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The mission of earmuffsdeal.com, is to introduce you to the concept of electronic ear muffs whenever you want to go into a “silent mode” or for a shooting or want to protect your hearing whilst staying in a noisy environment.

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    1. TMSS ICT, Bogra Skills for Employment investment Program (SEIP) Outsourcing (ICT) 3 months Course Module TMSS-ICT Foundation Office, Rangpur Road, Bogra 1

    2. Class -1: Introducing Freelancing and Outsourcing: What is Freelancing: A freelancer is someone who doesn’t work for one company full-time, but is hired by different companies for certain jobs. For example, a magazine or website will have a core team of editors who hire freelance writers to write articles, or a TV production crew might hire freelance cameramen to work on one series of programs. Freelancing Marketplace: Most of the sites listed here are free to use in their most basic form both for freelancers and employers, however some of the sites have fees for at least one party and most of the sites have paid premium features. Most Popular Freelancing Marketplaces Name: Upwork Elance Freelancer Fiverr PeoplePer Hour Introducing task that is available on freelancing Marketplaces: Web/Software Design Web and Software Development Graphic Design and Creative Administrative Support 2D/3D Engineering Design Writing and Translation Sales and Marketing Accounting and Consulting What is Outsourcing: When businesses need expertise or skills that they don't have within their organization, they often turn to outsourcing to solve their problems. Outsourcing means just what it says -- going "out" to find the "source" of what you need. These days many business outsource for what they need to serve their customers, both internal and external. An external customer is the entity that ultimately purchases a company's product or services, while an internal customer is the company's own employees or shareholders. Business can obtain both products like machine parts, and services like payroll, through outsourcing. History of Outsourcing: Since the Industrial Revolution, companies have grappled with how they can exploit their competitive advantage to increase their markets and their profits. The model for most of the 20th century was a large integrated company that can “own, manage, and directly control” its assets. In the 1950s and 1960s the rallying cry was diversification to broaden corporate bases and take advantage of economies of scale. By diversifying, companies expected to protect profits, even though expansion required multiple layers of management. Subsequently, organizations attempting to compete globally in the 1970s and 1980s were handicapped by a lack of agility that resulted from bloated management structures. To increase their flexibility and creativity, many large companies developed a new strategy of focusing on their core business, which required identifying critical processes and deciding which could be outsourced. 2

    3. Class -2: Benefit of Outsourcing: ● ●Increased efficiency. ●Focus on core areas. ●Save on infrastructure and technology. ●Access to skilled resources. ●Time zone advantage. ●Faster and better services. Outsourcing Technique: Cost advantages. The most obvious and visible benefit relates to the cost savings that outsourcing brings about. Outsourcing can seem like a daunting strategy that adds more moving pieces to your business. But done correctly, it can add layers of expertise, release you from tedious chores and let you concentrate on running your business more effectively.  Identify Needs  Start New Vendors on Small Projects  Create the Paperwork  Be Open to Vendor Ideas  See Outsourcing as an Opportunity Why People Outsource Service: Now We Will Discuss about Top 5 reason for Outsourcing Services- 1.Lower operational and labor costs are among the primary reasons why companies choose to outsource. When properly executed it has a defining impact on a company's revenue recognition and can deliver significant savings. 2.Companies also choose to outsource or offshore so that they may continue focusing on their core business processes while delegating mundane time consuming processes to external agencies. 3.Outsourcing and offshoring also enable companies to tap in to and leverage a global knowledge base, having access to world class capabilities. 4.Freeing up internal resources that could be put in to effective use for other purposes is also one of the primary benefits realized when companies outsource or offshore. 5.Many times stranded with internal resource crunches, many world class enterprises outsource to gain access to resources not available internally. 6.Outsourcing, many a time is undertaken to save costs and provide a buffer capital fund to companies that could be leveraged in a manner that best profits the company. 7.By delegating responsibilities to external agencies companies can wash their hands off functions that are difficult to manage and control while still realizing their benefits. 8.Outsourcing and especially offshoring helps companies mitigate risk and is also among the primary reasons embarked upon. 9.Outsourcing also enables companies to realize the benefits of re-engineering. 10.Some companies also outsource to help them expand and gain access to new market areas, by taking the point of production or service users. delivery closer to their end 3

    4. Class 03: Occupational Health and Safety: Unprepared employers could be caught off-guard by the rapid evolution of workforce mobility trends resulting from developments in technology and infrastructure. With a recent report by the University of South Australia's Centre for Work + Life calling for targeted campaigns addressing employee requests for flexible working arrangements, public awareness of work flexibility options continues to grow. One solution is to break down processes or tasks and access cloud-based freelance workers offering specialized skills, services or task based solutions to facilitate work transactions between user companies and service providers without forming a binding employment relationship. The parties may never meet or even speak to one another. But what impact do such transient and commercial relationships have on traditional workplace relationships? At first glance, online freelancing appears to be a business owner's' dream. Workers with the exact expertise needed can be engaged for specific tasks from across the globe without lengthy and expensive recruitment processes, payment of comprehensive salary packages, complicated and costly migration and visa issues and the legal risks associated with traditional forms of engagement. However, there are a number of legal and practical issues arising from the use of online freelancing platforms and other cloud-based solutions. Who determines the terms and conditions of the relationship? Typically online platforms prescribe standard terms and conditions governing their use and your engagement of a freelancer. Negotiating additional terms and conditions may be prohibited, or at least precluded to the extent the additional terms and conditions conflict with the standard terms. What is the nature of the relationship between the user company and the freelancer? Online freelancing is based on the premise that freelancers are engaged as independent contractors. Legally, the usual indicia for assessing whether the relationship is one of employer/employee or principal/contractor will apply. Assuming your company is engaging an independent contractor based on the mere fact that the service provider's standard terms and conditions prescribe as much carries obvious risks. Who owns the intellectual property arising from the relationship? When posting a project to a website, are you granting a license to the website provider or the freelancer to use your intellectual property? Once the project work is completed by the freelancer, who owns the intellectual property in the work they have created for you? This will be of particular concern if the standard terms and conditions are silent on the issue of intellectual property, especially if there is an inherent prohibition on negotiating additional terms and conditions directly with the freelancer. What if the freelancer has employees? Significant costs savings can be achieved as a result of freelancers bidding against each other for your work. What if the only way the freelancer can afford to make a competitive bid is by underpaying their own employees? Do you owe any obligation to the freelancer's employees? Coles Supermarkets is currently the subject of prosecution by the Fair Work Ombudsman (FWO) in which the FWO alleges Coles should have known that the contractors it engaged to provide trolley collection services in South Australia could not provide those services and still pay their employees minimum wage rates based on the contract price it negotiated. If the prosecution is successful Coles faces maximum penalties of $33,000 for each breach of the Fair Work Act. Watch this space for further developments in these proceedings. Who is responsible for work health and safety? In this month's Top 6 we highlighted the need for employers to conduct home-based assessments before allowing employees to work from home. If online freelancing arrangements are accurately described as independent contractor arrangements, the principal's duties extend work health and safety obligations to include the working 4

