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KOMPOSISI DAN SIFAT BAHAN PANGAN. Komponen Alami:. Komponen Tambahan:. Vitamin & Mineral . Emulsifier . Antioxidant . Lipida . Preservative . Asam. Enzim. Thickener . Protein. Pigmen. Citarasa. Sweetener . Carbohydrate. Etc. . Antioksidan. Water. MUTU & KEAMANAN PANGAN.

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KOMPOSISI DAN SIFAT BAHAN PANGAN


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slide1

KOMPOSISI DAN SIFAT BAHAN PANGAN

Komponen Alami:

Komponen Tambahan:

Vitamin &

Mineral

Emulsifier

Antioxidant

Lipida

Preservative

Asam

Enzim

Thickener

Protein

Pigmen

Citarasa

Sweetener

Carbohydrate

Etc.

Antioksidan

Water

MUTU & KEAMANAN

PANGAN

karbohidrat
KARBOHIDRAT
  • PENDAHULUAN
  • KARBOHIDRAT DALAM BAHAN PANGAN
  • KLASIFIKASI DAN STRUKTUR KIMIA
  • REAKSI KIMIA KARBOHIDRAT
  • SIFAT FUNGSIONAL KARBOHIDRAT
1 pendahuluan
1. PENDAHULUAN
  • 75 % of Biological World
  • 80 % of the Calorie Intake of humankind
    • 75 – 80 % starch
  • In USA : Composition of Calorie Intake
    • Carbohydrate : 46%
      • 47 % Starch
      • 52% Sucrose
    • Fats : 42%
    • Protein : 12%
  • Rumus Umum : Cx(H2O)y
  • Modifikasi struktur  Sifat Fungsional
2 karbohidrat dalam bahan pangan
2. KARBOHIDRAT DALAM BAHAN PANGAN
  • Karbohidrat utama dalam :
  • animal : glucose, glycogen
  • milk : lactose
  • plant : cellulose, starch
  • seaweed : alginate, carrageenan, agar
sugar in fruits per 100 gram
Sugar in Fruits (per 100 gram)

Sumber : Food and Nutrition Encyclopedia (1994)

*) Daftar Analisis Bahan Makanan (1992)

3 klasifikasi dan struktur kimia
3. KLASIFIKASI DAN STRUKTUR KIMIA

Tanaman

Lingkungan

Photosynthesis

Lingkungan

Carbohydrates are synthesised in green plants by photosynthesis. Solar energy is absorbed by the green pigment in plants, chlorophyll. This energy is used to drive many enzyme-catalysed processes. The overall effect is to reduce carbon dioxide to carbohydrates and oxidise water to oxygen:

slide11

CARBOHYDRATECx(H2O)y

Mono

saccharides

Di

saccharides

Oligo

saccharides

Hexose (C-6)

  • Sucrose (a+d)
  • Lactose (a+b)
  • Maltose (a+a) -> a
  • Cellobiose (a+a) ->b
  • Rafinose (b+a+d)
  • Stachyose (b+b+a+d)
  • Verbacose
  • D-Glucose
  • D-Galactose
  • D-Mannose
  • D-Fructose

Pentose (C-5)

POLY

SACCHARIDES

  • Xylose
  • Arabinose
  • Ribose
  • Cellulose (-> a)
  • Starch (-> a)
  • Chitin
  • Agar (->b)
  • Carrageenan (->b)
  • Alginat
polysaccharides
POLYSACCHARIDES

STARCH

NON-STARCH

POLYSACCHARIDES

Daratan:

Perairan:

Alginate

Cellulose

Carrageenan

Pectin

Agar

Gum

Furcellaran

Lainnya

Chitosan

Lainnya

struktur kimia
Struktur Kimia

Gugus Aldehid (CHO) = gugus reduksi

H

Gugus Karbonil (CO)

b

=

1

C

O

6

CH2OH

2

H

C

OH

O

H

H

OH

5

3

4

HO

C

H

1

1

OH

H

HO

OH

2

H

3

4

OH

H

C

OH

H

5

C

H

OH

Atom C Chiral

a-D-Glukosa

6

H

C

OH

Atom C asimetris terjauh dari karbonil (CO)

Sebagai dasar penamaan D (OH dikanan) dan

L (OH di kiri)

H

a-D-Glukosa

(Aldosa)

(Aldohexose)

struktur kimia15
Struktur Kimia

H

=

1

1

C

O

C

OH

H

6

CH2OH

2

2

H

C

OH

H

C

OH

O

H

H

5

3

3

4

HO

C

H

HO

C

H

1

OH

H

HO

OH

2

3

4

4

OH

OH

H

C

H

C

OH

H

5

5

C

C

H

OH

H

O

a-D-Glukosa

Konfigurasi Haworth

6

6

H

H

C

C

OH

OH

H

H

a-D-Glucopyranosa

Aldehydo-D-Glukose

struktur kimia16
Struktur Kimia

Gugus Aldehid (CHO) = gugus reduksi

H

H

Gugus Karbonil (CO)

