could just post your article and be good to go? Well… you actually can, but this is definitely not

recommended. You want these links to be permanent and you should never have to worry about them being


If you’re posting single-page web 2.0s, then your chances of losing that backlink are much higher.

And most importantly, Google will give much more weight to a link that is acquired from a site that is filled with

useful content and has more indexed pages. This is when filler content comes in.

Filler content will give your web 2.0s the appearance of an active site.

For filler content you can use scraped articles, related video posts, images, and even random posts about your life.

5-10 posts per web 2.0 is stellar, but even 2-3 posts can do the job.

Make sure you read The Art of the Super Web 2.0 to learn how to create super authoritative web 2.0s.



some web 2 0s allow you to schedule posts

Some web 2.0s allow you to schedule posts and others don’t. I recommend scheduling your posts in daily

intervals. Do not post all your web 2.0s in one day. Always keep your posting frequency random to make sure

things are staying natural.

I recommend posting filler content as your first post on any web 2.0, and then follow it up with your actual article.

Sometimes don’t post your main article until the web 2.0 is 4-5 posts deep. Or post it first. Be unpredictable.

Finals Thoughts on Manual Web 2.0 Creation

Wow… that was way longer than I expected, but I wanted to make sure I covered ALL aspects of this very

important link building technique. Using web 2.0s is one of many link building strategies I use to achieve awesome

SEO results.

Using 2.0s alone will not help you achieve #1 rankings, but they are an important part of your campaign to

diversify your link and anchor profile, and send some serious trust and relevancy to your site.


class 30

Class 30:

Search Engine Optimization

What does Q&A mean?

This could be the only web page dedicated to explaining the meaning of Q&A (Q&A acronym/abbreviation/slang


Ever wondered what Q&A means? Or any of the other 9116 slang words, abbreviations and acronyms listed here

at Internet Slang? Your resource for web acronyms, web abbreviations and netspeak.

How to Submit a Question to Answers

Looking to write questions to add to Answers, the wiki-site of Although it looks hard, and although

the site seems to find applicable links (and routes it there instead), the process is easy. Use this article as a guide,

to help you submit that proper question to Answers.

Visit and sign into the Answers website in your web browser so you are able to save your

questions to your account, so you can go back to them later, for faster access..


type your question in the blue

Type your question in the blue box at the top of the screen.Start your question with either 'why', 'where',

'would', 'should', 'is', 'are', 'how' or any of the major question words.

Click the "Go" button to begin to ask the question.


make sure there are no other questions that also

Make sure there are no other questions that ALSO answer your question. If there are other exact

questions, click the question.


scroll down a little bit until

Scroll down a little bit until you see the box that contains your previously-asked question that hasn't been

submitted just yet.

Check for spelling and grammar errors, along with capitalization errors from your questions and click the

"Submit Question" button.

Categorize your question. It won't let you go and save it without a category.


click the new submit question button

Click the new "Submit Question" button.

Wait a little while for your question to be answered. Some questions take longer to answer than others,

and you may be waiting months or even years to see them before they are answered, but much like any

wiki, if you find the answer, be sure to share the answer on the question page.


how to post on classified site

How to Post on Classified Site:

1. Find a Classified Site Via

2.Open a Site

3.Click Sign Up/Register/Create an Account

4.Login WIth Email and Password

5.Click Add

6.Add Details of Information

7.Click SUbmit


class 31

Class 31:

Search Engine Marketing

What is Search Engine Marketing:

Search engine marketing (SEM) is a form of Internet marketing that involves the promotion of websites by

increasing their visibility in search engine results pages (SERPs) primarily through paid advertising.

What is googleadwords and PPC:

AdWords (Google AdWords) is an advertising service by Google for businesses wanting to display ads on Google

and its advertising network. The AdWords program enables businesses to set a budget for advertising and only

pay when people click the ads. The ad service is largely focused on keywords.

How its Work:

What is Google AdWords

What is AdWords? Google AdWords is Google's advertising system in which advertisers bid on certain keywords in

order for their clickable ads to appear in Google's search results. Since advertisers have to pay for these clicks, this

is how Google makes money from search. This infographic will help you understand how AdWords works, detailing

the AdWords auction, bidding process and explaining important factors like Quality Score and cost-per-click. If

you're asking "How does AdWords Work?" this infographic is for you!

Does AdWords Work?

Does Google AdWords work? Depending on the competitiveness of the keywords you're bidding for and the

relevancy of that keyword to real conversions for your company, AdWords may or may not work for your

business. For the most part, we've found that Google AdWords is extremely effective for many kinds of

businesses, as long as they don't waste their money on the wrong keywords, or write weak, low CTR ads.

How much does Google AdWords cost?

Many factors can affect the costs of AdWords for your business. Learn all about these costs, how bidding works,

and the average cost per click for advertisers in our guide to "How Much Does AdWords Cost?"

How to advertise with Google AdWords

Businesses can advertise on Google by opening a Google AdWords account.

How many times does a Google auction run?

The auction gets run billions of times each month. The results are such that users find ads that are relevant to

what they're looking for, advertisers connect with potential customers at the lowest possible prices and Google

rakes in billions of dollars in revenue.

How does the Google auction work?


once a query is made on google the search engine

Once a query is made on Google, the search engine processes the request and runs the auction which will then

determine the ad positions and each advertiser's CPC.

How do you enter a Google auction?

Your ads are eligible to be entered into an auction whenever you're bidding on keywords relevant to the user's

search query. Your bids, Quality Score, and relevance will come into play in determining whether your ad qualifies

to display on the SERP.

What gets entered into a Google auction?

Once advertisers identity keywords they want to bid on, Google then enters the keyword from your account that it

deems most relevant into the auction with the maximum bid you've specified as well as the associated ad.

What is CPC?

CPC, or cost per click, is the amount an advertiser pays each time someone clicks on their AdWords ad.

How does CPC work?

Your CPC is determined by the competitiveness of your keywords, your maximum bids, and your Quality Scores.

Learn the most expensive keywords in Google AdWords.

What is average cost per click?

The average amount you spend each time a searcher click on your advertisement.

What is Google Quality Score?

This is a metric Google uses to determine how relevant and useful your ad is to the user, based primarily on your

ad's CTR, keyword relevance, and the quality of your landing page. The higher your Quality Score, the better: high

Quality Score keywords will save you money and earn you better ad rankings.

How does Google determine what you pay?

The price paid by the advertiser is determined by the amount of clicks that the company's advertisement receives.

What is Google ad rank?

Google ad rank is the position of the company's advertisement on the search engine page based on a combination

of the company's maximum bid and quality score.

Ad rank vs. Quality score

The ad rank is more significant to an advertiser because it determines the how high on the page the

advertisement will be displayed. Quality score on the other hand is determined by the relevance and usefulness to

the searcher and is only a portion of the advertisement positioning process.As of 2013, Google's Quality score has

become more and more valuable as the average quality score has changed from a 7 to 5.


quality score vs cpc

Quality score vs. CPC

Quality score and CPC are important because they collective determine the positioning of the advertisement on

the search engine results page.

What is ad position in AdWords?

Ad position is the position on the search engine page results where the advertisement appears in relation to all of

the other advertisements.

What is Actual CPC?

Actual CPC is the amount an advertiser pays each time a searcher clicks on their advertisement; this number varies

depending on the other advertisers in the auction and is always lower than the maximum bidding price.

How does AdWords calculate Actual CPC

Actual CPC is determined by dividing the ad rank of the competitor below them (ad rank to hit) by quality score

plus $.01.

What are alternative bidding methods?

Alternative bidding methods include CPM and CPA.

What is CPM bidding?

CPM bidding is based on impressions and can be used alongside CPC bidding.


CPC is the cost for an advertisement based on how many clicks it receives whereas CPM is the cost for an

advertisement based on how many impressions it picks up. Both methods can be used simultaneously.

What are AdWords keywords?

Keywords in AdWords are the words and phrases that advertisers bid on, in hopes that their advertisements will

appear on the search engine results page (SERP) when people are searching for those products or services. For

example, if you sell shoes online, you might bid on keywords like "Nike sneakers" and "penny loafers." Keyword

research is the process of using tools and data to determine which keywords are most likely to drive relevant

traffic to your ads and your site.

What is search engine optimization?

Search engine optimization is the act of improving the visibility of your site or page within a search engine results

page through organic methods. This can be done by using search keywords within your content so that a search

engine can find and display your site faster and with more accuracy. Site authority and your link profile also play a

role in your search engine rankings.

How does the Google display network work?

The Google Display Network or GDN is a very large network of sites that allow Google to place display

advertisements, which reach over 90% of all Internet users! Advertisers generally find that Display Network clicks


are less costly than those on the search network

are less costly than those on the search network. And depending on your targeting methods, the CTR's can be high

and the CPA's low.

What is an ad group in Google AdWords? How do ad groups work?

