key to variation n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Key to Variation PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Key to Variation

Loading in 2 Seconds...

  share
play fullscreen
1 / 14
Download Presentation

Key to Variation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

forest
147 Views
Download Presentation

Key to Variation

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Key to Variation  “No two people speak exactly the same.” (Holmes, 127 c)  AND no one person speaks exactly the same all the time. 1/14

  2. Dialect vs Language Crystal, David. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987, p. 287. 2/14

  3. Schematic Dialect Continuum Crystal, David. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987, p. 25. 3/14

  4. Dialect Continua in Europe Crystal, David. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987, p. 25. 4/14

  5. Dialect Chain: Understanding your Neighbors “The [vernacular] varieties of French spoken in the border towns and villages of Italy, Spain, and Switzerland, have more in common with the language of the next village than the language of Paris. From one village and town to the next there is a chain or continuum.” Holmes, Janet. 2013. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, 4th edition. London: Pearson, pp 137-138. 5/14

  6. What is a Language? “So a language can be thought of as a collection of dialects that are usually linguistically similar, used by different social groups who choose to say they are speakers of one language which functions to unite and represent them to other groups.” Holmes, Janet. 2013. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, 4th edition. London: Pearson, p. 138. 6/14

  7. Social and Regional Accent Variation Highest class: RP Social variation Lowest class: local accents Regional variation Holmes, Janet. 2013. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, 4th edition. London: Pearson, p. 139. 7/14

  8. British Social Dialect Vocabulary 1 (1950s) U non-U have a bath take a bath bike, bicycle cycle luncheon dinner riding horse riding sick ill knave jack mad mental looking-glass mirror writing-paper note paper jam preserve Crystal, David. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987, p. 39. From A.S.C. Ross, 1954. 8/14

  9. British Social Dialect Vocabulary 2 (1950s) U non-U wireless radio table-napkin serviette lavatory-paper toilet-paper rich wealthy vegetables greens pudding sweet telegram wire England Britain Scotch Scottish Crystal, David. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987, p. 39. From A.S.C. Ross, 1954. 9/14

  10. Syntax Differences and Dialect (a) I’ve not washed the dishes yet today. (b) I haven’t washed the dishes yet today. [Both standard] (c) They have got along well for many years. (d) They have gotten along well for many years. [Regional Variation] (e) I don’t have any money. (f) I don’t have no money. [Social Variation] 10/14

  11. [ h ]-Dropping Holmes, Janet. 2013. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, 4th edition. London: Pearson, p. 146. 11/14

  12. -ing / -in Table 6.2: Percentage of vernacular [in] pronunciation for four social groups in speech communities in Britain, America, and Australia Social group11 2 3 4 Norwich 31 42 91 100 West Yorkshire 5 34 61 83 New York 7 32 45 75 Brisbane 17 31 49 63 Note 1: 1 is the highest group; 4 the lowest. Holmes, Janet. 2013. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, 4th edition. London: Pearson, p. 146.

  13. Post-Vocalic [ r ] Holmes, Janet. 2013. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, 4th edition. London: Pearson, p. 148. 13/14

  14. Vernacular 3rd Person Present Tense (she walks / she walk) Holmes, Janet. 2013. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, 4th edition. London: Pearson, p. 152. 14/14