=

1

1

C

OH

C

O

H

2

2

H

C

OH

H

C

OH

Reduksi

3

3

HO

C

H

HO

C

H

4

4

OH

OH

H

C

H

C

  • Na-Amalgam
  • Li-Al-hydride
  • hydrogenation

5

5

C

H

OH

C

H

OH

6

6

H

C

H

C

OH

OH

H

H

Sorbitol

a-D-Glukosa

(Aldosa)

struktur kimia17
Struktur Kimia

Gugus Aldehid (CHO) = gugus reduksi

H

H

Gugus Karbonil (CO)

=

1

1

C

OH

C

O

H

Gugus Keton

2

2

=

C

O

H

C

OH

3

3

HO

C

H

HO

C

H

Saccharose group

4

4

OH

OH

H

C

H

C

5

5

C

H

OH

C

H

OH

R

6

6

H

C

H

C

OH

OH

=

C

O

H

H

HO

C

H

a-D-Glukosa

(Aldosa)

(Hexose)

(C6H12O6)

a-D-Fruktosa

(Ketosa)

(Hexulose)

(C6H12O6)

R = H  Aldehyde

R = CH2OH  Keton

struktur kimia18
Struktur Kimia

Carbonyl group

Aldehydes are readily oxidised to carboxylic acids:

Keton Aldehid

If copper (II) (blue Cu2+) is used as the oxidising agent it is converted into copper (I) which forms red copper oxide (Cu2O) as a precipitate. This is how Benedict’s reagent and Fehling’s solution are used to test for aldehydes and reducing sugars.

slide20

MONOSAKARIDA

6

CH2OH

CH2OH

O

O

H

HO

H

H

5

4

1

OH

OH

H

H

a

a

HO

H

OH

OH

2

3

OH

OH

H

H

a-D-Galaktosa

a-D-Glukosa

6

CH2OH

OHCH2

1

O

CH2OH

O

H

H

2

5

OH

OH

H

OH

a

a

HO

OH

OH

H

4

3

H

H

OH

H

a-D-Fructose

a-D-Manosa

slide21

DISAKARIDA

CH2OH

CH2OH

O

O

H

H

H

H

OH

H

OH

H

O

HO

OH

OH

H

OH

H

a-D-Glukosa

a-D-Glukosa

a-D-Maltosa

(Glukosa-a-(14)-Glukosa)

  • terdiri atas 2 molekul glukosa
  • dari hydrolysis pati oleh b-amylase
  • gula reduksi
slide22

DISAKARIDA

CH2OH

CH2OH

O

O

H

HO

H

OH

H

OH

H

O

OH

H

H

OH

H

OH

H

a-D-Glukosa

a-D-Galaktosa

Lactosa

Galaktose-b-(14)-Glukosa)

  • terdiri atas Galaktosa dan Glukosa
  • terdapat pada susu :
    • Mamalia : 2 – 8.5%
    • Cow and Goat : 4.5 – 4.8%
    • Human : 7 %
  • gula reduksi
slide23

DISAKARIDA

6

CH2OH

OHCH2

1

CH2OH

O

O

H

H

2

5

OH

H

H

OH

O

OH

4

3

HO

OH

H

OH

H

a-D-Fructose

a-D-Glukosa

Sukrosa

Glukosa-a-(12)-Fruktosa)

  • terdiri atas Glukosa dan Fruktosa
  • terdapat pada cane atau beet
  • gula non-reduksi
  • table sugar
slide24

POLISAKARIDA

ikatan-b-(14)-Glikosidik)

H

OH

CH2OH

O

H

H

B

2

OH

O

A

O

4

1

1

4

H

1

4

OH

H

O

HO

H

O

CH2OH

OH

H

a-D-Glukosa

a-D-Glukosa

A

B

n

CELLULOSE

slide27

REAKSI-REAKSI KARBOHIDRAT

HYDROLYSIS

NON-ENZYMATIC BROWNING

As shown in Table 4.29, the C1 and Cx factors, which were found to be endo- and exo-1,4-β-glucanases respectively, hydrolyze cellulose to cellobiose. Since the C1 factor is increasingly inhibited by its product, a cellobiase is needed so

that cellulose breakdown is not rapidly brought to a standstill. However, cellobiase is also subject to product inhibition. Therefore, complete cellulose

degradation is possible only if cellobiase is present in large excess or the glucose formed is quickly eliminated.