An ad group is a container for your AdWords advertisements, keywords, and landing pages. Google tends to

reward advertisers who create AdWords campaigns with tightly structured ad groups. It's important not to dump

all your keywords into the same ad group, but to organize your keywords into themes.

What is ad relevance in AdWords?

Ad relevance is a measure of how related the keyword you're bidding on is to your advertisements as well as how

much your keywords match the message of your ads and landing pages. Higher ad and keyword relevance can

improve your click-through rates and Quality Scores.

How does Conversion Optimizer work?

Conversion Optimizer in Google AdWords is a bid manipulation tool that manages bids at the keyword-level with

the goal of trying to drive as many conversions at or below an advertiser-specified cost per conversion (also

known as Cost per Action, or CPA).


class 32

Class 32:

Social Media Marketing

What is Social Media Marketing

Social Media Marketing is the process of gaining website traffic or attention through social media sites. Social

media marketing programs usually center on efforts to create content that attracts attention and encourages

readers to share it across their social networks.

Details of Social Media Marketing:

So now you need to create a social media marketing plan. No easy task, right? Many of us struggle to iron out

exactly what that is, let alone how to build one from scratch.

Put simply, every action you take on social networks should be a part of a larger social media marketing strategy.

That means every Tweet, reply, like and comment should all be guided by a plan and driving towards pre-

determined goals. It might sound complicated, but if you take the time to create a comprehensive social media

plan, the rest of your social efforts should follow naturally. Everyone can do this if they approach it correctly.

Learn what a social media marketing plan should include, and follow our 6-step plan for creating your own:

What is a social media marketing plan?

A social media marketing plan is the summary of everything you plan to do and hope to achieve for your business

using social networks. This plan should comprise an audit of where your accounts are today, goals for where you

want them to be in the near future, and all the tools you want to use to get there.

In general, the more specific you can get with your plan, the more effective you’ll be in its implementation. Try

and keep it concise and don’t make your social media marketing strategy so lofty and broad that it’s unattainable.

This plan will guide your actions, but it will also be a measure by which you determine whether you’re succeeding

or failing at social media. You don’t want to set yourself up for failure from the outset.

Step 1: Create social media objectives and goals

The first step to any social media marketing strategy is to establish objectives and goals that you hope to achieve.

Having these objectives also allows you to quickly react when social media campaigns are not meeting your

expectations. Without these goals, you have no means of gauging your success and no means of proving your

return on investment.

These goals should be aligned with your broader marketing strategy, so that your social media efforts all drive

towards business objectives. If your social media marketing strategy is shown to drive business goals forward,

you’re more likely to get executive buy-in and investment. They should also go beyond vanity metrics like

retweets or Likes, in favour of more advanced metrics like leads generated, sentiment or website traffic referred.

Strive to approach these goals using the SMART approach, meaning they should all be specific, measurable,

attainable, relevant and time-bound.

A simple way to start your social media marketing plan is by writing down at least three social media goals. Make

sure to ask yourself what the goal will look like when completed, and use that to determine how you will track it.


for example for instagram we will share photos

For example:

For Instagram we will share photos that communicate our company culture. We will do this by posting 3 photos a

week that will achieve 30 likes plus 10 comments each.

Step 2: Conduct a social media audit

Prior to creating your social media marketing plan, you need to assess your current social media use and how it is

working for you. This requires figuring out who is currently connecting to you via social media, which social media

sites your target market uses and how your social media presence compares to your competitors’.

We’ve created a social media audit template that you can follow for each step of the process:


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Social Media Marketing

Facebook Marketing:

1. Set up your Page

Create the hub for your business on Facebook

Your Facebook Page makes your business:

●Discoverable: When people search for you on Facebook, they'll be able to find you.

●Connected: Have one-to-one conversations with your customers, who can like your Page, read your posts

and share them with friends, and check in when they visit.

●Timely: Your Page can help you to reach large groups of people frequently, with messages tailored to

their needs and interests.

●Insightful: Analytics on your Page will give you a deeper understanding of your customers and your

marketing activities.

When you set up your Page, you can request a web address such as "", which

makes it easy to find. To maximise the impact, include this address on your business card, website and other

marketing materials.

Remember: Your Page is an extension of your business. It's an easy way to share updates and more with the

people who matter most. It's ready to help you engage your customers on desktop and on mobile.


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Social Media Marketing

Facebook Page Structure:

How do I create a Global Pages structure?

This feature is gradually rolling out and may not be available to you right now.

First, you must create a Page that you'll want to add and manage as a Global Page.

If you currently have a single Page, you must manually create new Pages for the local markets you want to target,

as it makes sense for your business. We recommend creating 1-2 market Pages to get familiarized with Global

Pages, before transitioning all markets to the new structure.

To get started, go to and contact the Facebook team, to allow

you to start creating Global Pages.

After you've worked with our Facebook team, follow these steps to create Global Pages:

1.Go to your Page

2.Go to Settings

3.Click the Global Pages tab

4.Add a Page


Set targeting preferences, including which countries and languages you want mapped to that Page.

6.Click Save Changes

Keep in mind that an admin of a market Page can edit targeting settings for Global Pages at any time. Also, admins

of the root Page can edit the targeting settings for all Pages in the structure at any time.

If a brand creates new country Pages, content cannot be moved over from any existing Pages.

Learn how to assign roles and view insights for your Global Pages.


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Social Media Marketing

What is Twitter Marketing:

Twitter is a tool for "micro-blogging" or posting very short updates, comments or thoughts. In fact, since Twitter

was designed to be very compatible with mobile phones through text messages, each update is limited to 140

characters. Truly, a micro-blog. Another way to think of Twitter is like a cross between instant messaging (IM) and

a chat room, because it is an open forum, but you restrict it to the people with which you connect.

Twitter Marketing:

1. Optimize your Twitter bio. "Make sure your company identity and voice are branded well," says Jon Ferrera,

CEO, Nimble, a provider of social CRM. That means having a bio that tells people who you are and includes a link

to your company website or a landing page -- and having "a consistent tone so that people clearly understand who

you are and what you do."

2. Find out who the influencers and experts are in your target area(s) and interact with them on a regular basis.

"Use Twitter search or a tool like Topsy [or Followerwonk] to find like-minded prospects, customers and

influencers/media by searching keywords that relate to your industry," says Stacey Miller, social media manager at

cloud marketing provider Vocus. Then follow and interact with them on a regular (daily) basis.

"Make a list of the 100 most influential people in your space -- journalists, thought leaders, potential

clients/customers, big-name bloggers and writers, potential partners, etc.," says Shanelle Mullin, the director of

Marketing at Onboardly, a provider of PR and content marketing for startups.

"Add them to a private Twitter list and engage with them daily. (Tools like HootSuite make managing this process

much easier.)" And remember to "be casual [and helpful], not promotional," Mullin says. "Build a real relationship

and then look for opportunities to collaborate."

3. Get colleagues involved. "The first people to help build your brand should come internally," says Amanda

Cohen, marketing coordinator, Homescout Realty. "Make sure your coworkers are following you on Twitter and

tweeting, retweeting, engaging, etc."

4. Tweet regularly. "Regular tweeting is a sign of an active, healthy profile," says Sandra Fathi, founder &

president, Affect, a public relations and social media firm. "If you only tweet once a week, or once a month, you

aren't keeping up with the Joneses [or the Twitter equivalent]. Worse, folks will forget about you," she says.

"I recommend daily postings and engagement so that you are top of mind on a consistent basis," Fathi says. Just

be sure you are tweeting relevant or useful information, content your followers will read, click on, retweet and/or


5. Don't be afraid to ask for some Twitter love. Ask followers to retweet, mention or favorite your tweets -- or to

share content with a fresh tweet.


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Social Media Marketing

Method 1Creating a Twitter Account

1.Go to

2.Click "Sign up for Twitter." ...

3.Provide basic information about yourself. ...

4.Choose your username. ...

5.Decide whether you always want to be signed in to Twitter on the computer you're using. ...

6.Click "Create my account."


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Social Media Marketing

What is Pinterest Marketing and Details:

Pinterest is no longer the underdog after coming in third behind Facebook and Twitter in Experian Hitwise ranking

of top ten social networks. With more than 100 million visits for the month of May, Pinterest has become the talk

of the blogosphere and for good reasons. The site is less than 3 years old, having just dropped anchor in the Web

in late 2009. Today, the site is visited daily by more than 1 million visitors who can’t stop pinning their favourite

photos and images that depict style, recipes, craft, children, pets, recipes etc.

(Image source: marketoonist)

Pinterest is useful not only for personal usage, but also quite effective in business promotion. This visual-based

social network drives a lot of referral traffic and is of a great value for marketers. Its members number in the

millions despite being an invite only website (although getting in is not very hard) and the amount of unique

visitors is increasing every day. So how do we tap into the potential market that is hiding inside Pinterest?


7 Useful Pinterest Tools You Should Know


how pinterest works

How Pinterest Works

Let’s look at the inner scheme of Pinterest. It’s a huge virtual pinboard that allows people to look through

interesting stuff, pin them and andleave comments below what was pinned. But we have to look deeper to see

the real significance of this technology. What is Pinterest famous for? The great selling point of Pinterest that wins

people over are its cool and captivating pictures.

