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The Right Stuff. What Does It Take to Succeed?. Luck Talent Determination/Self-Discipline Delayed Gratification Willpower Executive Functioning Belief in Self Self-Efficacy Outcome Optimism. And Sometimes Even That Isn’t Enough. Willpower:. Man vs. Marshmallow. Delayed Gratification

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Presentation Transcript
slide3

Luck

  • Talent
  • Determination/Self-Discipline
    • Delayed Gratification
    • Willpower
    • Executive Functioning
  • Belief in Self
    • Self-Efficacy
    • Outcome Optimism
willpower
Willpower:

Man vs. Marshmallow

slide6

Delayed Gratification

    • Children Differ in Their Abilities to Delay Gratification
    • Importantly, This Predicted Long-Term Success:
      • SAT Verbal & Quant Scores
        • About 210 Points Higher (15-Min Waiters vs. 30 Sec. Waiters)
        • This Is ~15 Years Later! (Shoda, Mischel, & Peake, 1990)
      • Also Perhaps Coping, Planning, Motivation, & Intelligence
slide7

Self-Discipline Twice as Effective as IQ in Predicting:

    • Final Grades
    • As Well as:
      • High School Selection
      • School Attendance
      • Hours Spent
        • Doing Homework
        • Watching Television (Inversely)
      • Time of Day Students Began Their Homework
    • (from Duckworth & Seligman, 2005)
slide8

Note: Long-Term Strategies Are Not Always Best

    • Broken Promises
    • Kidd, Palmeri, & Aslin (2013)
slide9

Nonetheless, Ayduk et al. (2000) Found Delayed Gratification Among Low-Income Middle School Children Buffered Against:

    • “Positive Functioning,” i.e., Ratings of:
      • Self-Worth & Self-Reliant
      • High Aspirations
      • Drug Use
    • Aggression & Peer Acceptance in “Rejection Sensitive” People
slide10

Delayed Gratification Is Also Related to:

    • Ability to Focus on Tasks
      • An Inhibit Competing Behaviors
    • Shift Between Tasks
    • “Meta-Memory”
      • Knowing When and

How to Remember Things

slide11

Etiology of Willpower

    • Differences Seen as Early as 18 Months (Sethi et al., 2000)
      • Where It Is Related to Maternal Relationship
      • “Good” Relationship May Affect Development of Coping Strategies
slide12

Differences in Ability to Delay Gratification Related to “Cooling Strategies”

    • I.e., Ability to Minimize the Agony of Deprivation
      • Which Could Be Taught (ahem)
slide13

But Also Probably in Part Innate

    • Related to Neural Functions That Do Not Fully Develop Until One’s 20s
      • Their Develop Is Affected by Adverse Events (Trauma, Stress, Etc.)
    • E.g., in Its Relationship with “Rejection Sensitivity” and Maybe Neuroticism)
slide15

Characteristics of Willpower

    • Limited and Depletable
      • Like All Limited Resources, It Helps to Develop Strategies to Use It Wisely
        • Adults Workers Spend ~3 Hrs/Day Resisting Urges
        • But Those With Strong Self-Control Spent Less Time Resisting
      • Therefore, Easier to Relapse into Old Habits During Stressful Times
        • Or After Making Big Decisions
        • When Tired, Sad, or . . . Hungry
slide16

It Can Be Replenished

    • With Simple Sugar! (Gailliot & Baumeister, 2007)
slide17

It Can Probably Be “Trained”

    • Small, Regular Acts of Will May Improve Overall Willpower
    • Pre-Empt to Avoid Exhaustion
      • "People with low willpower use it to get themselves out of crises. People with high willpower use it not to get themselves into crises."
    • More Strategies for You & Your Students