slide28

REAKSI-REAKSI KARBOHIDRAT

  • HYDROLYSIS :
    • Pembuatan HFCS

POLYSACCHARIDES

1

Acid Treatment

2

Heat Treatment

3

PRODUCTS

HFCS

Enzyme Treatment

slide29

4. REAKSI-REAKSI KARBOHIDRAT

  • HYDROLYSIS :
    • Fermentasi Tape

Fermentation

PRODUCTS

BAHAN BAKU

  • Tape singkong
  • Tape Ketan
  • Ketela Pohoh
  • Ketan
  • Jenis Mikrobia
  • Suhu
  • Waktu

Acid

Glucose

Starch

Alcohol

slide30

Reaksi Enzimatis

  • Dipengaruhi oleh :
    • Substrat
    • Enzim
    • Suhu
    • Waktu
  • ENZIMATIS

BROWNING

  • Reaksi Maillard
  • Reaksi Gula & Protein
  • Dipengaruhi oleh :
    • Jenis Gula
    • Suhu
    • Waktu
  • NON-ENZIMATIS
  • Karamelisasi
  • Ascorbic acid
  • oxidation
  • Pemanasan Gula
  • Dipengaruhi oleh :
    • Suhu
    • Waktu
slide31

BROWNING

  • Reaksi Maillard
    • Ilmuwan Perancis : Louis Maillard (1912)
    •  glucose + glycine
    • Carbonyl – Amine Reaction  action of
    • amino acids/protein on reducing sugars
    • Related to aroma, taste and color
    • Roasting of coffee and cacao beans,
    • baking of bread and cakes, toasting of
    • cereals, cooking of meats
slide32

BROWNING

REDUCING

SUGAR

CARBONYL

Melanoidins

(Brown

Pigments)

  • Dipengaruhi oleh :
    • Jenis Gula
    • Asam Amino
    • pH
    • Suhu
    • Katalis
    • Kadar Air

5-Hydroxymethyl-

2-Furfuraldehyde

(HMF)

AMINO

ACID

AMINE

reaksi maillard
REAKSI MAILLARD
  • Reaksi antara gula pereduksi dan Protein (asam amino)
  • Dipengaruhi oleh suhu, waktu dan jenis gula
  • Menghasilkan warna coklat
  • Prosesnya berlangsung pada suasana basa
  • Proses yang terjadi pada reaksi maillard:
    • Gugus karbonil pada gula menghasilkan N-glukosamin dan air
    • Gugus glukosamin yang tidak stabil mengalami pengaturan kembali membentuk ketosamin
    • Ketosamin mengalami proses lanjut:
      • Memproduksi air dan redukton
      • Menghasilkan diasetil, aspirin, pyruvaldehid, dan ikatan hidrolitik lain
      • Membentuk melanoidin.
slide34

MAILLARD REACTION

  • (i) Initial stage (colourless)
    • a. sugar-amine condensation
    • b. Amadori rearrangement
  • (ii) Intermediate stage (colourless to yellow)
    • c. sugar dehydration
    • d. sugar fragmentation
    • e. amino acid degradation
  • (iii)Final stage (highly coloured)
    • f. aldol condensation
    • g. aldehyde-amine polymerisation, formation of
    • heterocyclic nitrogen compounds.
slide35

Maillard Reaction

Fig. 1. Effect Temperature on the reaction rate of

D-Glucose with DL-Leucine

slide36

Maillard Reaction

Fig. 1. Effect pH on the reaction rate of

D-Glucose with DL-Leucine

browning reactions
BROWNING REACTIONS

Maillard Reaction : (Lysine + Sugars)

SUCROSE +

FRUCTOSE

SUCROSE +

LACTOSE

SUCROSE

caramelization
CARAMELIZATION
  • Caramelization is defined as the thermal degradation of sugars leading to the formation of volatiles (caramel aroma) and brown-colored products (caramel colors).
  • The process is acid or base catalyzed and generally requires temperatures > 120 oC at 9<pH<3  (pH < 3 or pH > 9)
  • Caramelization occurs in food, when food surfaces are heated strongly, e.g. the baking and roasting processes, the processing of foods with high sugar content such as jams and certain fruit juices, or in wine production.
slide40

TEKNOLOGI KARBOHIDRAT

TEKNOLOGI

PROSES

CARBOHYDRATE-BASED

PRODUCT

SUMBER

KARBOHIDRAT

  • Asam
  • Basa
  • Panas
  • Enzimatis
  • Mikrobiologis
  • Ketela Pohon
  • Beras Ketan
  • Jagung
  • Gandum
  • Tape Ketela Pohon
  • Tape Ketan
  • HFCS
  • Karamel
  • Candy
  • Modified (CMC)
sifat fungsional
SIFAT FUNGSIONAL
  • SWEETNESS & SWEETENERS
  • HYGROSCOPICITY
    • Reduced Aw  Preservative
    • Adsorbent  Baby care products
    • Moisture  Beauty care products
  • TEKSTURAL CONTRIBUTION
    • Rigidity : Roti
    • Viscosity : Saus