We are visual creatures and we love to look at beautiful pictures of people, nature, food, scenery, etc. On

Pinterest, we pin what we like to see, and other people pin what they like to see. The trick here is to let your

visuals get pinned as often as possible.

Every pin is a link to the source of the image, usually an external site – in this case, a link to your site. So every

repin of the image can lead readers in a straight road back to your site. Talk about a crowd puller. Users who are

searching for data may click on a nice-looking image, arrive at your website and may be converted from a simple

passerby to the future customer and hopefully loyal fan.

Moreover, if your pins are eye-catching and worthwhile, they may be repined by other pinners or even be

embedded on your fans’ sites or blogs.

Making Pinterest Work for you

To gain confidence and loyalty you should neatly build your following on Pinterest. First of all, you have to create a

good-looking account. It doesn’t matter if you activate the profile with your own name or with your company

brand. But remember, people are more inclined to believe and follow individuals, not so much for companies,

unless they are very popular and well-known brands.


you can tie your profile to the email which

You can tie your profile to the email which is used for your Twitter account, so you can quickly share pins in both

social networks. To increase visibility, on your Profile picture, check ‘Hide your Pinterest profile from search

engines’ and be sure that it’s ‘Off’.

This will allow your page to be indexed in a search. Don’t forget to add the Pinterest social media button to your

website, blog or portfolio and your Pinterest signature to your email These two tiny, but significant gestures will

help you in promotion and to build your fan base.

How to Get Pinned

In preparing your images to be pinned, check out its quality and overall design. Always remember that Pinterest

doesn’t sell your products or services, you sell them using Pinterest via their technology and their social platform.

The real value ofPinterest is in its pictures and shots. Hence, the appearance of the images that can link back to

you has to be pleasant to the eye and, where possible, remarkable.

However, don’t expect that it’s easy to do, that is don’t think that you will win over the fans only by showcasing

photos and adding new images of your products and brand. To receive lots of repins and shares you have to follow

these simple but effective tips.

1. Creating unique boards

Create boards, organize them in a unique way so they stand out in a crowd of common names such as "cool stuff"

or "things I like". If the name of your board is unique, people will be curious to know what is hidden behind that

crazy, unusual or unexpected board names. Don’t just brand your digital boards. Pinterest fans will follow your

boards more often if they feature original content.

Establish a separate board with images that make your followers smile and laugh or some other kind of shots that

raises their mood at once and make them return to your pins.


2 quality images

2. Quality Images

Pinterest is a picture-based website, so the quality of your images is a must!Use only extremely high quality shots,

their size should be about 600 or 800 pixels wide and 1000 pixels deep. The quality of the photos, images or

artworks is part of your marketing strategy so take your time to choose them well.

It will be worth your effort in the end. Always keep an eye on the size of the images: if the size is too small, pinners

can’t share it, but if users can easily find the same image in another blog or website at the right size or resolution,

they’ll pin that one, and you will lose out on the traffic generated from that pin.

3. Make Your Images Share-able

Don’t watermark your images. That makes it exclusive, a property of an organization, and as a result, people won’t

pin your images. It’s better to not also put any marketing pitches in there, like the price of your services or

products on pictures or your company logo. This may backfire, making your images unpinnable. On Pinterest, you

let your product sell itself by its appearance. Keep everything else that reeks of corporate marketing out of the


Pinterest is not a promotional website where you share your advertising, it’s a place where everyone is connected

through the things and stuff viewers find interesting. At most, you can mark your image with a price tag and pin it

under Gifts which is a category that caters to this kind of images marketing.


4 vamp your qr code

4. Vamp your QR Code

The Pinterest community loves cool images so if you can make a cool QR code that is worthy of being pinned

around, the Pinners will spread the image carrying details to link back to your organization or to you. Make it

beautiful with stylish designs so readers can take it for an artwork and repin it over and over again.


5 detailed descriptions

5. Detailed Descriptions

If you want your images to be noticed, it would help to write detailed descriptions. With the right keywords

people will find your images more quickly and you’ll have more chances to be noticed, ensuring more traffic to

your website.

6. Reward your pinners

If your budget permits, give a prize to the pinner who gets more shares, likes and tweets of your discount. In such

attractive way you’ll make people like your brand and to get to know you better.

7. Interact with your Pinterest friends

One original pin can bring you traffic for several weeks or more, compared to a tweet that on average works its

charms for only one day. When you just start pinning, don’t begin your Pinterest existence with commercial

messages, get involved with emotional, fun and eye-catching pins.

By repinning viral stuff you’ll draw the attention and people will start following and liking you. The best tactic is to

reciprocate and follow them back, repin their artworks, but add your personal message to the repinned image.


The whole Pinterest Universe is based on the content that people share. Despite the millions of images being

pinned now, it’s not difficult to get your photos noticed and repinned. Just showcase things that might be

interesting and the network’s simple system and user-friendly interface will help drive traffic and to your page.

Remember, people on Pinterest like looking for creative things and enjoy the process of finding and discovering

new images.

Let’s take advantage of all this and make Pinterest work for your business. Happy Pinning!


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Social Media Marketing

How to Create Pinteres Board:

To add a new board from your profile:

1.Click your name at the top of Pinterest.

2.Click the Create a board box at the top of your list of boards.

3.Choose a name and category for your board - you can also choose to make the board secret or

invite others to join the board.

4.Click Create Board when finished to create the board.


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Class 39 :

Social Media Marketing

Google Plus Marketing:

With over 150 million active users, and 50% of all users logging into Google Plus daily, Google Plus is a social

network you can’t ignore. Sure, it isn’t as popular as Facebook or Twitter, but it can help impact your search

engine rankings in a positive way.

A few simple ways you can leverage Google Plus are:

1.Authorship – this is a great way to get your picture next to your listings in the search results.

2.Relationship marketing – with Google hangouts, you can connect to and get to know your fans.

3.Driving traffic – by building up your Google Plus profile, you can share content and news about your

business. This is a simple way to drive more traffic to your business.

These are just the basics of how you can use Google Plus to your advantage. To expand on the idea, I’ve decided

to create an infographic that lays out the steps you need to take to use Google’s social network for your marketing



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Class 40 :

Social Media Marketing

Youtube Marketing

How to Setup Your YouTube One Channel

YouTube is evolving from a “video-based site to a channels-based site where subscriptions rule.” With the new

One Channel layout, your branding will work across all screens, you can turn non-subscribers into loyal fans, and

you can show off more of your video content.

While I won’t cover all of the ways you can optimize your YouTube One Channel, I’ll cover a few of the important


Create Channel Icon and Art

Think of your channel icon as your profile picture.

You can either upload an image or choose a still image from one of your videos.

If you upload an image (recommended), upload an 800px by 800px image.

For your channel art, YouTube recommends that you upload a single 2560px by 1440px image. This provides the

best results on all kinds of screens and devices, including desktops, laptops, phones, tablets, televisions, or any

other place with pixels.


upload a trailer

Upload a Trailer

You now can feature a trailer that displays only when non-subscribers visit your channel. This video is your chance

to show off your channel and encourage viewers to subscribe.

YouTube lets you select a trailer from one of your uploaded videos, or you can enter a YouTube URL.

The Annoying Orange channel provides a great example of an optimized One Channel trailer. They optimized their

trailer description with relevant links to purchase merchandise, download mobile games, and follow them on



add custom and social links

Add Custom and Social Links

YouTube gives you the option to overlay one custom link and up to 4 social links on top of your channel art.

For the social media links, you must select from YouTube’s drop-down menu of social networks. You cannot enter

in your own links, but there is a wide range of social media sites to choose from, including Google+, Twitter,

Facebook, Myspace, Tumblr, Blogger, etc.

How to Produce Effective YouTube Videos

Gone are the days when YouTube was exclusively a place for one-hit, user-generated viral videos. If you’re serious

about building a successful marketing campaign on YouTube, you have to consider your channel’s long-term plan.

Are you there to educate or entertain? Are you looking to increase subscribers or attract new visitors to your


YouTube recently changed its algorithm. Now it gives videos and channels that retain viewers throughout an

entire video more visibility in its search resultsand discovery (suggested videos at the end of each video and

related videos on the right sidebar).

Don’t be discouraged if you have never produced a video. You don’t need an Oscar to maximize watch-time on

your videos. All you need are simple video production techniques that include effective editing, quality

production, and an engaging video structure.


put compelling content first

Put Compelling Content First

Studies have shown that viewers decide during the first 15 seconds of a video whether they are going to keep

watching or not. And, in this modern world, we are accustomed to a constant flow of information. So, you should

aim to build trust or curiosity within the first 15 seconds of your video.

Here are a few ways you can quickly engage viewers:

●Gain the trust of the viewer with a quick, animated introduction.

●Spark the viewer’s curiosity, or tease the rest of the video, with hosts/personalities.

