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Respiratory Disorders

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  1. Respiratory Disorders Chapter 4 Medical Considerations

  2. Tonsillitis Laryngitis Common cold Bronchitis Pneumonia Pleurisy Emphysema Cystic fibrosis Asthma Lung cancer RESPIRATORY DISORDERS

  3. Tonsillitis is an infection (usually viral) of the tonsils If a child has many infections, the tonsils are surgically removed TONSILLITIS

  4. It is believed the tonsils help prevent bacteria and other pathogens from entering the body – therefore a removal may increase the number of illnesses later in life TONSILLITIS

  5. Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx (vocal cords) CAUSES: virus allergies straining of voice LARYNGITIS

  6. When the larynx is inflamed, the vocal cords can’t vibrate properly – therefore the voice is hoarse or even non-existent TREATMENT – rest, fluids, no talking!! LARYNGITIS

  7. Upper Respiratory Tract Infections: Common Cold (Infectious Rhinitis) • Viral (rhinovirus) • Spread through respiratory droplets • Highly contagious • Initially mucous membranes of nose, pharynx swollen, increased secretions • Signs • Nasal congestion and watery discharge • Mouth breathing • Change in tone of voice • Sore throat, headache, slight fever • Cough

  8. Treatment – rest, fluids – NOT antibiotics – it is a virus Presently, there is no cure or vaccine COMMON COLD

  9. The cold virus is spread either through droplets in the air or direct contact with an infected person or contaminated surface (1 day before symptoms appear and up to 5 days after) COMMON COLD

  10. WASH HANDS! The best way to reduce the chances of getting a cold…

  11. An infection of the bronchi 2 types: 1. Acute – caused by a bacteria - treated with antibiotics BRONCHITIS

  12. 2. Chronic – long term - usually caused by an irritant – ie smoking - cilia become damaged and can’t clear debris - treatment – quit smoking BRONCHITIS

  13. The alveoli become inflamed and fill with liquid Gas exchange is impaired and the body becomes starved for oxygen PNEUMONIA

  14. X-RAY OF PNEUMONIA Patient has pneumonia in the right lung (note – white mass = fluid) Lungs should appear black on an x-ray

  15. "Pneumonia" encompasses many different diseases that involve infection or inflammation of the lungs. Pneumonia is caused by a variety of agents such as bacteria, viruses, and mycoplasmas, among others. Pneumonia remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States; in 1996 there were an estimated 4.8 million cases of pneumonia.Pneumonia affects the lungs in two ways. Lobar pneumonia affects a lobe of the lungs, and bronchial pneumonia can affect patches throughout both lungs. • Lobular pneumonia Lobar pneumonia affects a lobe of the lungs (see x-ray), and bronchial pneumonia can affect patches throughout both lungs.


  17. TREATMENT BACTERIAL VIRAL Caused by a virus Can be treated with anti-viral medication They are usually less severe – however a secondary bacterial infection can follow – which is then treated with antibiotics • Caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae • Treated with antibiotics • Can be somewhat prevented with the pneumococcal vaccine

  18. PLEURISY • The pleura is a sac surrounding the lungs.  It consists of two layers, one covering the lung (visceral), while the other covers the inside of the chest wall or rib cage (parietal).  Between the two layers is a space in which a small amount of fluid circulates to lubricate the two surfaces as they slide over one another during breathing.

  19. PLEURISY • Pleurisy refers to the inflammation (irritation, swelling, stickiness) of the pleura.  • Pleurisy is not a disease, but a symptom of another condition (e.g. virus or bacterial infection).

  20. SYMPTOMS & TREATMENT SYMPTOMS • Sharp, stabbing pain in chest – usually localized in one area TREATMENT • Treat the cause – ie virus or bacteria causing the pleurisy

  21. EMPHYSEMA • A chronic respiratory disorder • The alveolar walls break down & lose their elasticity • Surface area is greatly reduced – breathing is difficult

  22. EMPHYSEMA • CAUSE: usually from many years of smoking • Effects are permanent and incurable

  23. EMPHYSEMA - treatments • Low-flow oxygen tank – delivers a higher oxygen concentration • Lung volume reduction surgery (LVR) – removal of damaged tissue to let healthy tissue work more efficiently

  24. CYSTIC FIBROSIS • Genetic condition • An abnormal gene causes the cells lining the alveoli to secrete a thick, sticky mucus • Mucus attracts bacteria and numerous infections result

  25. CYSTIC FIBROSIS - treatments • There is no cure – life expectancy is usually low – early 30s • Medicines are used to thin the mucus • Antibiotics are given for infections

  26. CYSTIC FIBROSIS • New treatments include gene therapy • An inhaler is used to spray healthy versions of the abnormal gene – the healthy genes can then make proper mucus

  27. ASTHMA • Asthma is a chronic respiratory disorder • Bronchi and bronchioles are affected – bronchiole muscles tighten, mucus is produced – breathing is difficult

  28. ASTHMA - causes • Generally it is thought that asthma is somewhat inherited • TRIGGERS – include pollen, dust, smoke, pets, exercise

  29. ASTHMA - symptoms • Chest tightness • Wheezing • Night-time cough • Restricted breathing

  30. ASTHMA - treatments • IMMEDIATE – bronchodilators – give immediate relief to tightened bronchioles • Inhalers can be metered - ie medicine is forced out by a chemical propellant • powdered - no propellant

  31. ASTHMA - treatments • LONG-TERM – some patients use a corticosteroid treatment to control spasms in the bronchioles (eg – QVAR inhaler) • Patients with severe asthma may even take stronger medications such as Prednisone

  32. Obstructive Lung Disease: Lung Cancer • Primary or secondary; benign rare • Primary is major cause of death • Linked with cigarette smoking • Metastases develop frequently in lung b/c: • Venous return and lymph vessels bring tumor cells from distant site in body  heart  lung • Poor prognosis

  33. Normal Lung vs. Cancerous Lung

  34. LUNG CANCER • Abnormal cells multiply and form malignant tumours called carcinomas • Carcinomas impede healthy lung tissue – making breathing difficult

  35. LUNG CANCER - causes • Carcinogens (cancer-causing agents) in cigarette smoke are the leading cause of lung cancer • Exposure to radon – a heavy gaseous radioactive element – found in rocks, soil and some buildings • Exposure to asbestos – found in some insulation & ceiling tiles

  36. LUNG CANCER - diagnosis • X-ray • CT scan (computed tomography – a cross-section of the lungs is taken) • Helical low-dose CT scan can detect very small tumours (see right)

  37. Lung Cancer—treatment • Surgery on localized lesions • Chemotherapy and radiation • Poor prognosis unless tumor in early stages of development

  38. TRADITIONAL HEALING • Many cultures, including native Canadians have used natural treatments for a wide variety of illnesses for many years

  39. TRADITIONAL HEALING • White willow – tea made from the bark contains salicin – reduces fever (acetyl salicylic acid – ASA = Aspirin )

  40. TRADITIONAL HEALING • Boswellia– sap from this tree is used as an anti-inflammatory • Used in the manufacturing of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for arthritis

  41. TRADITIONAL HEALING • Seneca snakeroot – contains a milky liquid used for treating snakebites • Also used as a decongestant to loosen mucus in the lungs

  42. TRADITIONAL HEALING • Pleurisy root – treats colds, coughs, bronchitis, pneumonia, and pleurisy

  43. TRADITIONAL HEALING • Licorice root – believed to help relieve symptoms of common cold • Rat root – helps clear mucus from lungs