Chapter 11: Nuclear Nonproliferation and Safeguards. Jad Hudaib. Nonproliferation: “The effort to stop other nations from producing nuclear weapons or any nuclear explosive devise.” Nicholas Tsoulfanidis , The Nuclear Fuel Cycle.
Nonproliferation: “The effort to stop other nations from producing nuclear weapons or any nuclear explosive devise.”
2. States with nuclear technology promise to help others without it, with the idea that every state should reap the benefits of nuclear energy.
3. The Treaty recognizes the inalienable right of every state to utilize nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.
2. INFCIRC/153 (1972): The Structure and Content of Agreements between the Agency and States Required in Connection with the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons- Agreements should include a guarantee by the state to accept safeguards set by the Treaty and the IAEA.
3. INFCIRC/540 (1997): Model Protocol Additional to the Agreement(s) between State(s) and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards- States must adhere to:
1. Freely give all information regarding a State’s Fuel Cycle.
2. Provide information on the manufacture and export of devices using nuclear technologies and inspection mechanisms for manufacturing and import locations of such devices.
3. Allow, after short notice, IAEA inspections of all buildings on a nuclear site.
4. Collection of environmental samples at the IAEA’s discretion.
Agreements: treaties or agreements between the IAEA and a State for the application of Safeguards.
Voluntary offer agreement (VOA) — between IAEA and a NWS to answer concerns that Safeguards could lead to commercial disadvantages.
The difference between the documented and real inventory is called material unaccounted for (MUF).
In the course of a Noncompliance inquiry the following questions are asked:
Physical Protection (PP): Characteristics of a nuclear energy system that impedes the theft of materials or the sabotage of facilities and transportation by rouge groups.
Extrinsic methods are features that result from decisions and policies made by the host State related to nuclear energy.