●Start with a quick clip that previews what’s to come.

Having an animated introduction is a simple and effective way to build the trust of a viewer. It shows them

instantly that a quality production is about to follow.

You can find some great templates over at VideoHive or get a custom one throughSmartShoot.

This is especially important if you’re doing a talking head / webcam video. Having a professional introduction

captivates your audience and adds production value to an otherwise static video.

If you are creating a “how-to” type video, think about showing the final result firstand then going into the

instructional steps.

Inspiring the viewer from the beginning will keep them engaged throughout your video.


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Class 41 :

Outsourcing Marketplace

Skill Relevant Job in Marketplace:

1.Date Entry

Data entry is the act of entering information into electronic formats by using word processing or data processing

software hosted on a computer and it's data entry operators who perform these tasks. In truth, though "data

entry" sounds technical, you can get many of these jobs with no previous experience.


Internet research is the practice of using Internet information, especially free information on the World

Wide Web, in research. It is: focused and purposeful (so not recreational browsing), uses Internet

information or Internet-based resources (like Internet discussion forum)



SEO stands for “search engine optimization.” It is the process of getting traffic from the “free,” “organic,”

“editorial” or “natural” search results on search engines. All major search engines such as Google, Bing

and Yahoo have primary search results, where web pages and other content such as videos or local

listings are shown and ranked based on what the search engine considers most relevant to users.

Payment isn’t involved, as it is with paid search ads



4.E Commerece Site Product Upload and Analysis

5.Search Engine Marketing

Search engine marketing (SEM) is a form of Internet marketing that involves the promotion of websites by

increasing their visibility in search engine results pages (SERPs) through optimization and advertising.

6.Social Media Marketing

Social Marketing seeks to develop and integrate marketing concepts with other approaches to influence

behaviours that benefit individuals and communities for the greater social good.Social Marketing practice is

guided by ethical principles. It seeks to integrate research, best practice, theory, audience and partnership insight,

to inform the delivery of competition sensitive and segmented social change programmes that are effective,

efficient, equitable and sustainable.


class 42

Class 42 :

Outsourcing Marketplace

Contest Related Outsourcing Re-Sale Market Outsourcing:

We study ex post outsourcing of production in an imperfectly discriminating contest, interpreted here as a

research tournament or a procurement contest for being awarded some production contract. We find that the

possibility of outsourcing increases competition between the contestants, leading to higher total contest effort, if

the contest winner is expected to obtain a sufficiently large share of ex post outsourcing rents. Under reasonable

assumptions, outsourcing tends also to increase the number of active contestants, strengthening the case for

outsourcing to increase total contest effort. If such effort is socially wasteful, outsourcing creates a welfare trade-

off between ex ante and ex post efficiency.

Resale Marketplaces:

Ticket resale (also known as ticket scalping or ticket touting) is the act of reselling tickets for admission to events.

Tickets are bought from licensed sellers and are then sold for a price determined by the individual or company in

possession of the tickets.

Bidding Marketplaces Introduction:


Your photo makes the first impression, so it should say that you’re a professional. Unlike a photo you might select

for a social networking site, your Upwork profile picture should be a headshot of you dressed professionally. Make

sure your photo is in focus and high resolution and has a plain background. You don’t need a professional

photographer or fancy camera to take a great photo.

Here’s an example of a portrait taken with a computer webcam:

Check out our how-to guide for more tips.


Clients value freelancers with direct and relevant experience, so your title should reflect your experience and the

type of work you do. Titles give a prospective client a high-level summary of your expertise. Keep it short and

impactful—we recommend less than 10 words. Trying to fit as many keywords as possible won’t make a good

impression. If you have multiple professional areas, place your primary skill first in your title and try not to include

more than two.

It’s important to separate customer service experience from virtual assistant experience. Start by thinking about

what you’ve done and what you’re passionate about doing. Ask yourself:

1.Are you interested in solving problems, answering questions, and delighting customers?

2.Are you interested in working primarily with one client and handling day-to-day administrative duties and

industry-specific duties, such as managing projects, doing graphic design work, handling social media,



if you answered yes to question 1 you should

If you answered “Yes” to question #1, you should create a customer service title by answering the following


What type of service(s) do you have experience and interest in?

●Help Desk/Ticket Support

●Live Chat Support

●Email Support

●Inbound Phone Support

●Outbound Phone Support

●Social Customer Support

●Front Office

●Back Office


Many customer service professionals cover multiple channels, so be sure to include them in your title and


Good examples:

●Live Chat and Phone Support Representative

●Zendesk Customer Service Specialist

●Customer Service Supervisor

●Ticket, Chat, Phone, Social Support Agent

Bad examples:

●Too many positions: Customer Support, Virtual Assistant, Transcriptionist, Data Entry

●Too vague: Customer Service


Your overview is your pitch to potential clients. It should clearly state your professional experience, specific skills,

and the work you’re most passionate about.

Answer these questions for clients:

●What type of customer service do you offer? What is your experience level (e.g., handling basic issues,

solving complex issues, managing a team of agents, etc.)?

●How many years of experience do you have in those areas?

●Have you worked with specific platforms or software (e.g., Zendesk, LiveOps)?

●What languages are you proficient in (including written and oral proficiency)?

●What communication channel do you have experience in—email, live chat, help desk/tickets, phone

(outbound or inbound)?

●Do you have industry-specific knowledge (e.g., hospitality, sales, technical product support, etc.)?

Don’t opt for a laundry list of skills—save that for the Skills section.


here s a great example to help inspire your

Here’s a great example to help inspire your Overview.

Tip: Make sure clients can find you! Categorize your profile accurately into Customer Service or Technical Support.

This will also ensure your job feed is showing relevant jobs that match your skills.


Did you know there are many customer service and support skills you can choose from? Just make sure you select

the skills you truly excel at—adding too many can actually work against you. The best way to maximize the Skills

section is to add new skills as you develop them or take on new responsibilities and remove old skills as they

become outdated. Place your strongest and most relevant skills in front. Not sure what skills are available? View

the complete Upwork Skills Directory here.

Tip: Take our skill-based tests to further validate your expertise (view all tests):

●Customer Service Test

●Telephone Etiquette Certification

●Email Etiquette Certification

●English Spelling Test (U.S. Version)

●English Vocabulary Test (U.S. Version)

●Call Center Skills Test

●U.S. Word Usage Test

●U.S. English Punctuation and Mechanics Test


An introduction video differentiates your profile from others by giving clients a compelling look at who you are,

what you offer, and how your language skills are.

To help you get started, here’s a template tailored for customer service:

Introduction (5-10 seconds)

Hi! My name is [your name] and I have [x years] experience in the call center industry working for [list prominent

company names] as [positions/titles].

Objective (10-20 seconds)

I’m seeking customer service positions doing *describe ideal role+.My ideal position is…

Career Highlights (10-20 seconds)

Most recently I have worked as a *position/title+ for *company/type of client+. I’m responsible for *main functions+.

I handled [describe your role: tickets/inbound calls/outbound calls, emails, escalations].


conclusion 5 10 seconds

Conclusion (5-10 seconds)

[Thank the viewer for their interest, express your desire to work with them in the future, and invite them to look

at your profile.]

Here is an example video created by one of our top customer service pros to get you inspired.

Read about tips on how to set up your video, including lighting, framing your video, and uploading it to



Use this section to highlight projects you’ve worked on both during your experience on Upwork, as well as before

you joined. If you’re new to the freelance space, add information about your previous work history, including any

call center or outsourcing experience. If you’re not new to Upwork, feel free to list any significant long-term

positions or clients. This will help establish your credibility as a successful long-term freelancer and also showcase

your customer service experience on Upwork. Each position should include specific responsibilities such as

industry-specific experience and communication channels you were in charge of.


If you’re not a native English speaker, add your TOEFL or IELTS certifications to your profile. It will not only make

you more appealing to clients but also enable us to better match you to jobs. See how to add certifications to your

Upwork account.

Tip: In addition to adding your certifications, you can also link your Upwork profile with your LinkedIn account to

display more of your work experience.


Having a hard time coming up with content for your profile? Work with an expert! Kimberly Sarmiento has been

helping people build and customize professional resumes and cover letters since 2009.

Update your profile now and increase your chances of getting higher paying jobs—and getting showcased as top

talent on Upwork. It’s critical that the spelling and grammar is flawless. Common mistakes include misspelled job

titles, poor grammar, awkward capitalizations of letters, and inappropriate symbols (e.g., #, ~, *, ◯, ⅌, ♢, etc.).

