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GIS & GI Science. Lecture 1. What is Geographic Information Systems?. A set of tools for analyzing geographic data and making maps. Definitions A computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic data.

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what is geographic information systems
What is Geographic Information Systems?

A set of tools for analyzing geographic data and making maps.

slide3

Definitions

  • A computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic data.
  • A combination of computer cartography and database management.
  • “A powerful set of tools for storing and retrieving at will, transforming and displaying spatial data from the real world for a particular set of purposes.” -Peter Burrough
  • “Automated systems for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis and display of spatial data.” -Keith Clarke
slide4

“An information system that is designed to work with data referenced by spatial or geographic coordinates. In other words, a GIS is both a database system with specific capabilities for spatially-referenced data, as well as a set of operations for working with the data.” -Jack Estes

  • “A GIS is a special case of IS where the database consists of observations on spatially-distributed features, activities, or events which are definable in space as points, line and areas to retrieve data for ad hoc queries and analyses.” -Ken Duecker
slide5

From: Geographic Information Systems and Science, 2nd ed. (Paul Longley, Michael Goodchild, David Maguire, and David Rhind)

The Basics of GIS:

http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/intro/intro.html

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GIS

TRACKS

OUR

WEATHER

slide8

GIS CAN FORCAST GEOLOGICAL TRENDS

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS SEISMIC ACTIVITY INDEX

slide11

GIS CAN TAKE YOU

AROUND YOUR NEIGHBORHOOD

AROUND YOUR CITY

gi science
GI Science

A discipline that incorporates cartography, remote sensing, and geographic information systems.

the three elements of gi science
The three elements of GI Science
  • Individual: Research dominated by cognitive science. Understanding spatial concepts, learning and reasoning about geographic data, and computer interaction.
  • Computer: Research about representation, adoption of new technologies, computation, and visualization.
  • Society: Research about issues of impacts and societal context.
gis applications
GIS Applications

Modeling the Environment of the Salton Sea with GIS:

http://www.wiley.com/legacy/wileychi/longley/feature5.html

advantages of gis
Advantages of GIS

GIS maps

  • Are interactive
  • Allow for exploration and inquiry
  • Allow you to choose features of interest for display

GIS allows you to view the world in ways pertinent to a specific industry or topic.

the five phases of development
The Five Phases of Development
  • The Research Frontier
  • Experimentation and Practice
  • Commercial Phase
  • User-Dominance
  • Web-Based Internet GI-Science

Web Based Timeline of GIS

the research frontier late 1950s to mid 1970s
The Research Frontier:late 1950s to mid 1970s

Individual Led Development

  • 1958 - NASA - Data Availability
  • 1968 - Apollo 8 - Returned 1st Images from Space
  • Lack of Computing Resources
  • 1960’s - Early computer mapping packages
    • Harvard - SYMAP, IMGRID, CALFORM
    • Isoline Maps
  • 1969 - Jack Dangermond began ESRI
experimentation and practice mid 1970s to early 1980s
Experimentation and Practice: mid 1970s to early 1980s
  • National Agencies Driving Development
  • Government Funded Research
  • NOAA Established
  • NASA: huge data increase (SPOT, LandSat)
  • Role of the Individual Diminished
commercial phase mid 1980s
Commercial Phase: mid 1980s
  • Corporate Software available - competition
  • PCs becoming popular - individual market opening up
  • Isolated systems running GIS & isolated data sets - minimal sharing of data
  • GPS becomes fully operational
user dominance 1990s
User Dominance: 1990s
  • Strong competition among software vendors
  • Databases began to become distributed
    • Internet becomes operational
    • Network accessibility more common
  • Development of Standards
    • Quality control
    • Data tracking (Metadata)
web based internet gi services shift late 1990s present
Web-Based Internet GI Services Shiftlate 1990s - Present
  • Distributed and Interoperational Architecture
    • Data resides and is distributed over a network
      • Limitations - Requires high speed and wide bandwidth (Network Capacity)
    • Standardized Data
      • Data is not platform or program dependent
  • Google Earth, ArcWeb Explorer, National Map
history of gis longley goodchild 2005
History of GIS (Longley & Goodchild 2005)
  • Controversy about the true history of GIS (parallel developments in North America, Europe, and Australia)
  • First period of innovation
    • Canada created the first GIS (1960s)
  • Second burst of innovation (late 1960s)
    • US planned to conduct the 1970 Census of population
    • The DIME program creates digital streets
  • Computers begin to be used for mapmaking (late 1960s)
  • (In 1995, Great Britain is the first country to have a complete digital map of the country)
  • 1950s: first military satellites took photos of the landscape
  • 1960s-1970s: from photography to remote sensing (sensing radiation from objects and converting wavelength values into an image); new civilian remote sensing systems (the LANDSAT satellite)
  • Modern GIS took off in the 1980s (computer hardware becomes affordable)
  • First GIS customers are forestry and natural resource agencies
  • First GIS computing system: $250,000; First GIS software: $100,000
  • The GIS industry continues to grow: GIS software continues to grow, and computers continue to fall in price and increase in power
slide24

