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Chapter 37. Protection, Support, Movement. Integument. Protection Physical Dehydration Body temperature regulation Cutaneous sensation Metabolic functions Blood reservoir Excretion of wastes Respiration (amphibians). Integument. Cuticle Hardened outer covering Exoskeleton

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Chapter 37


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chapter 37

Chapter 37

Protection, Support, Movement

integument
Integument
  • Protection
    • Physical
    • Dehydration
  • Body temperature regulation
  • Cutaneous sensation
  • Metabolic functions
  • Blood reservoir
  • Excretion of wastes
  • Respiration (amphibians)
integument1
Integument
  • Cuticle
    • Hardened outer covering
    • Exoskeleton
    • Roundworms, most arthropods
    • Protein or chitin
integument2
Integument
  • Skin
    • Softer, ketatin-containing outer covering
    • Associated tissues (scales, hair, feathers, beaks, horns, nails, etc.)
    • Vertebrates
integument3
Integument
  • Epidermis
    • Stratified squamous epithelium
    • Keratinocytes
      • Keratin—water-proofing protein
    • Melanocytes
      • Melanin—pigment & sunscreen
integument4
Integument
  • Dermis
    • Mostly dense irregular connective tissue
    • Cushion body against stretch & stress
    • Blood, lymph, nervous tissue
  • Hypodermis
    • Mostly adipose tissue
integument5
Integument
  • Sweat glands
    • “True sweat”
      • Eccrine
      • Apocrine
    • Ceruminous (ears)
    • Mammary
  • Sebaceous glands
integument6
Integument
  • Chromatophores
    • Skin & eye color in ectotherms
    • Melanocytes in birds & mammals
    • Color change
      • Pigment translocation
      • Cephalopods—muscles surround elastic cell, change it’s shape
skeleton
Skeleton
  • Hydrostatic skeleton
    • Cnidarians, platyhelminthes, annelids, nematodes
    • Fluid cavity surrounded by muscles
    • Change shape for support & movment
  • Exoskeleton
    • Mollusks, arthropods
    • Calcium carbonate or chitin
    • Limits growth, but more strength, site for muscles
  • Endoskeleton
    • Echinoderms, vertebrates
    • Supports greater weight
    • Doesn’t limit growth
skeleton1
Skeleton
  • Ecdysis
    • Moulting of exoskeleton
    • Continuous growth of arthropods not possible
    • Must periodically shed exoskeleton & allow rapid growth
    • Steps:
      • Cuticle separates from epidermis
      • New cuticle secreted by epidermis
      • Old cuticle shed
      • Animal inflates body w/ air or water to expand new cuticle
      • New cuticle dehydrates & hardens
      • Animal vulnerable during this time
        • Soft shelled crabs
skeleton2
Skeleton
  • Bone functions
    • Support
    • Protection
    • Movement
    • Storage
    • Hematopoiesis
      • Blood cell production
skeleton3
Skeleton
  • Shape
    • Long
    • Short
    • Flat
    • Irregular
  • Location
    • Axial
    • Appendicular
skeleton4
Skeleton
  • Compact bone
  • Spongy bone
  • Hyaline cartilage
  • Periosteum
  • Yellow marrow—fat storage
  • Red marrow—blood cell production
  • Ligaments—bone to bone
  • Tendons—muscle to bone
skeleton5
Skeleton
  • Osteocytes
  • Osteoblasts
  • Osteoclasts
  • Haversian (central) canal
bones to know
Bones to know….
  • Mandible
  • Maxilla
  • Zygomatic
  • Sternum
  • Rib
  • Scapula
  • Clavicle
bones to know1
Bones to know…
  • Humerus
  • Ulna
  • Radius
  • Carpals
  • Femur
  • Patella
  • Tibia
  • Fibula
  • Tarsals
bone disorders
Bone Disorders
  • Osteomalacia (adults), Rickets (children)
    • Vitamin D deficiency
    • Reduction in calcium in bones
    • Soft bone, easily bent or broken
  • Osteoporosis
    • Osteoclast activity outpaces osteoblasts
    • Hormonal influences
    • Nutritional influences
    • Brittle, weak bones
joints
Joints
  • Fibrous
    • Immovible
    • Skull sutures, teeth
  • Cartilaginous
    • Slightly moveable
    • Vertebrae, pelvis
  • Synovial
    • Freely moveable
    • Fluid-filled cavity
    • Knee, elbow, fingers
joint disorders
Joint Disorders
  • Sprain/strain
    • Stretch or tear of ligaments & tendons
    • Anterior cruciate ligament
  • Osteoarthritis
    • Wear & tear on joints
    • Usually w/ old age
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Degeneration of joints
    • Autoimmune disease
muscle
Muscle
  • Skeletal
  • Cardiac
  • Smooth
muscle skeletal
Muscle—Skeletal
  • Muscle
  • Fascicle
  • Muscle fiber (cell)
muscle skeletal1
Muscle—Skeletal
  • Sarcolemma
  • Myofibrils
muscle skeletal2
Muscle—Skeletal
  • Sarcomere
    • Active unit
  • Thin (actin) filament
  • Thick (myosin) filament
neuromuscular junction
Neuromuscular Junction
  • Nerve impulse reaches axon termial
  • Channels open in axon, calcium moves into axon terminal
  • Vesicles move to surface of axon
  • Vesicles open, releasing acetylecholine (ACh)
  • ACh travels across synaptic cleft
  • ACh binds to receptors on muscle
  • Contraction stimulated
muscle1
Muscle
  • Sliding Filament Model
  • Animation
muscle cardiac
Muscle—Cardiac
  • Cardiac muscle stimulated by pacemakers in heart
  • Most muscle not directly innervated
  • Intercalated discs connect cells, continuing muscle impulse
muscle disorders
Muscle Disorders
  • Myasthenia gravis
    • Shortage of ACh receptors
  • Muscular Dystrophy
    • Fragile, abnormal sarcolemma
    • Too much calcium, damages fibers
    • Loss of regeneration, muscles waste
  • Tetanus
    • Clostridium tetani, no release of ACh