    5. arrangements of freelancers. Consider how you might go about conducting a home-based assessment in a scenario where you never actually meet the freelancer you engage. Class-04: Workplace Communication: Different Types of Workplace Communication Strategy Has your boss ever treated you unfairly or blamed you for a failure that was beyond your control? Recently, a friend came to me in distress about a critical hand-written memo that he and his colleagues had received from their superior, the manager of a national retail chain store. The chain, formerly a Wall Street darling, had fallen from favor with the failure of the company to renew an annual contract with one of their larger customers. As a result, the stock price had dropped by a third, cash flow had decreased, layoffs were anticipated, and morale was in the dumps. Every employee felt the pressure. The young assistant, vacillating between resentment and hopelessness, didn’t know how to respond to the three- page memo which listed failure after failure of tasks and expectations that had not been met by the group. The memo concluded with a threat that “things had to change or else,” and that he, the manager, no longer cared about the individuals due to their shortcomings. My friend, torn between quitting for what he believed to be an unfair assessment or staying when further advancement might be delayed or impossible, asked me, “What should I do? Quit or stay there hoping I will not be fired?” Results-Oriented Communication in the Workplace All communications have a result. But was the result in this case the one desired by the manager who penned the memo? Business relationships, especially those between superiors and subordinates, are often rocky due to poor communication, a lack or misinterpretation of facts, pressurized environments, and a mutual commitment to success. As in sports and politics, many business errors are unforced. Mole hills become mountains, and mistakes become disasters due to emotions and overreactions. Research has proven that emotions often overrule intellect, a consequence of having to fight or flee eons before when beasts ate people who were slow to decide whether they were dangerous. Fortunately, most businesses do not have a “kill or be killed” environment –but we’re still conditioned to react to one. In this case, the manager’s effort to motivate his employees backfired. Even though there were apparent shortcomings in the store’s appearance and operations that needed to be fixed, the result of the memo was to focus attention on personalities, not performance. While the memo was no doubt cathartic for the manager in the short-term, the long-term impact was a loss of trust and confidence in his ability to lead, an increase in day-to-day tensions between the manager and the other employees, and a likelihood of a significant loss of future potential managers and their accumulated institutional knowledge. How could the manager have handled the situation differently? Communicating Effectively: The Manager There are a number of things a manager can do to improve his or her communication skills: 1. Consider the Situation Before Taking Any Action Our emotions tempt us to make quick decisions based upon superficial evidence which may not reflect the true nature of the problem. The manager assumed that the poor appearance of the store was due to the employees’ lack of effort or attention. He failed to consider that several store employees had been terminated due to the financial situation, while the store’s workload remained the same. Each assistant manager was responsible for more areas with fewer people to do the work. Furthermore, each assistant had been required to take a pay reduction due to the loss of the large customer, and each was concerned that the customer loss would slow their own promotion to store manager. Though not intended, their effort probably suffered due to their own worries. 2. Gather and Confirm Information Before Making a Decision We have a tendency to confuse symptoms with disease, and consequently treat the symptom rather than the underlying illness. Technology enables us to capture massive amounts of data and slice and dice it to make it appear any way we want. But data is a representation of the problem, not the problem itself. Observing the work 5

    6. of the assistants and talking and listening to them about the aspects of their job might have led to a different conclusion than the one the manager reached. 3. Focus on Problems, Not Personalities The manager’s memo attacked the character of each assistant by implying they were lazy, derelict, or had betrayed him. The implications intensified the emotional context of the memo, overshadowing its factual content and purpose. The assistants, in response, reacted with emotion without stopping to consider the validity of the facts or attempting to give the manager any explanations. Whenever dealing with any issue that might have emotional content, the “24-Hour Rule” should be in effect: Don’t send any email, message, letter, memo, or report to others until you’ve had a day to reflect upon its content and are sure it communicates the facts and the tone you wish. 4. Manage Individuals, Not Groups The manager’s memo was directed to everyone and no one. The lack of specificity enabled each recipient to avoid personal responsibility, since each felt his own effort had met expectations. As a consequence, the memo failed to get the desired result and aggravated an already touchy work environment. Group communications are perfect for providing general information, education, and praise; however, they should not be used for individual direction or criticism. Remember, praise in public and criticize in private. 5. Meet Subordinates Face-to-Face The meaning and intent of written words without the context of a physical presence is often misunderstood, and can lead to confusion and conflict. There is no substitute for looking someone in the eye and seeing their reaction to your conversation to clarify content and assure comprehension and agreement. Managers often hide behind memos and notes as if their subordinates were robots to be moved into place and programmed. However, successful leaders seek personable commitment and build bridges of trust, mutual respect, and shared experience. Be physically available and “walk the walk,” and let your people know you are with them through the good and the bad. 6. Assign Tasks Directly and Clearly People work best when they know what is expected of them. Good managers identify the goals and measures in simple, understandable terms, assign responsibility unequivocally, and confirm that the information is understood by those to whom it is directed. Good managers follow up and give corrective input to ensure that each of his subordinates is on the same page and working toward the same objective. Managers should always remember that no employee takes a job with the expectation that he or she will be overlooked, ignored, or insignificant at work. Employees want to be liked and respected by their peers and proud of their employer. Management’s challenge is to maintain and further develop this employee enthusiasm and commitment, even during times of stress. Mistakes are part of growing, and falling short and correcting the course are regular occurrences in business and in life. Dealing with subordinates the way you would wish to be dealt with in a similar situation is the best course any manager can take. 6

