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Structure and Function of the Reproductive System

Structure and Function of the Reproductive System

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Structure and Function of the Reproductive System

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  1. Structure and Function of the Reproductive System Chapter 22

  2. Development of the Reproductive System • Dependent on sex hormones • Males—testosterone • Females—estrogen, FSH, and LH • Sexual differentiation in utero • Homologous structures • Gonads • Ducts • Mesonephric • Paramesonephric

  3. Development of the Reproductive System

  4. Development of the Reproductive System

  5. Development of the Reproductive System • Puberty • Exact trigger unknown • Females • Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA) and its sulfate (DHAS) • Begins with thelarche (breast development) in females • Adrenarche • Gonadarche

  6. Development of the Reproductive System

  7. Female Reproductive System • External genitalia (vulva) • Mons pubis • Labia majora • Labia minora • Clitoris • Vestibule

  8. Female Reproductive System • External genitalia (vulva) • Introitus • Hymen • Urinary meatus • Lesser vestibular glands (Skene glands) • Greater vestibular glands (Bartholin glands) • Perineum

  9. External Genitalia (Vulva)

  10. Internal Genitalia • Vagina • Uterus • Fallopian tubes • Ovaries

  11. Internal Genitalia

  12. Uterine Position

  13. Internal Genitalia

  14. Ovary

  15. Follicle Development

  16. Female Sex Hormones • Estrogens • Estradiol • Estrone • Estriol • Progesterone • Androgens

  17. Menstrual Cycle • Menarche • Menopause • Phases • Menstruation (menses) • Follicular/proliferative phase • Luteal/secretory phase

  18. Menstrual Cycle • Ovarian cycle • Uterine phases • Vaginal response • Body temperature change

  19. The Menstrual Cycle

  20. Hormone Controls

  21. Ovarian Cycle

  22. Male Reproductive System • External genitalia • Testes • Epididymis • Scrotum • Penis

  23. Male Reproductive System

  24. Male Reproductive System

  25. Male Reproductive System

  26. Male Reproductive System • Internal genitalia • Seminal vesicles • Prostate gland • Bulbourethral glands

  27. Male Internal Genitalia

  28. Spermatogenesis • Spermatogonia • Primary spermatocytes • Secondary spermatocytes • Spermatids • Sertoli cells

  29. Spermatogenesis

  30. Male Reproductive System

  31. Male Sex Hormones • Androgens • Primary androgen—testosterone • Produced mainly in the Leydig cells of the testes • Testosterone • Sexual differentiation • Urogenital system development • Nervous and skeletal tissue development • Sex drive • Dihydrotestosterone and prolactin

  32. Structure and Function of the Breast • Modified sebaceous glands on the ventral surface of the thorax • Female breast • Nipple • Areola • Glands of Montgomery • Male breast • Until puberty, male and female breast development is similar • Without the sufficient influence of estrogen and progesterone, the male breast does not develop any further

  33. Structure and Function of the Breast

  34. Structure and Function of the Breast

  35. Tests of Reproductive Function • Infection and cancer tests • Culture • Serologic testing • Tissue biopsy • Needle biopsy • Papanicolaou (Pap) test • Mammography • Fertility tests

  36. Aging and the Female Reproductive System • Menopause • Perimenopause • Vasomotor symptoms • Vasomotor flush

  37. Aging and the Female Reproductive System

  38. Aging and the Male Reproductive System • Male’s reproductive capacity is longer than women’s • There is not an event comparable to menopause • Decreased erectile and ejaculatory function • Testes atrophy, decrease in weight, and soften • Decreased levels of gonadotropins and testosterone