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Toward Fully Automated Person-Independent Detection of Mind Wandering

Toward Fully Automated Person-Independent Detection of Mind Wandering

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Toward Fully Automated Person-Independent Detection of Mind Wandering

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  1. Toward Fully Automated Person-Independent Detection of Mind Wandering Robert Bixler & Sidney D’Mello rbixler@nd.edu University of Notre Dame July 10, 2013

  2. mind wandering • indicates waning attention • occurs frequently • 20-40% of the time • decreases performance • comprehension • memory

  3. solutions • proactive • mindfulness training • Mrazek (2013) • tailoring learning environment • Kopp, Bixler, D’Mello (2014) • reactive • mind wandering detection

  4. our goal is to detect mind wandering

  5. related work – attention • Attention and Selection in Online Choice Tasks • Navalpakkam et al. (2012) • Multi-mode Saliency Dynamics Model for Analyzing Gaze and Attention • Yonetani, Kawashima, and Matsuyama (2012) • distinct from mind wandering

  6. mind wandering detection • neural activity • physiology • acoustic/prosodic • eye movements

  7. neural activity Experience Sampling During fMRI Reveals Default Network and Executive System Contributions to Mind Wandering • Christoff et al. (2009)

  8. physiology Automated Physiological-Based Detection of Mind Wandering during Learning • Blanchard, Bixler, D’Mello(2014)

  9. acoustic-prosodic In the Zone: Towards Detecting Student Zoning Out Using Supervised Machine Learning • Drummond and Litman (2010)

  10. eye movements mindless reading mindful reading

  11. research questions • can mind wandering be detected from eye gaze data? • which features are most useful for detecting mind wandering?

  12. data collection • 4 texts on research methods • self-paced page-by-page • 30-40 minutes • difficulty and value • auditory probes • 9 per text • inserted psuedorandomly (4-12s) tobii tx300

  13. data analysis • compute fixations • OGAMA (Open Gaze and Mouse Analyzer) (Voßkühler et al. 2008) • compute features • build supervised machine learning models

  14. features • global • local • context

  15. global features • eye movements • fixation duration • saccade duration • saccade length • fixation dispersion • reading depth • fixation/saccade ratio

  16. local features • reading patterns • word length • hypernym depth • number of synonyms • frequency • fixation type • regression • first pass • single • gaze • no word

  17. context features • positional timing • since session start • since text start • since page start • previous page times • average • previous page to average ratio • task • difficulty • value

  18. supervised machine learning • parameters • window size (4, 8, or 12) • minimum number of fixations (5, 1/s, 2/s, or 3/s) • outlier treatment (trimmed, winsorized, none) • feature type (global, local, context, combined) • downsampling • feature selection • classifiers (20 standard from weka) • leave-several-subjects-out cross validation (66:34 split)

  19. 1. can mind wandering be detected using eye gaze data?

  20. 1. can mind wandering be detected using eye gaze data?

  21. 1. can mind wandering be detected using eye gaze data? confusion matrices end-of-page within-page

  22. 2. which features are most useful for detecting mind wandering?

  23. 2. which features are most useful for detecting mind wandering?

  24. summary • mind wandering detection is possible • kappas of .28 to .17 • end-of-page models performed better • global features were best • exception: context features highest ranked for end-of-page

  25. enhanced feature set • global • pupil diameter • blink frequency • saccade angle • local • cross-line saccades • end-of-clause fixations

  26. enhanced feature set

  27. predictive validity

  28. self-caught mind wandering

  29. what does mind wandering look like? • saccades • slower • shorter • more frequent blinks • larger pupil diameters

  30. limitations • eye tracker cost • population validity • self-report • classification accuracy

  31. future work • multiple modalities • different types of mind wandering • mind wandering intervention

  32. acknowledgements • Blair Lehman • Art Graesser • Jennifer Neale • Nigel Bosch • Caitlin Mills

  33. questions ?