    7. Communicating Effectively: The Employee My friend, the assistant manager, could also learn from this event. His reaction, though understandable, exacerbated the situation needlessly. As a consequence, he and the other assistants suffered from useless worry and wasted time and effort commiserating with each other about the perceived injustice they had experienced. This time and energy could have been better spent addressing the problems of the store and improving customer service. While neither he nor the other assistants could affect the manager’s feelings that led to the memo, their response to it was within their control. If you are placed in a similar situation, you should: 1. Never Personalize Criticism Whether you’re giving or receiving criticism, it should be based upon observed actions and results, not intent. It is impossible to know the motivations behind any activity, only the physical actions and outcome of the activity. As a consequence, criticism should be given and accepted unemotionally, considered for its validity and pertinence, and implemented when action is justified. In other words, don’t be too sensitive or defensive when you receive feedback. Consider the information received as intended to get a different result, not a personal attack. 2. Understand the Situation In this case, the precipitating cause for the criticism was the physical condition and appearance of the store. At other times, constructive criticism is part of a regular employee performance review, designed to give both parties feedback. Use both opportunities to build your relationship and get information. Use a review as an opportunity to receive and give intelligence that might otherwise be missed. 3. Be Understanding Whenever you receive what you consider to be an unjustified personal attack or criticism, recognize the source and their circumstances before jumping to a conclusion. Unfortunately, people have bad days, and they often respond by assailing others for little or no reason. When heads are cooler and pressures are less, contact the assailant to learn more about the problem and how you can be part of the solution. You may discover that the stimulus for the assault was an overreaction on the sender’s part or had nothing to do with you or your work. 4. Learn From Your Mistakes Whatever the stage of your career, you can and should continue to learn. Over your working life, you’ll work for and with superiors of varying capabilities and talents. Some you will remember because of their great leadership, while others you’ll remember because they were such poor managers. Even the latter can teach you something.In this case, my friend learned how he felt when unjustly accused of poor performance. Hopefully, he will remember his feelings before he makes the same mistakes with the people who report to him currently or in the future. Sometimes, the bad examples are more effective than the good. Final Word Management and leadership is a learned skill. Effective managers have experience on both sides of the spectrum, taking directions as well as giving them. And the success of a company is directly related to the skill of its managers and their ability to lead employees through difficult and testing times. By analyzing and being thoughtful in your communications with both your subordinates and superiors, you can better learn how to lead in whatever position you have. In this way, you’ll not only secure your future prospects to rise up your company’s ranks, but you’ll also create a more productive and better working environment for yourself and your colleagues. 7

    8. Class-05: Workplace Communication Tools: Email Open the Gmail account that you want to forward from. 1.At the top right, click the gear. 2.Select Settings. 3.Select the Forwarding and POP/IMAP tab. 4.Click Add a forwarding address in the “Forwarding” section. 5.Enter the email address you want to forward to. 8

    9. Skype Use a valid email address. You'll need it to sign in. 1.Choose a Skype Name. It must be between 6 and 32 characters, start with a letter and can contain only letters, numbers, full stops, commas, dashes and underscores. 2.Choose a password. Basic Internet and Freelancing: 1. Browser Name Google Chrome Mozilla Firefox Internet Explorer Opera Safari & More 2. Search Engine Name 9

    10. Google Yahoo Bing Pipilika 3.Online File Sharing Sites Google Drive Google Docs Dropbox. 10

    11. Class-06: Microsoft Office: From desktop to web for Macs and PCs, Office delivers the tools to get work done. View product information or sign in to Office 365. Microsoft Word Word 2010 is a word processor that allows you to create various types of documents such as letters, papers, flyers, and faxes. In this lesson, you will be introduced to the Ribbon and the new Backstage view, and you'll learn how to create new documents and open existing ones. The new tabbed Ribbon system was introduced in Word 2007 to replace traditional menus. The Ribbon contains all of the commands you'll need in order to perform common tasks. It contains multiple tabs, each with several groups of commands, and you can add your own tabs that contain your favorite commands. Some groups have an arrow in the bottom-right corner that you can click to see even more commands. Certain programs, such as Adobe Acrobat Reader, may install additional tabs to the Ribbon. These tabs are called add-ins. To minimize and maximize the Ribbon: The Ribbon is designed to be easy to use and responsive to your current task; however, you can choose to minimize it if it's taking up too much screen space. 1.Click the arrow in the upper-right corner of the Ribbon to minimize it. 2.To maximize the Ribbon, click the arrow again. When the Ribbon is minimized, you can make it reappear by clicking on a tab. However, the Ribbon will disappear again when you're not using it. 11

    12. To customize the Ribbon: You can customize the Ribbon by creating your own tabs with the commands you want. Commands are always housed within a group, and you can create as many groups as you want in order to keep your tab organized. If you want, you can even add commands to any of the default tabs, as long as you create a custom group in the tab. 1.Right-click the Ribbon and select Customize the Ribbon. A dialog box will appear. 2.Click New Tab. A new tab will be created with a new group inside it. 3.Make sure the new group is selected. 4.Select a command from the list on the left, then click Add. You can also drag commands directly into a group. 5.When you are done adding commands, click OK. 6.If you don't see the command you want, click the Choose commands from: drop- down box, then select All Commands. 12