Make sure you’re putting your best foot forward!


class 43

Class 43:

Outsourcing Marketplace


On Elance, skills play an important role in differentiating yourself by demonstrating your actual skills and

expertise to prospective clients. Based on your membership plan, you can enter up to a particular number of

skills to your Elance profile. They are an excellent way to showcase your standing in a particular area,

whether it be HTML5, English to Dutch translation, Microsoft Excel 2007, or any of the you may have in your


Skills can either be self-rated, meaning you can evaluate yourself, or tested with one of our over 300 Skill

Tests, which show how a candidate scored relative to all the other individuals who took the same test. Once

you’ve completed the Skill Test of your choice, you can see your percentile and rank among everyone

whohas taken that particular test, and if you score well as a top performer, that’s another part of your profile that

stands out as a highlight and as a key differentiator. Lastly, if you’ve posted a high score, you can share your

results on your favorite social media outlet or email. Remember, over 76 percent of clients are more likely to hire

a contractor with tested skills that are relevant to their job.


class 44

Class 44 :

Outsourcing Marketplace

Creating Marketplaces Profile:

If you're a client now, but would like to do work as a freelancer:

1.Click the Accounts menu, choose Settings, and then click My Info.

2.Click the Create a New Account link at the bottom.

3.Select New Freelancer Account.

4.Once set up, use the Accounts menu to switch between using Upwork as a client or freelancer.


creating marketplaces profile add skill

Creating Marketplaces Profile:

Add Skill

Add Skills to Your Freelancer Profile

Having a complete profile with your work history and list of skills can help a potential client learn whether you are

the right person for their project.Toadd skills to your profile:

1.Go to the Find Work tab, and click the Edit Your Profile link.

2.Scroll down to the Skills section and click the Edit button (pencil icon).

3.Start typing the name of a skill, then select the best match from the list provided. If you want to enter

more skills, repeat this step for each.

4.You can rank or order your skills by moving the tags in the editor window. This order is how they will

appear in your profile.

5.Click the Save button.

When adding your skills be sure you're using the correct spelling and naming the skill in English. If you are having

trouble finding your skill among the options, try some synonyms. For example, "fax" instead of "facsimile." Or be a

little less specific. For example, try "technical documentation" instead of "electronics manual creation." Please

note we have purposefully excluded skills that you can't directly sell in our marketplace, such as "dog groomer" or


Add Overview

Add Your Profile Overview

Your overview sets the tone for your profile by showing off your personality and giving clients a reason to read

more about your skills and experience. Keep it brief here — only the first 250 or so characters will appear in the

freelancer search results list. And remember, never include your contact information in your profile.To add an

overview to your profile:

1.Go the Find Work tab, and click the Edit Your Profile link.

2.Scroll down to the Overview section and click the Edit button (pencil icon).

3.Type or paste in the message what you want clients to see about you first.

1.Add Title

Create Your Profile Title

The title of your profile is your first impression to potential clients. It allows you to share your top skills and

area of expertise.

To edit your profile title:

1.Go the Find Work tab, and click the Edit Your Profile link.

2.Click the Edit button (pencil icon) next to your Name and Title.

3.Update your Title.

4.Click the Save button.

2.Add Portfolio

Profile Portfolios

Your portfolio is where you have the opportunity to impress potential clients with real-life examples of your skills

and expertise. Use it to show off projects related to any or all of your skills, so long as you personally have worked

on every item you add and adhere to all of Upwork’sTerms of Service.


portfolios aren t just for writing and artwork

Portfolios aren’t just for writing and artwork samples. You can describe and skill-tag projects you’ve done in any

category Upwork offers, from Admin Support to Web Development and everything in between.

To add a project to your portfolio:

1.Go to the Find Work tab, and click the Edit Your Profile link.

2.Scroll down to the Portfolio section and click the Add button.

3.Enter a Title, Description, Category, and optional Completion Date.

4.Enter a thumbnail image, URL, and/or attach project files so the client has something to see. Images can

be in .jpg, .jpeg, .gif, or .png format. Attachments can be in .doc, .swf, or .pdf format. The maximum size

is 5 mb.

5.Tag the project with relevant skills to help clients find your work more easily. When possible, link it to an

Upwork contract, too.

6.Click the Publish Project button.

Like the rest of your profile, posting contact info isn’t allowed in your portfolio. That means these files (and linked

sites) can’t include your email address, phone number, or chat ID.

Freelancers with effective portfolios tend to follow these best practices:

●Be selective. Show your best work rather than everything you have ever created.

●Highlight skills & technologies. This is particularly important for software/technical projects.

●Describe your role in the project. Which parts of the project were you responsible for? How long did it

take to complete the project?

●Keep your portfolio updated. As you complete new projects, remove examples that are outdated or


●Link items to past contracts whenever possible. These items will be displayed more prominently and help

build your credibility in the marketplace. We’ll automatically email the client when a portfolio item has

been linked, giving them three days to reject it before the item will be publicly linked to their history.


class 45

Class 45 :

Skills Tests

You can take hundreds of free skill tests on Upwork that cover a range of topics from Adobe applications to

English grammar to XML. You can take tests to demonstrate your skills to potential clients and make yourself more

marketable. Take as many tests as you want—for maximum impact, you may want to take tests corresponding

with the skills you want to present to potential clients and considering hiding those where you rank below


All your public tests are listed on your profile. Click any of the test names in the list to view the test results in more

detail, including how many freelancers have taken the test, where this score ranks, and a breakdown of the test

results by topic.

Taking Tests

Wondering which tests to take? Here are some ideas:

●Start with the skills you have listed on your profile. Take the corresponding tests so that your matching

skills can be badged as Tested to help you demonstrate your qualifications to potential clients.

●When you see a project that you’re interested in, take the skills tests that correspond to the requested

qualifications. This can help demonstrate to your potential client that you are the right freelancer for the

project and some clients may not consider your proposal if you do not score well on the applicable test.

After you take those tests, be sure your passing test score is public so clients can recognize you as


●Take tests featured on the profiles of freelancers in your field. Look at the project histories of potential

clients, or do a search for freelancers similar to you, to see the tests your competition has taken.

Although Upwork doesn’t provide study guides, you can review a general outline of the topics before you take

each test.

There’s no penalty for failing a skills test, you can take as many as you want, and you are free to retake the test

after 30 days. You’re welcome to retake tests periodically as your skills improve. You can also hide any tests with

scores you don’t like or that no longer match your business focus.


All tests are scored on a scale of 0.0 to 5.0, with 5.0 being highest. The passing level for most tests is 2.5 out of 5.0.

Here’s an example:

●A freelancer took a test and answered 36 questions correctly out of 40. On a 5.0 scale, 36/40 works out to

a 4.50.

Though we don't provide a comprehensive review of all your answers, you can view your results by topic to get a

better sense of your strengths and weaknesses.

Percentile Ranking

A test score listed as Above Average means it ranks in the 50th percentile or higher. Your percentile represents

the percentage of test-takers scoring lower than you. So if it shows as Below Average, that means that at least half

of the people who took the test scored better than you.


keep in mind that you could get a high score

Keep in mind that you could get a high score on a test and still have a Below Average ranking. For example, if you

got a score of 4.9, but most people scored a 5.0 on the test, your score will show as Below Average. Your rank may

also be badged as Top 30%, Top 20%, Top 10%, or 1st Place. Note that you’ll be sharing 1st place with all the other

high scorers. That means if 10 people took the test and 6 of them score 5.0, then all 6 would have 1st Place badges

and the other 4 would all be Below Average. Also, your percentile can change over time as more freelancers take

the test. If they score better than you, your rank will fall. If they scored lower than you, your rank will rise.


●If the Start Test button isn’t active, you probably took the test less than 30 days ago. There’s a waiting

period before you can retake tests.

●If an available test won't open, it may be because the service is undergoing maintenance, so try again

after an hour.

●Most of the skills tests work with standard browser settings. However, if you start a test and it tries to

jump back to the previous screen or isn’t working properly:

1.Go into your browser’s settings or options.

2.Make sure that you enable Pop-up windows, JavaScript, and Cookies.

3.If you’re still having trouble after you follow the above steps, your test may also require active

scripting and scripting in Java applets.

●If you lose your connection while taking a test, contact Customer Support and they can reset the test for


●If you encounter a problem with a particular test question, please report it by clicking the Report an Issue

with This Test Question link while you’re taking the test. You can also let us know after you finish the test

by contacting Customer Support. We use these reports to improve the tests.


To find and take a free skills test:

1.Click the Find Work tab, and then click Tests.

2.Click on one of the highlighted tests at the top or click View More Tests to browse the complete list, filter

them by category (click the All Categories drop-down), or search for a test by keyword.

3.Select a test and click its title. Review the information, then click the Start Test button.

4.Answer each question before you move on to the next. Counters at the top tell you the number of

questions and how much time you have left.

5.At the end of the test, you can view both your score and your results by topic. You can also choose to

leave feedback on the test. (Please do! We’ll read and use your feedback to improve the tests.)

To manage your tests:

1.Click the Find Work tab, and then click Tests to see your full list of Tests Completed.

2.Click the test title link to see the details for that test. This is the same page that potential clients would

see linked from your profile.

