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Cleaning Oxygen and Diver’s Breathing Air Instruments Eliminating Ozone Depleting Solvents. Bob Hughes-FTSCPAC Mark LaPrevotte-FTSCLANT. Background. Navy OICR’s clean oxygen Instrumentation with CFC-113 solvent and verify cleanliness with Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy

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Cleaning Oxygen and Diver’s Breathing Air Instruments

Eliminating Ozone Depleting Solvents

  • Bob Hughes-FTSCPAC
  • Mark LaPrevotte-FTSCLANT

Navy OICR’s clean oxygen Instrumentation with CFC-113 solvent and verify cleanliness with Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy

CFC-113 solvent is an Ozone Depleting Solvent that stopped manufacture in 1996 IAW the Montreal Protocol

CFC-113 is stockpiled in the DoD Mission Critical Reserve


Initially sized for 2 years to “buy time” until alternative in place

Sizable stockpile remains due to late purchase, conservation, and use of replacement solvents for other applications

Some estimates indicate it could last at least 10 years


The life span may be reduced to 4 to 5 years based on:

USAF may replace HCFC-141b in spray cans with CFC-113 due to near-term future use restrictions (2000 gallons annually)

One LOX producer has required partial flushing in the last 4 years. A complete flush uses 1500 gallons

Resources to maintain stockpile indefinitely have not been programmed

Quality problems

stockpile policy
Stockpile Policy

Supply CFC-113 until it is depleted, at

which time approved alternative

replacement solvents will be substituted

hfe 7100

Replacement oxygen instrument cleaning solvent for CFC-113

No ozone-depleting potential

Toxicity similar to CFC-113

No compatibility problems

Can be used with existing cleaning and atmosphere monitoring equipment

Quality product available per A-A-59105

hfe 71001

Cleaning Performance - Dissolving and Displacement

Marginal hydrocarbon solvency

Excellent fluorocarbon solvency

Excellent removal by displacement due to low surface tension and high density

NASA testing showed for instrument cleaning, HFE-7100 removed 92% of soil and CFC-113 removed 97%

cleanliness verification ir
Cleanliness Verification - IR

IR analysis is usable ONLY with solvents that are transparent in the C-H Stretch Region

All approved replacement solvents (HCFC-141b, HCFC-225, and HFE-7100) are not verifiable with IR

Unlikely that other candidate solvents will be verifiable with IR

cleanliness verification nvr
Industry standard is Non-Volatile Residue (NVR) by Evaporative Gravimetrics

NVR usable with any solvent

NVR requires 75 to 100 ml sample

Takes 2 hours per analysis

Must be performed in a Chemistry Laboratory

Cleanliness Verification - NVR
cleanliness verification osee
Optically Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE) is newly developed alternative analysis technique

OSEE usable with any solvent

1.5 ml sample taken as gage is cleaned

Performed on-site in OICR in about 20 minutes

Replaces NVR and implemented at NASA

Cleanliness Verification - OSEE
osee synopsis
OSEE Synopsis

An instrument shines an ultraviolet light on a surface and measures the electrons emitted from the surface. As the surface is more soiled, it will emit less light (electrons).

osee synopsis cont d
OSEE Synopsis (Cont’d)

An evaporating dish is hand cleaned with detergent. This dish holds the solvent. After the solvent evaporates, it leaves residue behind. This residue is compared to the residue remaining from a 5 ppm standard to determine if it is above or below 5 ppm.


The equipment easily fits into OICR

on site testing past and proposed
On-Site Testing (Past and Proposed)

Testing has been accomplished at PSNS and NASA for the last 2 years

Perform additional on-site testing at minimum of two facilities (other than PSNS), one under FTSCPAC and the other under FTSCLANT, for one year

Clean with CFC-113 and analyze with IR and OSEE

Closely monitor testing and get input

Equipment will be provided to activities that request the equipment and agree to use the equipment (limited quantities)

Operation of equipment will be verified and sampling line will be oxygen cleaned

Equipment will be assembled into a kit and shipped (limited quantities)

Training will be provided by Bangor, WA when established

Bangor, WA will provide 5 ppm standards


Facilities can clean with CFC-113 and analyze using both IR and OSEE to gain confidence and familiarity with OSEE

Once comfortable with OSEE, it is the option of the facility to use CFC-113 with IR and/or OSEE or HFE-7100 with OSEE until stockpile depleted

when will this happen
A new manual for Instrument and Gage Cleaning for MIL-STD-1330 (-) Applications will be generated

Currently usable by NAVSEA Facilities, Vendors, and Foreign Military

When will this happen?
why do we need to do this
Why do we need to do this?

The stockpile is not programmed to last “forever”

A change of events could deplete it rapidly

IR can not be used for new oxygen cleaning solvents

It aligns the Navy with Industry (currently we use IR and industry uses NVR)

why do we need to do this1
Why do we need to do this?

The Navy has been directed to eliminate the use of Ozone Depleting Solvents

Implementing an alternative starting now and over a period of 5 years will ease the transition

It is inevitable

diver s breathing air instruments
Diver’s Breathing Air Instruments

MIL-STD-1622(B): Appendix C added to address diver’s air breathing instruments. Status: At NAVSEA for approval

UIPI 5510-905(-): New UIPI for cleaning diver’s air breathing systems, including instruments. Status: Has been issued

calibration only no cleaning
Calibration Only-No Cleaning

Installed Instrument

Used exclusively in Diver’s breathing air or cleaner application

New or previously cleaned and not installed

Sticker or tag indicating cleaned per MIL-STD-1622 or equal

Properly packaged

Internals pass visual inspection

If any of these not met, cleaning is required

cleaning and calibration
Cleaning and Calibration

Pre-cleaning and final cleaning

Inspection of internals reveals other than particulate

Final cleaning only (pre-cleaning not required)

Inspection of internals reveals only particulate

cleaning procedures

Apply pre-cleaner (HFE-71DE or CFC-113) using any method such as a syringe

Rotate instrument to wet internals

Repeat until 10 ml is obtained

Visually inspect effluent

Repeat until passes visual inspection

Cleaning Procedures
cleaning procedures1
Final Cleaning

Option 1:

Repeat precleaning except use final cleaner (HFE-7100 or CFC-113)

Perform final cleaning once for instruments that hold less than 10 ml and twice for instruments that hold more than 10 ml

Cleaning Procedures
cleaning procedures2
Final Cleaning

Option 2:

Final clean per NAVSEA ST700-AM-GYD-010/OICR except use dedicated equipment

Analysis for organic cleanliness verification (hydrocarbons) is not required

Cleaning Procedures
nanoscale 9100
 Fast

 Rugged

 Automated

 Small Sample Size

NanoScale 9100
 Run more samples in less time

 Easy to run verification samples

 Average run time is 5 to 7 minutes

 No vibration isolation required

 Office type environment acceptable

 Easily transported

 Reduces human error

 Can be integrated with other tasks

 Highly skilled operators not required

small sample size
 Greatly reduces emissions

 Reduces cost of analysis

 Greatly reduces depletion of a bath in

a production QC application

simple to operate
 Log sample information

 Acquire sample

 Inject sample

 Record results

 Clean to prepare for next sample

 Fast, rugged, automated, small sample


 Simple to operate

 Unique Flexural Plate Wave (FPW)

gravimetric sensor

 Nanogram sensitivity

summary con t
 Direct readout in mass or


 Reduces total laboratory emissions

 NVR measurement in as little as 5


 Variety of applications

current status
 Company incorporating recommended


 Technology “new” in industry less

than one year

 NASA doing evaluation

 Possible Navy evaluation