    13. The Quick Access toolbar The Quick Access toolbar, located above the Ribbon, lets you access common commands no matter which tab you're on. By default, it shows the Save, Undo, and Repeat commands. You can add other commands to make it more convenient for you. To add commands to the Quick Access toolbar: 1.Click the drop-down arrow to the right of the Quick Access toolbar. 2.Select the command you want to add from the drop-down menu. It will appear in the Quick Access toolbar. 13

    14. The Ruler The Ruler is located at the top and to the left of your document. It makes it easier to adjust your document with precision. If you want, you can hide the Ruler to free up more screen space. To hide or view the Ruler: 1.Click the View Ruler icon over the scrollbar to hide the ruler. 2.To show the ruler, click the View Ruler icon again. To create a new blank document: 1.Click the File tab. This takes you to Backstage view. 2.Select New. 3.Select Blank document under Available Templates. It will be highlighted by default. 4.Click Create. A new blank document appears in the Word window. 14

    15. To save time, you can create your document from a template, which you can select from the New Document pane. We'll talk about templates in a later lesson. To open an existing document: 1.Click the File tab. This takes you to Backstage view. 2.Select Open. The Open dialog box appears. 3.Select your document, then click Open. If you've opened a file recently, you can also access it from the Recent Documents list. Justclick on theFile tab and select Recent. 15

    16. Compatibility mode Sometimes you may need to work with documents that were created in earlier versions of Microsoft Word, such as Word 2007 or Word 2003. When you open these types of documents, they will appear in Compatibility mode. Compatibility mode disables certain features, so you'll only be able to access commands found in the program that was used to create the document. For example, if you open a document created in Word 2007, you can only use tabs and commands found in Word 2007. In the image below, you can see how Compatibility mode can affect which commands are available. Because the document on the left is in Compatibility mode, it only shows commands that were available in Word 2007. To exit Compatibility mode, you'll need to convert the document to the current version type. However, if you're collaborating with others who only have access to an earlier version of Word, it's best to leave the document in Compatibility mode so the format will not change. You can review this support page from Microsoft to learn more about which features are disabled in Compatibility mode. To convert a document: If you want access to all Word 2010 features, you can convert the document to the 2010 file format. Note that converting a file may cause some changes to the original layout of the document. 1.Click the File tab to access Backstage view. 2.Locate and select the Convert command. 3.A dialog box will appear. Click OK to confirm the file upgrade. 4.The document will be converted to the newest file type. 16

    17. Challenge! 1.Open Word 2010 on your computer. A new blank document will appear on the screen. 2.Make sure the Ribbon is maximized. 3.Display the Ruler. 4.Add any commands you want to the Quick Access toolbar. 5.Close Word without saving the document. 17

    18. Class 07: Microsoft Office: Tabs The tabs on the ribbon are: File, Home, Insert, Page layout, Formulas, Data, Review and View. The Home tab contains the most frequently used commands in Excel. Note: the File tab in Excel 2010 replaces the Office Button in Excel 2007. Minimize the Ribbon You can minimize the ribbon to get extra space on the screen. Right click anywhere on the ribbon, and then click Minimize the Ribbon (or press CTRL + F1). Result. 18

    19. Customize the Ribbon Excel 2010 makes it possible to easily create your own tab and add commands to it. If you are new to Excel, you can skip this paragraph. 1. Right click anywhere on the ribbon, and then click Customize the Ribbon. 2. Click New Tab. 19

    20. 3. Add the commands you like. 20

    21. 4. Rename the tab and group. Note: you can also add new groups to existing tabs. To hide a tab, uncheck the corresponding check box. Click Reset, Reset all customizations, to delete all ribbon and Quick Access Toolbar customizations. 21

    22. Result. Open an Existing Workbook To open a workbook you've created in the past, execute the following steps. 1. Click on the green File tab. What you see next is called the backstage view and it contains all the workbook related commands. 2. Recent shows you a list of your recently used workbooks. You can quickly open a workbook from here. 3. Click Open to open a workbook that is not on the list. Close a Workbook 22

    23. If you are new to Excel, it's good to know the difference between closing a workbook and closing Excel. This can be confusing in the beginning. 1. To close an Excel workbook, click the lower X. 2. If you have multiple workbooks open, clicking the upper right X closes the active workbook. If you have one workbook open, clicking the upper right X closes Excel. Create a New Workbook Although Excel creates a blank workbook when you open it, sometimes you want to start all over again. 23

    24. 1. To create a new workbook, click New and then click Create. Select a Worksheet When you open Excel, Excel automatically selects Sheet1 for you. The name of the worksheet appears on its sheet tab at the bottom of the document window. 24

    25. To select one of the other two worksheets, simply click on the sheet tab of Sheet2 or Sheet3. Rename a Worksheet By default, the worksheets are named Sheet1, Sheet2 and Sheet3. To give a worksheet a more specific name, execute the following steps. 1. Right click on the sheet tab of Sheet1. 2. Choose Rename. 3. For example, type Sales 2010. 25

    26. Insert a Worksheet You can insert as many worksheets as you want. To quickly insert a new worksheet, click the Insert Worksheet tab at the bottom of the document window. Result: Move a Worksheet To move a worksheet, click on the sheet tab of the worksheet you want to move and drag it into the new position. 1. For example, click on the sheet tab of Sheet4 and drag it before Sheet2. Result: Delete a Worksheet To delete a worksheet, right click on a sheet tab and choose Delete. 1. For example, delete Sheet4, Sheet2 and Sheet3. Result: 26