GIS in the Workforce

Lecture 3

http://geoinfo.sdsu.edu/hightech

gis is a key emerging and evolving industry according to a u s department of labor 2003 report
GIS is a key emerging and evolving industry, according to a U.S. Department of Labor 2003 report.

http://www.doleta.gov:80/BRG/JobTrainInitiative/

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Advanced Manufacturing

Aerospace

Automotive

Biotechnology

Construction

Energy

Financial Services

Geospatial Technology

Health Care

Homeland Security

Hospitality

Information Technology

Retail

Transportation

The geospatial industry is a focus of president George W. Bush’s High Growth Job Training Initiative."Targeted Industries
investment in gis a top high growth industry
Investment in GISA Top High-Growth Industry
  • The market for geospatial technologies in 2002 was estimated at $5 billion. This market is projected to have annual revenues of $30 billion by 2005
  • $20 billion in the remote sensing market and $10 billion in the geographical information systems (GIS) market. (Gaudet, Annulis,Carr)

http://www.doleta.gov/BRG/pdf/Geospatial.pdf

slide28
Careers in GISGIS is a cross-disciplinary field and is found in the classrooms of many academic departments including those listed below.
  • Agriculture
  • Architecture
  • Business
  • Education
  • Engineering
  • Humanities
  • Law
  • Library
  • Military Science
  • Natural Resource Management
  • Natural Sciences
  • Public Health and Medicine
  • Physical Sciences
  • Social Sciences

@ ESRI http://www.gis.com/careers/geospatial_career.html

what do gis professionals do
What do GIS professionals do?

GIS professionals use GIS to visualize, analyze, and model systems to help in the planning and decision-making processes of their organizations.

They make geographic information accessible to scientists, planners, decision makers, and the public.

@ ESRI http://www.gis.com/careers/geospatial_career.htm

gis careers typically include positions such as
GIS careers typically include positions such as:
  • Cartographic designer
  • Computer programmer
  • Database administrator
  • Project manager
  • System administrator
  • Surveying
  • They also encompass business development, managerial, and administrative roles.
gis professionals are educated in three main ways
GIS professionals are educated in three main ways:
  • Through special certificate programs at colleges and universities (most common)
  • Through degree programs at colleges and universities
  • As part of the curriculum in other specialties such as while pursuing an urban planning degree

@ ESRI http://www.gis.com/careers/geospatial_career.html

getting started with geographic information systems clarke 2001
Getting Started with Geographic Information Systems (Clarke 2001)

GIS is a Multibillion-Dollar Business

  • The field of GI Science has grown rapidly
    • Cost reductions in technology since 1982
    • Almost every major academic institution in the US and many other countries now offers at least one GIS class
    • Most local, state, and federal agencies use GIS
    • GIS is also used by businesses, planners, architects, and people working with the physical environment
slide33
GIS has a role in society
    • GIS is used in decision making
    • GIS is used in public settings like town meetings (Participatory GIS)
  • Different groups use the same GIS software and data in different ways
    • People determine the purpose of GIS