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Life Cycles of Stars. The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram. How Stars Form. Collapsing gas and dust cloud Protostar - mostly infrared. Main Sequence Stars. Brown Dwarf Red Dwarf Normal Star. All Objects Exist Because of a Balance Between Gravity and Some Other Force.

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Presentation Transcript
how stars form
How Stars Form
  • Collapsing gas and dust cloud
  • Protostar - mostly infrared
main sequence stars
Main Sequence Stars
  • Brown Dwarf
  • Red Dwarf
  • Normal Star
all objects exist because of a balance between gravity and some other force
All Objects Exist Because of a Balance Between Gravity and Some Other Force
  • People, Planets-Interatomic Forces
  • Normal Stars-Radiation
  • White Dwarfs-Electron Repulsion
  • Neutron Stars-Nuclear Forces
  • Black Holes-No Known Force
how stars die
How Stars Die
  • Main Sequence Stars Brighten With Age
  • The More Massive a Star, the Faster it Uses Fuel
  • Giant Phase
  • White Dwarf
  • Supernova
    • Neutron Star - Pulsar
    • Black Hole
historical supernovae
Historical Supernovae
  • 1006 - Chinese
  • 1054 - Chinese, European, Anasazi?
  • 1572 - Tycho’s Star
  • 1604 - Kepler’s Star
  • 1987 - Small Magellanic Cloud (170,000 l.y.)
life briefly near a supernova
Life (Briefly!) Near a Supernova
  • Sun’s Energy Output = 77 billion megatons/second
  • Let’s relate that to human scales. What would that be at one kilometer distance?
  • 77 x 1015 tons/(150 x 106km)2 = 3 tons
  • Picture a truckload of explosives a km away giving off a one-second burst of heat and light to rival the Sun
now assume the sun goes supernova
Now Assume the Sun Goes Supernova
  • Brightens by 100 billion times
  • Our 3 tons of explosive becomes 300,000 megatons
  • Equivalent to entire Earth’s nuclear arsenal going off one km away - every second
  • This energy output would last for days
planetary systems
Planetary Systems
  • Protoplanetary Disks
  • Accretion of Planets
  • Expulsion and Migration of Planets
  • About 30 extrasolar planets known
  • Our Solar System may be unusual?