    27. Copy a Worksheet Imagine, you have got the sales for 2010 ready and want to create the exact same sheet for 2011, but with different data. You can recreate the worksheet, but this is time-consuming. It's a lot easier to copy the entire worksheet and only change the numbers. 1. Right click on the sheet tab of Sales 2010. 2. Choose Move or Copy... The 'Move or Copy' dialog box appears. 3. Select (move to end) and check Create a copy. 4. Click OK. Result: Note: you can even copy a worksheet to another Excel workbook by selecting the specific workbook from the drop-down list (see the dialog box shown earlier). Find 27

    28. To quickly find specific text, execute the following steps. 1. On the Home tab, click Find & Select, Find... The 'Find and Replace' dialog box appears. 2. Type the text you want to find. For example, type Ferrari. 3. Click 'Find Next'. Excel selects the first occurrence. 28

    29. 4. Click 'Find Next' to select the second occurrence. 5. To get a list of all the occurrences, click 'Find All'. 29

    30. Replace To quickly find specific text and replace it with other text, execute the following steps. 1. On the Home tab, click Find & Select, Replace... The 'Find and Replace' dialog box appears (with the Replace tab selected). 2. Type the text you want to find (Veneno) and replace it with (Diablo). 3. Click 'Find Next'. Excel selects the first occurrence. No replacement has been made yet. 30

    31. 4. Click 'Replace' to make a single replacement. Note: use 'Replace All' to replace all occurrences. Go To Special You can use Excel's Go To Special feature to quickly select all cells with formulas, comments, conditional formatting, constants, data validation, etc. For example, to select all cells with formulas, execute the following steps. 1. Select a single cell. 2. On the Home tab, click Find & Select, Go To Special... Note: Formulas, Comments, Conditional formatting, Constants and Data Validation are shortcuts. They can also be found under Go to Special. 31

    32. 3. Select Formulas and click OK. Note: you can search for cells with formulas that return Numbers, Text, Logicals (TRUE and FALSE) and Errors. These check boxes are also available if you select Constants. Excel selects all cells with formulas. General note: if you select a single cell before you click Find, Replace or Go To Special, Excel searches the entire worksheet. To search a range of cells, first select a range of cells. 32

    33. Class:08 Different searching technique Introduction of Different Search Technique: This section describes some important methods you can use to search efficiently and effectively. It gives you guidance on: ●using symbols to search for alternative word endings and spellings ●combining your concepts in a search statement ●searching for phrases ●performing more specific searches TRUNCATION AND WILD CARD SYMBOLS Use to: widen your search and ensure that you don't miss relevant records Most databases are not intelligent - they just search for exactly what you type in. Truncation and wildcard symbols enable you to overcome this limitation. These symbols can be substituted for letters to retrieve variant spellings and word endings. ●a wild card symbol replaces a single letter - useful to retrieve alternative spellings and simple plurals ●egwom?n will find woman or women ●a truncation symbol retrieves any number of letters - useful to find different word endings based on the root of a word ●egafrica* will find africa, african, africans, afrikaans ●eg agriculture* will find agriculture, agricultural, agriculturalist Important hint! Check the online help screens for details of the symbols recognised by the database you are searching - not all databases use the ?and * symbols. SEARCH OPERATORS: Use to: combine your search words and include synonyms Also known as Boolean operators, search operators allow you to include multiple words and concepts in your searches. The shaded areas on the diagrams below indicate the records retrieved using each operator. ●AND retrieves records containing both words. ●In this example the shaded area contains records with both women and africa in the text. ●It narrows your search. ●Some databases automatically connect keywords with and. 33

    34. ●OR retrieves records containing either word. ●In this example the shaded area contains records with women, or gender, or both words in the text. ●It broadens your search. ●You can use this to include synonyms in your search. ●NOT retrieves your first word but excludes the second. ●In this example the shaded area indicates that only records containing just Africa will be retrieved (not those with both Africa and Asia) ●Beware! By using this operator you might exclude relevant results because you will lose those records which include both words. Creating Search Statement: Use to: combine multiple search words On most databases you can type in a search statement, which involves combining your search words using search operators. When creating a search statement you must use brackets to ensure correct processing of the search. ●Words representing the same concept should be bracketed and linked with OR ●eg (women or gender) ●Groups of bracketed terms can then be linked with AND or NOT This is an example search statement bringing together all the techniques described above: (wom?n or gender) and agriculture* and africa* Searches enclosed within brackets will be performed first and their results combined with the other searches. This is how the search would look when entered into the CAB Abstracts database PHRASE AND PROXIMITY SEARCHING: 34

    35. Phrase searching Use to: make your search more specific Phrase searching is a useful technique which can increase the relevance of your results. Sometimes your search may comprise common words which, when combined in an AND search, retrieve too many irrelevant records. Databases use different techniques to specify phrase searching - check the online help. Some web search engines and databases allow you to specify a phrase using inverted commas. eg "agricultural development" eg "foot and mouth" Hint! Some databases automatically perform a phrase search if you do not use any search operators eg agriculture africa is not a phrase used in English so you may not find any items on the subject. Use AND in between your search words to avoid this. Proximity searching Use to: make a search more specific and exclude irrelevant records Some databases use 'proximity operators'. These enable you to specify how near one word must be to another and, in some cases, in what order. This makes a search more specific and excludes irrelevant records. For instance, if you were searching for references about women in Africa, you might retrieve irrelevant records for items about women published in Africa. Performing a proximity search will only retrieve the two words in the same sentence, and so exclude those irrelevant records. Databases which have this facility vary considerably in their methods eg: Web of Science - women same africa - retrieves records where the two words appear in the same sentence. Hint! Check the online help for details of proximity operators recognised by the database you are searching. ADVANCED SEARCH FEATURES: Many databases offer other more advanced features which you can use to refine your searches further. These techniques include: ●Search sets ●Your results are displayed as "sets", which can be combined with other searches or new words. ●Field-specific searching ●Most database records are made up of different fields (eg author, title etc.). Field-specific searching allows you to select a particular field in which to search, rather than performing a keyword search across all fields. Some databases allow you to type words into specific search boxes, whereas in others you will need to type in the field name or its code. ●Hint! Check help screens for field names or codes, and other hints on searching specific fields. ●Searching using indexes ●It is possible to search some databases using indexes, which are usually alphabetical lists of authors or subjects. They allow you to refine your search using the correct form of names or terms as defined on that particular database. ●Hint! Not all databases allow searching using indexes. Check the online help on a particular database for more information. LIMITING BY DATE, LANGUAGE OR DOCUMENT TYPE 35