3.Show or hide the test using the Yes/No selector in the Display on Profile column. By default, all passed

tests are public. You can change the visibility at any time.


cover letter sample

Cover Letter Sample:

oDesk/Upwork Cover Letter for SEO (Search Engine Optimization)

Dear Hiring Manager/Hello

I’ve carefully gone through your job posting on “Job title here”. I ’m an expert Search Engine Optimizer with more

than 2 years experiences of both “On-Page” and “Off -Page” SEO. I am very much interested in your project with

all of your requirements.

Recently I have successfully completed a SEO project on “A project name” both on-page and Off- page SEO, Full

white hat Complying with Google Panda and Penguin Updates.

For more on my skill and successfully finished jobs, please have a look on my Profile, Portfolio, Work history and

Feedback. You can see my official site also “Your site link” (If you have not any site, please delete this line)

I am always available on Email and Skype. Please have a voice or video chat if necessary. I will be available more

than 60 hours per week and able to start your project as soon as possible according to you.

Thank you for your consideration

Best Regards

Your Name


class 46

Class 46:


How to apply for jobs on Upwork using this easy step by step video tutorial. Just play this video tutorial to create

an account and complete your full information with taking some skill test answer to get top level job quota and

clients preferences. As a freelance you should complete your upowrk or odesk profile fully otherwise may think

you are a low level contractor. This is why to create an account we must use Title, Skills, Overview, Portfolio,

Certifications, Tests, Employment History, Education, Other Experiences and Category. Let’s try to take some work

and complete them successfully with carefully to build up Work History and Feedback on your profile.

Add Education History:

Add Education to Your Freelancer Profile

The Education section lets you add any degrees or diplomas you have earned. If you studied a subject but didn’t

graduate, feel free to include that as well. To add your education:

1.Go to the Find Work tab, and click the Edit Your Profile link.

2.Scroll down to the Education section and click the Add button.

3.Enter a school, dates attended, degree, area of study, and description. When adding a degree, type the

first few letters (such as “B” or “Bach” for Bachelor of Science/B.S.) and then choose from the list of

matches. You must choose from the standardized list, but if you can’t find the option you need, select

Other and name the degree in your description.

4.Click the Save button or, if you want to enter more, click the Save and Add More button.

When adding your education, you can include a brief summary of your coursework at the educational institution.

Feel free to add any clubs, groups, or societies that were part of your experience and include any awards you

received, your grade point average, and/or class ranking (i.e., Magna Cum Laude).

Add Employment History:

Add Employment History to Your Freelancer Profile

You can use your work history to build on your portfolio to establish the credibility clients are looking for in a


To add your work history to your profile:

1.Go to the Find Work tab, and click the Edit Your Profile link.

2.Scroll down to the Employment History section and click the Add button.

3.Enter a company name, title, role, time period, and description.

4.Click the Save button or, if you want to enter more, click the Save and Add More button.

Feel free to include student jobs, internships and volunteer experience. You can also include clients and projects

from your freelance career outside Upwork. Your Upwork contracts will appear in your work history automatically.

Your employment history will always appear in chronological order, with the most recent at top. Generally, you

only need to list the history relating to the types of projects you seek on Upwork. If you have had an unusual

combination of jobs, consider adding some of them. It can make you stand out when a client needs experience in

a particular field.


class 47

Class 47:

Skill Test and How Pass With Technique:

If it's a multiple choice test in grammar or spelling, and you are fluent in the language with good writing skills, or

it's a test that simply expects you to understand basic concepts in a subject you already know, you can whiz

through it. It doesn't usually take me more than a few seconds to spot a grammatical error in an English sentence,

for example. A test that involves finding solutions to problems will take longer. Many of the tests just expect you

to know definitions; they're not really tests of skills.

Skills Tests

You can take hundreds of free skill tests on Upwork that cover a range of topics from Adobe applications to

English grammar to XML. You can take tests to demonstrate your skills to potential clients and make yourself more

marketable. Take as many tests as you want—for maximum impact, you may want to take tests corresponding

with the skills you want to present to potential clients and considering hiding those where you rank below


All your public tests are listed on your profile. Click any of the test names in the list to view the test results in more

detail, including how many freelancers have taken the test, where this score ranks, and a breakdown of the test

results by topic.

Taking Tests

Wondering which tests to take? Here are some ideas:

●Start with the skills you have listed on your profile. Take the corresponding tests so that your matching

skills can be badged as Tested to help you demonstrate your qualifications to potential clients.

●When you see a project that you’re interested in, take the skills tests that correspond to the requested

qualifications. This can help demonstrate to your potential client that you are the right freelancer for the

project and some clients may not consider your proposal if you do not score well on the applicable test.

After you take those tests, be sure your passing test score is public so clients can recognize you as


●Take tests featured on the profiles of freelancers in your field. Look at the project histories of potential

clientss, or do a search for freelancers similar to you, to see the tests your competition has taken.

Although Upwork doesn’t provide study guides, you can review a general outline of the topics before you take

each test.

There’s no penalty for failing a skills test, you can take as many as you want, and you are free to retake the test

after 30 days. You’re welcome to retake tests periodically as your skills improve. You can also hide any tests with

scores you don’t like or that no longer match your business focus.


All tests are scored on a scale of 0.0 to 5.0, with 5.0 being highest. The passing level for most tests is 2.5 out of 5.0.

Here’s an example:

●A freelancer took a test and answered 36 questions correctly out of 40. On a 5.0 scale, 36/40 works out to

a 4.50.

Though we don't provide a comprehensive review of all your answers, you can view your results by topic to get a

better sense of your strengths and weaknesses.

Percentile Ranking

A test score listed as Above Average means it ranks in the 50th percentile or higher. Your percentile represents

the percentage of test-takers scoring lower than you. So if it shows as Below Average, that means that at least half

of the people who took the test scored better than you.

Keep in mind that you could get a high score on a test and still have a Below Average ranking. For example, if you

got a score of 4.9, but most people scored a 5.0 on the test, your score will show as Below Average. Your rank may

also be badged as Top 30%, Top 20%, Top 10%, or 1st Place. Note that you’ll be sharing 1st place with all the other

high scorers. That means if 10 people took the test and 6 of them score 5.0, then all 6 would have 1st Place badges


and the other 4 would all be below average also

and the other 4 would all be Below Average. Also, your percentile can change over time as more freelancers take

the test. If they score better than you, your rank will fall. If they scored lower than you, your rank will rise.


●If the Start Test button isn’t active, you probably took the test less than 30 days ago. There’s a waiting

period before you can retake tests.

●If an available test won't open, it may be because the service is undergoing maintenance, so try again

after an hour.

●Most of the skills tests work with standard browser settings. However, if you start a test and it tries to

jump back to the previous screen or isn’t working properly:

1.Go into your browser’s settings or options.

2.Make sure that you enable Pop-up windows, JavaScript, and Cookies.

3.If you’re still having trouble after you follow the above steps, your test may also require active

scripting and scripting in Java applets.

●If you lose your connection while taking a test, contact Customer Support and they can reset the test for


●If you encounter a problem with a particular test question, please report it by clicking the Report an Issue

with This Test Question link while you’re taking the test. You can also let us know after you finish the test

by contacting Customer Support. We use these reports to improve the tests.


To find and take a free skills test:

1.Click the Find Work tab, and then click Tests.

2.Click on one of the highlighted tests at the top or click View More Tests to browse the complete list, filter

them by category (click the All Categories drop-down), or search for a test by keyword.

3.Select a test and click its title. Review the information, then click the Start Test button.

4.Answer each question before you move on to the next. Counters at the top tell you the number of

questions and how much time you have left.

5.At the end of the test, you can view both your score and your results by topic. You can also choose to

leave feedback on the test. (Please do! We’ll read and use your feedback to improve the tests.)

To manage your tests:

1.Click the Find Work tab, and then click Tests to see your full list of Tests Completed.

2.Click the test title link to see the details for that test. This is the same page that potential clients would

see linked from your profile.

3.Show or hide the test using the Yes/No selector in the Display on Profile column. By default, all passed

tests are public. You can change the visibility at any time.

Testing Requirements

Additionally, you should comply with the following requirements while taking Upwork Skills Tests:

●Do not take a test on behalf of someone else.

●Do not obtain improper access to the test or any part of the test before you take it by observing someone

else take the test, discussing questions or answers with someone else who took the test, looking up test

questions or answers online, etc.

●Do not disclose, publish, reproduce or transmit any part of the Upwork Skills Tests, in any form, by any

means, visual, verbal, or written, for any purpose without the express written permission from Upwork.

Taking screenshots during any test is strictly prohibited.

●The tests are meant to be taken by a single individual only. Don’t collaborate with other test-takers or

refer to their screens, testing materials, or written notes while taking the test. Don’t copy questions

and/or answers or share them with other test-takers.

Add Other's Experience and Certificates:

In the image above, what I’ve included on this section are writing related experiences that are technically not

considered employment and with which I wasn’t freelancing for any company or client. However, such

experiences, in both recent and remote past (all the way back to high school and college days) are deemed

important in the industry I belong to which is writing.


in a similar manner you may include any relevant

In a similar manner, you may include any relevant experience under this section if you believe they can boost your

profile by showcasing your skills and increase your chances of landing a job in oDesk.

