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Chemical Bonding. Sections 1-3 Pages 4-21. Combining Atoms through Chemical Bonding . Chemical Bonding : joining of atoms to form new substances. Properties of these new substances are different from the original elements

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chemical bonding

Chemical Bonding

Sections 1-3

Pages 4-21

combining atoms through chemical bonding
Combining Atoms through Chemical Bonding
  • Chemical Bonding: joining of atoms to form new substances.
  • Properties of these new substances are different from the original elements
  • An interaction that holds two atoms together is called a chemical bond.
  • When a chemical bond forms, electrons are shared, gained or lost.
electron number and organization
Electron Number and Organization
  • Electrons organized in energy levels (orbits, clouds, shells)
  • Atomic number tells you how many electrons (and protons)
  • Atoms form bonds using electrons in outermost energy level. An electron in the outmost energy level is a valence electron.
valence electrons and the periodic table
Valence Electrons and the Periodic Table
  • Elements are grouped according to their properties and have the same number of valence electrons.
  • Most groups (1, 2, 3-18) all have a way to determine their number of valence electrons based on their group number (except Helium)
to bond or not to bond
To Bond or Not to Bond?
  • Valence electrons determine if an atom bonds.
  • Group 18 usually does not bond because their outer shell is full because it has 8 electrons. Octet rule.
  • Atoms gain, lose or share electrons to obtain a full outer shell.
forming ionic bonds
Forming Ionic Bonds
  • An ionic bond is a bond that forms when electrons are transferred from one atom to another.
  • During ionic bonding, one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another to fill that atom’s outer level.
  • Usually metals.
ions forming charged particles
Ions (forming charged particles)
  • Positive Ions (loose an electron)
    • Groups 1 and 2 (metals)
    • Energy needed
    • Symbol has a + (ex. Na⁺ or Ca²⁺)
  • Negative Ions (gain an electron)
    • Groups 16 and 17 (non metals)
    • Energy gained
    • Symbol has a + (ex. Cl⁻ or O²⁻)
ionic compounds
Ionic Compounds
  • When ionic bonds form the charge becomes neutral.
  • They form a crystal lattice (orderly 3D pattern) which gives the compound certain properties (brittleness, high melting points and high boiling points)
covalent bonds
Covalent Bonds
  • Substances with covalent bonds tend to have low melting and boiling points and are brittle when in solid state
  • Covalent bond forms when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
  • If two nonmetal atoms were to loose electrons it would require a lot of energy, so the two nonmetal atoms don’t transfer electrons…they share instead.
  • When they share equally they are called Nonpolar covalent bonds. NO charge.
  • When they share unequally they are called polar covalent bonds. Slight charge.
  • Usually nonmetals.
covalent bonds and molecules
Covalent Bonds and Molecules
  • The force that holds atoms together in a covalent bond is the attraction of each atom’s nucleus for the shared pair of electrons.
  • A molecule usually consists of two or more atoms joined in a definite ratio
using electron dot diagrams
Using Electron Dot Diagrams
  • An electron dot diagram is a model that shows only the valence electrons.
  • Write the symbol, then place one dot around the symbol for every valence electron.
  • Place the first 4 dots alone on each side, then pair up any remaining dots.
simple molecules diatomic molecules
Simple Molecules- Diatomic Molecules
  • Diatomic Molecules:molecules made up of two atoms of the same element
  • Diatomic Elements: elements that are found in nature as diatomic molecules
  • Examples: H, O, N, and the Halogens
metallic bonds
Metallic Bonds
  • A metallic bond is a bond formed by the attraction between positively charged metal ions and the electron in the metal
  • Positively charged metal ions form when metal atoms lose electrons.
  • The positive metal ions are in fixed position in the metal.
  • The negative electrons are free to move.
  • This allows metals these properties of malleability, ductility and electrical conductivity.
bonding animation
Bonding Animation