    36. Many databases allow you to limit your search in various ways. Limits are usually available on advanced search screens, or you can apply them after doing your keyword search. An example of the search limits from the CAB Abstracts database is shown on the left. Check the help pages on the database you are using for detailed instructions on applying these limits. Examples of the types of limits you can apply include: ●by date ●by language ●by publication type (eg journal articles, chapters in books, review articles that provide detailed summaries of research, book reviews) 36

    37. Class 08: Targeted Consumer Mailing Lists Being in front of your target audience and regularly promoting your products or services is necessary to generate new business. No matter what niche market you’re targeting, we have the right mailing list for you. We have pinpointed the top consumer prospects from our database of more than 210 million consumers, enabling you to pursue your marketing goals. With the demographic selections already in place, you just need to choose the geographic area you want to target. Email Collection Technique: But an opt-in list--the only kind you should have, since no reputable email service provider will let you use rented or purchased lists--is not something that materializes out of thin air. It starts small; you have to nurture it and grow it over time. Given that I've led my email marketing company, VerticalResponse, for the last 13 years, I might know a thing or two about building an email list. Here are my 15 top faves, in no particular order: 1. For brick-and-mortar locations, the sign-up sheet at the register is an oldie but goodie. Yes, it still works, even in this digital age. 2. If your business involves physical products that are shipped, include an insert in each package with instructions on how to subscribe to your email list. Or, include a link to a signup form on every printed invoice. 3. Set up a fishbowl to collect business cards, letting people know that they'll get special offers or discounts if they opt-in to your email list. 4. Events are a great place to get email addresses as well, whether you're collecting business cards or having people fill out a form to join your list.If you've got an iPad, use that for people to enter their email addresses directly. 5. Feature a signup form on your website. State what they'll get for signing up, e.g., newsletters every two weeks, deals and steals, etc. Also, the shorter the form, the better! (Just a name and email address, for example.) 6. While website pop-up windows can be mildly annoying, if it pops up while people leave your site (this assumes they were interested enough in your company to poke around), it's actually pretty efficient. It can ask them to sign up for your offers or newsletter, which many of your readers are likely to do on their way out. 7. If you sell products or services online, ask customers at the end of their online shopping experience to sign up for your newsletter. 8. Add an opt-in/signup form to your Facebook page, or include a link to your hosted opt-in form and write a Facebook status to your fans every now and again, asking them to join your email list. 9. Create Facebook ads around an offer or incentive, or even your newsletter itself. Link people back to your opt- in form/signup landing page from that ad. Here's a step-by-step Process. 10. Include a link to your opt-in page in your email signature, so people emailing with questions can learn about your list. 37

    38. Class: 09 E-commerce- Are you thinking about starting a business where you sell your products online? If so, then you'll be joining the millions of entrepreneurs who have carved out a niche in the world of e-commerce. # Amzon # Ebay # Ali-Express # Ajker Deal #Daraz.com.bd Class -10 : What is business directory: A business directory is a website or printed listing of information which lists all businesses within some category. Businesses can be categorized by business, location, activity, or size. Business may be compiled either manually or through an automated online search software. There are multitudes of online directories, and plenty will also give free links. The major search engines such as Google and Yahoo add more value to one way links from human edited directories, as they are seen as trusted resources." A Business directory is a website or publishes media listing of information which lists all businesses within some group. Businesses can be categorized by : ● business type ● locality ● activity ● volume ● Size Business may be compiled either manually or through automated online search software. The information provided in a business directory will be different. They may include following information: ● Business name ● Addresses ● Telephone numbers ● Location ● Type of service ● Products the business provides ● Number of employees ● The service region ● Any professional media associations such as twitter, YouTube Chanel, Facebook Group ● Video Profile A lot of business directories suggest complimentary listings in addition to the premium options. There are several business directories and some of these have moved over to the internet and away from printed format. Whilst not being search engines, business directories often have a search facility. 38

    39. "Online Business Directories can receive a bad press, and they vary in quality and content. There is a balance between professional advertising, value for money and quality of service. Business owners are looking for ROI, web traffic, exposure for their business, plus SEO benefits of backlinks." Top Online Directory Sites 1.Google 2.Bing 3.Yahoo! 4.Yelp 5.Facebook 6.Better Business Bureau 7.Angie's List 8.Merchant Circle 9.LinkedIn 10.YP.com 11.Whitepages 12.Superpages.com 13.Yellowbook 14.CitySearch 15.MapQuest/Yext 16.Local.com 17.Foursquare 18.CitySlick 19.USDirectory.com 39

    40. Class-11: Basic Internet and Freelancing Data Entry Data entry is the act of entering information into electronic formats by using word processing or data processing software hosted on a computer and it's data entry operators who perform these tasks. In truth, though "data entry" sounds technical, you can get many of these jobs with no previous experience. Web Research Internet research is the practice of using Internet information, especially free information on the World Wide Web, in research. It is: focused and purposeful (so not recreational browsing), uses Internet information or Internet-based resources. LinkedIn Account Creation LinkedIn is a social networking site used for professional purposes. You can use it to connect to your existing professional network as well as expand your network to your secondary and tertiary connections through those you already know. It doesn't have all the bells and whistles that other social networking sites have, but it really works to serve its core purpose. Once you create your own LinkedIn account, you can begin to expand your professional horizons. Steps 40