Finding Job :


class 49

Class 49:

How to Communicate With Client:

It used to be (back before the Internet, smartphones and social media) that if you wanted or needed to speak to a

client, you picked up the phone – or you sent her a letter. Today, however, there are many ways to communicate

with clients. However, not every method is right for every situation or for every client. Indeed, choose the wrong

communication strategy and you could wind up alienating valuable clients.

Download the March 2016 digital issue

Inside: What you need to know about staffing up for IoT, how cloud and SDN set Veritas free & much more!

To help you navigate the various options, we’ve compiled a list of the most popular, and effective, communication

methods (listed alphabetically) and included advice from client communication experts regarding when and how

to use each one.

Top 8 client communication methods

1. Email. Email allows you to “communicate in a way that respects the client’s time and attention, as both are

scarce resources,” says Anne Janzer, an author and marketing consultant. “That means sending short email

messages, with the most important content in the first sentence and a clear subject line [as] some people never

read past the first line of any email.”

Email is particularly good “where multiple parties need to be kept in the loop on something,” adds Adam

Weissman, account supervisor, Max Borges Agency, a communications and digital strategy firm. “Plus, with email,

there is always a record that is easily searchable.”

2. Newsletters. “It seems rather counterintuitive but we actually send a paper copy of a newsletter to our clients,”

says Nick Espinosa, CIO, BSSi2, an IT services company. “I thought this was a bad move when we first tried it, but I

was amazed at how many responded asking questions about articles. And I have actually spotted our newsletter

on the desks of our clients!”

3. Phone. “When one needs to work with a client in detail and manage the nuances of the conversation, a phone

call is still the best communication channel,” says John Kinskey, founder and president, AccessDirect, which

provides virtual PBX phone systems. “At times a staff member will forward to me an email chain from a client and

ask me how to respond. I say ‘pick up the phone!’”

Indeed, while good for certain types of communication, “email responses at certain points can become

counterproductive,” he says, and can lead to misunderstandings. “With a phone call (using a VoIP desk phone) we

have a chance to show that we care about solving a client issue quickly, along with apologizing for any

misunderstanding,” he explains.

“We use email to keep a recorded history of client requests, but all of our client follow-up and engagement is

done by phone,” says Espinosa. “As an IT service corporation we are following up with clients roughly 24 to 48

hours after work is completed. Our phone communication is constant and we consistently receive excellent

reviews from clients,” he reports. “I personally use between 3,000 to 4,000 minutes a month on the phone, and it

really pays off.”

4. Skype (or Google Hangouts). “For regular communications, we try to maintain a weekly or bi-weekly Skype call

with clients, with or without video (based on need and bandwidth),” says Weissman. “These weekly ‘calls’ can

typically last 30 to 45 minutes and offer a great way to connect multiple people in different locations.”

“Skype is great for conference calls and international clients, as it's free,” says Michelle Garrett, owner, Garrett

Public Relations. “It's *particularly+ useful when you have people in multiple countries coming together for a


[Google Hangouts provides a similar free video chat and messaging service.]

5. Slack. “Slack, one of my favorite team messaging applications, allows me to stay in touch with clients on a day-

to-day basis when launching a new campaign, or updating *them+ on current project developments,” says Nina

Tomaro, a content strategist. “It takes away from the clutter of email and keeps all communications in one

location, where the client can choose to check and respond at their convenience.”


class 50

Class 50:

Apply System on Job:

The Basics

You can apply to jobs right away, but you’ll have a better chance at getting hired if you do a few things before you


●Complete the Getting Started Checklist (on the Find Jobs page).

●Read the Freelancer Manual to learn about all things Upwork.

●Complete your freelancer profile (including skills, portfolio, and certifications), which serves as your

Upwork resume and is your most powerful tool for getting hired.

●Take relevant skill tests to increase your marketability.

The Details

To perform a job search:

1.Go to the Find Work tab, and select Find Jobs.

2.Type a basic keyword search in the box, or click the Advanced Search link for more options.

3.On the Search Results page, use the filters on the left to further narrow your results

To apply for a job:

1.When you find a job you want to apply to, click its Apply button.

2.Write a customized cover letter and choose an hourly rate or bid.

3.Click the Apply to this Job button to submit your application.

To check the status of jobs you’ve applied to:

1.Return to the Find Work tab.

2.Select Job Applications to check the status.

3.Also check your Messages tab and Notifications icon often.


class 51

Class 51:

Outsourcing Marketplaces

Bidding Techniques:

This is a guide to some of the strategies and techniques employed by resourceful bidders on eBay. This is one of a

series of no-nonsense, advert-free "coffee break" guides I have written for UK based buyers and sellers. They're

not too short, not too long, and I promise not to try and sell you anything. You can see my other guides by

following the links at the bottom of this page but please let me know what you think, by voting for each one you

read. Many thanks.




class 52

Class 52:

Outsourcing Marketplaces

Creating Fiverr Account:

You need to create an account to purchase services and to become a seller on Fiverr.

Note: You can start the purchase process without having an account, but before the purchase can be completed,

an account must be created.

To create an account:

1.From the Fiverr home page, click Join.

2.Enter your email address and click CONTINUE.


4.Note: You can also join with Facebook and Google Connect.

5.Choose a username.

6.Note: Your username cannot be changed once you've activated your account.

7.Choose a password and click JOIN.

8.You are now a registered user on Fiverr, but you will need to activate your account. An email is sent to

the email address you registered with.

9.Note: This activation link in the email will be valid for 30 days. After 30 days, when logged in to Fiverr, you

can click Resend and you will receive another email also active for 30 days.

10.Within the email you receive from Fiverr, click ACTIVATE YOUR ACCOUNT.

11.After your account is active, you can make purchases or start selling on Fiverr.

Creating Fiverr GIG

If you would like to provide a service on Fiverr, you first need to create a Gig. A Gig® is a service listed on Fiverr’s


To create a Gig:

●After you login, place your mouse over your username and click Selling > Create a Gig.

●Note: If this is your first time creating a Gig, place your mouse over your username and click Selling > Start

Selling and then Create a Gig.

STEP 1: Overview

1.In the Gig Title field, write a title up to 80 characters.

2.Your title should be short, clear, and to the point.

3.In the Category drop-down menu, select the appropriate category and then subcategory for your Gig.

4.In the Description field, write a description of your Gig up to 1,200 characters. Be as detailed as possible

so buyers will be able to understand if this meets their needs.

5.Note: If you add a URL, only include URLs from the approved list.

6.In the Gig Metadata area, select the relevant criteria for each topic.

7.Note: This feature is only available for certain categories.

8.In the Tags field, add a minimum of three words or phrases that best describe your Gig.

9.Click Save & Continue.

STEP 2: Pricing

1.In the Delivery Time drop-down menu, select the amount of days it will take for you to complete your


2.In the Included Revisions drop-down menu, select the amount of revisions you include in your Gig.

Adding Extra Fast Delivery

You have the option to deliver your Gig extra fast and charge accordingly.


to set extra fast delivery

To set Extra fast delivery:

●In the My Gig Extras section, select the Extra fast delivery checkbox and indicate how many days and how

much money you will charge.

●Note: If you select Extra fast delivery, the amount of days for the extra fast delivery cancels out the

amount of time you indicated in your extra services.

Adding Extras

The number of extra services you can offer depends on your status; see Fiverr's Levels. These fields are optional.

●In the Add Gig Extras section, fill out your unique customized Gig extra. To add more extra services, click

Add Gig Extra.

●Note: For each extra provided, select the checkbox and fill out your extra service description. Make sure

you select the amount of days it will take you to complete and for how much money.

Adding Revisions and Source File Pricing

You are able to better control requested revisions, while maintaining the buyer's right to request revisions by

defining your modification pricing. You can also charge for the use of your source file deliveries.

To set revisions:

1.In the My Gig Extras section, mark the checkbox next to Additional Revision.

2.Select the number of extra revisions, the cost, and duration per each modification.

To set source file pricing:

1.In the My Gig Extras section, mark the checkbox next to Source File.

2.Select the amount you charge for the delivery of your source files. If purchased, you cannot deliver your

work without uploading the source files.


4.Note: The Additional Revision and Source File pricing features are available in certain categories only.

Shipping & Handling

If you provide a product, you can charge shipping fees.

1.Select the checkbox, and select how much you charge to a specific country and then to everywhere else.


3.Note: If you have multiple orders enabled, you can select how much you charge.

4.Click Save & Continue.

STEP 3: Requirements

Tell your buyer what you need to start the order. You can define instructions for your Buyer as free text, a multiple

choice question, or a file upload.

1.In the Requirements #1 field, enter the details of your requirement.

2.In the Answer Type field, select either Free Text, Multiple Answer, or Attached File.


4.Note: If you select Multiple Answer, answer fields will be displayed. Fill out the multiple choice answers

you want the buyer to select. You also have the option to allow more than one answer.