    41. 1. Go to LinkedIn at www.linkedin.com.If you want to learn more, click on the “What is LinkedIn?” option on the menu across the top of the page. If not, go ahead and sign up by entering you name, email and a password in the “Join LinkedIn Today” box on the right of the screen. 2.Confirm your account through your email address. Once you’ve done this, sign in and get started. 41

    42. 4.Edit your profile.Editing and updating your profile is quick and easy, so there’s absolutely no need for advanced technical know-how. Enter you sub-heading, area and industry underneath your name, and add a profile picture of yourself. 4. Edit your qualifications. Add your current and past employment as well as your education. Be sure to include descriptions of your past jobs and degrees earned––this way, people will be able to more clearly see your experiences and know what to contact you for. LinkedIn can also tailor job suggestions to send you if you've provided adequate details. ○Keep your details short, sweet, and informative. 42

    43. 5. Add a Summary. This is a chance to write a more in-depth paragraph to give people an idea of where you stand now in your career, what your strengths are, where you want to go and what you have to offer. Although it's a summary, it can take some time to write a good one, so don't be afraid to edit it ruthlessly until it reads well. 6. Add Specialties. This is located directly below. It acts as an extension of the Summary section but in short form. You can list specific skills and areas of expertise. ○Choose wisely––other members of LinkedIn can endorse you for these specialties, so avoid choosing something people don't have any clue you're capable of doing! 43

    44. 7. Add Connections. You can have LinkedIn search through your email address book to find people you know. You can also search by a person’s name, job title or company. 8. Add Websites.Link in your company’s website, your own personal site, your blog, and/or your Twitter account. This will allow visitors to your page to see different aspects of your professional self. Be cautious of linking in your Facebook page if you have questionable photos of yourself, or to your Twitter account, depending on the language of your tweets. 44

    45. 9. Get Recommendations.If you’re trying to find a job through LinkedIn, it is suggested that you have at least three professional recommendations. Ask your former bosses or colleagues. Return the favor and recommend others as well. Add Applications. These are not necessary, but having them can make your profile more complete. For example, you can add Blog Link for a stream of your blog or other website updates. You can add the Reading List application by Amazon to let everyone know what books you’re reading and which ones you recommend. With other applications, you can share files or presentations. 45

    46. Class 12: Convert Pdf to Excel How to convert a PDF file to Excel: 1.Open a file in Acrobat. 2.Click on the Export PDF tool in the right pane. 3.Choose spreadsheet as your export format, and then select Microsoft Excel Workbook. 4.Click Export. 5.Name the Excel file and save it in a desired location. Class 13 and 14 : Find Targeted People Email Address In business, data is synonymous with answers—evidence, objectivity, hidden insight. This perception of data as the magic key that opens doors holding information to anything we’ve ever wanted to know makes us obsessed with the latest ways to get it: Big Data, data visualization, open-source data, data scientists. But, as marketers, are we doing data right? While Big Data and data-driven everything have been framed as universal analytics solutions, their effectiveness can be threatened by the same issue that faces all innovative tools: if you haven’t set proper goals you want to achieve using social media data, you risk making a lot of false conclusions. Whether you or your company are early adopters of social media data, or just looking into better ways of using this information to inform business decisions, to get the most out of the social media data available to your business, you should go back to basics. Use the following 3 questions to evaluate your perception of data and the effectiveness of your data strategies. What is social media data? When considering any new tool, it’s important to set your definitions straight in order to ensure that you are exploring these tools to their full potential. Social media data typically describes information created and curated by individual users and collected from public spaces, such as: ●Social media networks: Tweets, posts, favourites, sentiment ●Social search: keyword analysis and hashtag tracking ●Long-form publishing platforms: blogs, wikis, and social opinion sites such as Yelp ●Public multimedia content-sharing platforms: SlideShare, YouTube, Flickr, etc. This list may not sound exhaustive, and that’s because it’d be extremely difficult to define all the currently available sources for social media data. An easier way to explain the evolution of social media data is to contrast it with the “Web of the past,” what assistant professor of computer science at Stanford University Jure Leskovec described as “a universal static library,” a place where users search and index resources offered by a comparatively small number of sources; versus a “current awareness medium,” a place where Internet users from all over the world can create and share information in real-time. This creation process is both the biggest advantage and the biggest potential hurdle of social media intelligence—on one hand, 46

    47. it’s instantly accessible genuine information produced in real time by real people; but this also means that in order to reach a meaningful conclusion from this data, you have to set the right parameters for its use. How can I use social media data for business? ‘Social media data’ and ‘social media intelligence’ are often used interchangeably, but I like to use a natural resources analogy (since the process of gathering social media data is called “mining” after all): social media data is the raw material, and social media intelligence is the finished good you get when you collect data with set goals and criteria in mind. Thus, the first and most important step in turning social media data into social media intelligence is determining the business goals you want to achieve with the help of that information. Some typical goals are the improvement of customer service, instant feedback on products and services through sentiment analysis, target group discovery and modification, and measurement of social media strategy ROI. You can use different metrics to reach different goals, but it’s also possible to conduct a single analysis to inform several of these objectives. For example, let’s say you want to turn social media data into social media intelligence to find out how your brand’s customer service efforts measure up. In order to do this, it might be helpful to collect social media content containing mentions of your brand. A good place to start would be to conduct a Google search, and set up keyword search streams with mentions of your brand’s Twitter handle, official hashtags, and commonly misspellings of the brand names and products. You can conduct a sentiment analysis for mentions of your brand to see what percentage of mentions consist of complaints, inquiries or positive feedback. You can then record response times of your customersuccess agents or social media managers, and calculate the average response time to different categories of customer feedback. Thus, social media intelligence on customer interactions can shed light on the general feelings surrounding your brand on social, as well as provide quantifiable results on how your social customer service efforts stack up. The second crucial skill in social media data use is knowledge of its limitations, which assumes insight into some key user behaviors. For example, you have to account for the social media spiral of silence phenomenon, which shows that the “loudest” opinion on social may not be the most commonly shared one. Another hurdle is that the major demographics by age and gender on certain networks may be largely skewed towards a certain group—such as Pinterest for female users, or Snapchat for Gen Z—which may not be representative of your target audience. Finally, while major social platforms are constantly involved in the process of cleaning out fake accounts—Instagram comes to mind as the most recent drastic example—they can still influence your results for data such as Likes, follower counts, and reach. All these limitations can create gaps in your data, or form a picture that isn’t reflective of the real state of affairs. Before you choose your methods for collecting and sorting through your social media data, consider all the limitations that may get in the way of getting the correct picture. Class 15: Ecommerce Product Upload and Analysis While listing products on Amazon is a great way to sell your products and expose them to millions of customers, adding multiple items to your merchant account can be a time-consuming process. Instead of adding products one-by-one, sellers with Pro Merchant Subscription accounts can use Amazon’s tools to upload product details in bulk. Step 1 Download Amazon’s pre-built inventory file template from Amazon.com that fits your product category (link in Resources). This template is a Microsoft Excel file. You can use free programs such as Apache OpenOfficeCalc and LibreOfficeCalc to open and edit the file if you do not own Excel (links in Resources). Step 2 Open the template in a spreadsheet program. Each template has detailed instructions specific to your product category at the top of the document. Carefully read the instructions before entering your product details so you do not make any mistakes. Related Reading: How to List Bulk on Amazon Step 3 47

    48. Print the “Data Definitions” tab in the spreadsheet. This worksheet includes important details on the acceptable values and formats you can enter into the template. Keep it handy as a reference when filling out the template. Step 4 Add your inventory items to the template. Pay close attention to template columns to make sure you enter product details in the correct cell. Enter details such as SKU, product ID, title, brand, manufacturer, description and more. You can also add bullet points to expand on the description of your item in the cells labeled "BulletPoint1," "BulletPoint2," "BulletPoint3" and so on. Step 5 Save the file in the .xls format when you are finished entering product details. In Excel, OpenOfficeCalc and LibreOfficeCalc, select “File” from the program menu, then click “Save As.” Step 6 Save the file again as a tab-delimited .txt file, per Amazon’s instructions. This is the file format needed for uploading on Amazon.com. If a dialog pops up that says the file format does not support files containing multiple worksheets or something similar, click “OK.” If another warning says the document contains features incompatible with the file format, click “Yes.” Step 7 Log in to your Amazon seller account. Click “Upload multiple items,” then select the template type for the file you want to upload. To completely replace all of the items in your inventory, select “Purge and Replace.” Step 8 Click “Select File Upload,” then “Browse.” Locate your product file on your computer using the dialog box, select it, then click “Upload Now.” After you upload the document, the page shows the status of the upload. Refresh the page to see the upload progress. Files over 5MB may take several hours to process. Class 16: What Is SEO / Search Engine Optimization? SEO stands for “search engine optimization.” It is the process of getting traffic from the “free,” “organic,” “editorial” or “natural” search results on search engines. All major search engines such as Google, Bing and Yahoo have primary search results, where web pages and other content such as videos or local listings are shown and ranked based on what the search engine considers most relevant to users. Payment isn’t involved, as it is with paid search ads. 48

    49. Why SEO is Important ? An important aspect of SEO is making your website easy for both users and search engine robots to understand. Although search engines have become increasingly sophisticated, they still can't see and understand a web page the same way a human can. SEO helps the engines figure out what each page is about, and how it may be useful for users. A Common Argument Against SEO We frequently hear statements like this: "No smart engineer would ever build a search engine that requires websites to follow certain rules or principles in order to be ranked or indexed. Anyone with half a brain would want a system that can crawl through any architecture, parse any amount of complex or imperfect code, and still find a way to return the most relevant results, not the ones that have been 'optimized' by unlicensed search marketing experts." But Wait ... Imagine you posted online a picture of your family dog. A human might describe it as "a black, medium-sized dog, looks like a Lab, playing fetch in the park." On the other hand, the best search engine in the world would struggle to understand the photo at anywhere near that level of sophistication. How do you make a search engine understand a photograph? Fortunately, SEO allows webmasters to provide clues that the engines can use to understand content. In fact, adding proper structure to your content is essential to SEO. Understanding both the abilities and limitations of search engines allows you to properly build, format, and annotate your web content in a way that search engines can digest. Without SEO, a website can be invisible to search engines. How Search Engine Works: Search engines have two major functions: crawling and building an index, and providing search users with a ranked list of the websites they've determined are the most relevant. Imagine the World Wide Web as a network of stops in a big city subway system. Each stop is a unique document (usually a web page, but sometimes a PDF, JPG, or other file). The search engines need a way to “crawl” the entire city and find all the stops along the way, so they use the best path available—links. 1.Crawling and Indexing 2.Crawling and indexing the billions of documents, pages, files, news, videos, and media on the World Wide Web. 49

    50. 3.Providing Answers 4.Providing answers to user queries, most frequently through lists of relevant pages that they've retrieved and ranked for relevancy. The link structure of the web serves to bind all of the pages together. Links allow the search engines' automated robots, called "crawlers" or "spiders," to reach the many billions of interconnected documents on the web. Once the engines find these pages, they decipher the code from them and store selected pieces in massive databases, to be recalled later when needed for a search query. To accomplish the monumental task of holding billions of pages that can be accessed in a fraction of a second, the search engine companies have constructed datacenters all over the world. These monstrous storage facilities hold thousands of machines processing large quantities of information very quickly. When a person performs a search at any of the major engines, they demand results instantaneously; even a one- or two-second delay can cause dissatisfaction, so the engines work hard to provide answers as fast as possible. 50