5.If you require the Buyer to provide the information you selected, mark the Answer is mandatory


6.Click Add.

7.When finished defining your buyer requirements, click Save & Continue.


step 4 gallery

STEP 4: Gallery

1.In the Portfolio Photo area, drag an image or click Browse and select an image.

2.Upload photos that describe or relate to your Gig. The photos can be samples of your work. Each image

should be in JPG, JPEG, or PNG format, a minimum of 550 x 370 pixels, and up to 5 MB. The image should

be owned by you. Do not use copyrighted images otherwise your Gig won’t be approved.

3.In the Gig Video area, drag a video or click Browse and select a video.


5.Note: This field is optional. We recommend that you mention your services are offered exclusively on

Fiverr and make sure your video is no longer than one minute.

6.In the PDF Files area, drag a PDF or click Browse and select a PDF.


8.Note: This field is optional.

9.Click Save & Continue.

STEP 5: Publish

Publishing and Promoting Your Gig


2.You will see various social networks in which you can promote your Gig. To promote your Gig, just click

an icon and fill out the details.

3.Click Finish.


●As a new user, you can create up to 7 Gigs. Level 1 sellers can create up to 15, Level 2 sellers can create up

to 20, and Top Rated Sellers can create up to 30 Gigs.

●If your Gig contains a video, its status will be pending until your Gig video is reviewed. If your Gig does not

contain a video, it will be labeled Active.

●You have the option to share your Gig via Facebook, Twitter, Google +, LinkedIn, or by email.


class 53

Class 53:

Outsourcing Marketplaces

Fiverr Gig Update Techniques

A word of warning about Fiverr gigs

As with any website where you find workers or get content produced, you have to be very careful about who you

work with and what they give you.

For example, if you buy backlinks on Fiverr you can be certain that 90% of the time you’re going to do more harm

than good. And if someone is giving you an image that looks too good to be true, there is a high likelihood that it’s

“borrowed” from someone’s copyrighted material.

Be careful. Make sure you do some research.

Oh, and don’t get sucked into Fiverr as another time waster. It’s easy to get lost inside these gigs – searching for

the strangest thing you can find for hours on end.

The best Fiverr gigs

Obviously I’ve put an emphasis on gigs that will grow your blog but most of these apply to any business that does

work on the internet.

1. Logo creation

Anyone who knows anything about branding and logo design will kind of cringe a little bit at this. Getting a logo

done for $5 is really not a good idea if you are trying to grow a professional and distinctive business.

But, if you are just launching a new website or blog to try a new tactic or experiment in a new niche then getting

logos done on the cheap is really helpful.

A word of warning with this and any graphical production on Fiverr: a lot of them are a bit iffy when it comes to

copyright. Make sure you look around for someone who isn’t just going to give you a logo that belongs to

someone else.

2. Video introductions

I didn’t get my fancy Blog Tyrant video introduction done on Fiverr (you cancheck it out on my YouTube Channel if

you haven’t seen it) but you can get some similar things done quite easily.

With this type of thing, you want something short and made in a way that will be remembered. You want people

to see it and immediately know that it is one of your videos coming up.

A lot of them will be taken from stock templates but for a few extra gigs you’ll find something nice.

3. Whiteboard drawing videos

These videos are really quite cool. Basically it is someone writing text or drawing a little figure on a white

background. It can be used to explain a concept to someone or to just animate your logo and give it some life.

Here’s an example of one I got done last week on


class 54

Class 54:

Cover Letter and Details

What is a cover letter?

To be considered for almost any position, you will need to write a letter of application. Such a letter

introduces you, explains your purpose for writing, highlights a few of your experiences or skills, and

requests an opportunity to meet personally with the potential employer.

Precisely because this letter is your introduction to an employer and because first impressions count, you

should take great care to write an impressive and effective letter. Remember that the letter not only tells

of your accomplishments but also reveals how effectively you can communicate.

The appropriate content, format, and tone for application letters vary according to the position and the

personality of the applicant. Thus you will want to ask several people (if possible) who have had experience

in obtaining jobs or in hiring in your field to critique a draft of your letter and to offer suggestions for


Despite the differences in what constitutes a good application letter, the suggestions on these pages apply



What to include in a cover letter

●Try to limit your letter to a single page. Be succinct.

●Assess the employer's needs and your skills. Then try to match them in the letter in a way that will appeal

to the employer's self-interest.

●As much as possible, tailor your letter to each job opportunity. Demonstrate, if possible, some knowledge

of the organization to which you are applying.

●Write in a style that is mature but clear; avoid long and intricate sentences and paragraphs; avoid jargon.

Use action verbs and the active voice; convey confidence, optimism, and enthusiasm coupled with

respect and professionalism.

●Show some personality, but avoid hard-sell, gimmicky, or unorthodox letters. Start fast; attract interest

immediately. For more information see Business Letter Format.

●Arrange the points in a logical sequence; organize each paragraph around a main point.


How to organize a cover letter

Below is one possible way to arrange the content of your cover letter.

Opening Paragraph

State why you are writing.

Establish a point of contact (advertisement in a specific place for a specific position; a particular person's

suggestion that you write): give some brief idea of who you are (a Senior engineering student at UW; a

recent Ph.D. in History).

Paragraph(s) 2(-3)

Highlight a few of the most salient points from your enclosed resume.

Arouse your reader's curiosity by mentioning points that are likely to be important for the position you are


Show how your education and experience suit the requirements of the position, and, by elaborating on a

few points from your resume, explain what you could contribute to the organization.

(Your letter should complement, not restate, your resume.)


closing paragraph

Closing paragraph

Stress action. Politely request an interview at the employer's convenience.

Indicate what supplementary material is being sent under separate cover and offer to provide additional

information (a portfolio, a writing sample, a sample publication, a dossier, an audition tape), and explain

how it can be obtained.

Thank the reader for his/her consideration and indicate that you are looking forward to hearing from


Questions to guide your writing

●Who is my audience?

●What is my objective?

●What are the objectives and needs of my audience?

●How can I best express my objective in relationship to my audience's objectives and needs?

●What specific benefits can I offer to my audience and how can I best express them?

●What opening sentence and paragraph will grab the attention of my audience in a positive manner and

invite them to read further?

●How can I maintain and heighten the interest and desire of the reader throughout the letter?

●What evidence can I present of my value to my audience?

●If a resume is enclosed with the letter, how can I best make the letter advertise the resume?

●What closing sentence or paragraph will best assure the reader of my capabilities and persuade him or

her to contact me for further information?

●Is the letter my best professional effort?

●Have I spent sufficient time drafting, revising, and proofreading the letter?

●From Ronald L. Kraunich, William J. Bauis. High Impact Resumes & Letters. Virginia Beach, VA: Impact

Publications, 1982.

How to format a cover letter

●Type each letter individually, or use a word processor.

●Use good quality bond paper.

●Whenever possible, address each employer by name and title.

●Each letter should be grammatically correct, properly punctuated, and perfectly spelled. It also should be

immaculately clean and free of errors. Proofread carefully!

●Use conventional business correspondence form. If you are not certain of how to do this, ask for help at

the Writing Center.


class 55

Class 55:

Outsourcing Marketplaces

High Paid job on Upwork:

One of the biggest complaints I hear from people who read my book is: “Upwork only has a bunch of $1 per hour

data entry jobs. I can’t believe you actually made a career on Upwork (aka oDesk).”

To these comments, I usually respond: “You have to invest time into identifying high-paying opportunities – or

those that could lead to high-paying engagements.”

When I say this, I typically get a blank stare.

In this post, I’m going to show you how to find high-paying jobs on Upwork. (It is possible.)

Filters Help You Find High-Paying Jobs

Let me start by giving you the secret to finding the highest-paying jobs on Upwork: take advantage of job filters.

When logged into Upwork, click “Find Work.” Click on a job “category” or enter a search term into the “Search for

Jobs” box. On the left side of the page, you should see something like the following image. Learning how to use

these filters is your key to identifying better jobs on Upwork.


class 56

Class 56:

Outsourcing Marketplaces

Live Bidding Practice on Search Engine Optimization Job:

Once you find a project you like, here’s how to submit a proposal:

1.Click the Submit a Proposal button on the client’s project.

2.Set your Terms, keeping in mind that the client will see your full rate including the Upwork Service Fee.

3.Write an introductory letter to the client - most freelancers take this opportunity to tell the client why

they should want to work with you on this project. You can’t edit this letter after submitting, so

proofread it carefully. The form does not accept any formatting tags but will automatically turn any URLs

you include into clickable links.

4.Answer any screening questions the client may ask.

5.Add an attachment, such as a work sample, to your proposal if you like. You don’t need to attach a

resume (your Upwork profile should provide all the necessary history and background in the context of

the marketplace).

6.Click the Submit a Proposal button.To learn more about creating a winning proposal and succeeding on

Upwork, read the Hiring Headquarters articles below:

Read more about creating great proposals in the Hiring Headquarters.