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McGraw-Hill/Irwin. © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. CHAPTER SIX. ANALYTICAL ATTRIBUTE APPROACHES: INTRODUCTION AND PERCEPTUAL MAPPING. What are Analytical Attribute Techniques?.

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slide1

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.

chapter six

CHAPTER SIX

ANALYTICAL ATTRIBUTE APPROACHES:

INTRODUCTION AND PERCEPTUAL MAPPING

what are analytical attribute techniques
What are Analytical Attribute Techniques?
  • Basic idea: products are made up of attributes -- a future product change must involve one or more of these attributes.
  • Three types of attributes: features, functions, benefits.
  • Theoretical sequence: feature permits a function which provides a benefit.
gap analysis
Gap Analysis
  • Determinant gap map (produced from managerial input/judgment on products)
  • AR perceptual gap map (based on attribute ratings by customers)
  • OS perceptual map (based on overall similarities ratings by customers)
slide6

A DataCube

Figure 6.3

700

.

.

.

Respondents

2

1

1 2 3 .... Options .... X Ideal

1

2

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

15

Attributes

slide7

Obtaining Customer Perceptions

Figure 6.4

Rate each brand you are familiar with on each of the following: Disagree Agree

1. Attractive design 1..2..3..4..5

2. Stylish 1..2..3..4..5

3. Comfortable to wear 1..2..3..4..5

4. Fashionable 1..2..3..4..5

5. I feel good when I wear it 1..2..3..4..5

6. Is ideal for swimming 1..2..3..4..5

7. Looks like a designer label 1..2..3..4..5

8. Easy to swim in 1..2..3..4..5

9. In style 1..2..3..4..5

10. Great appearance 1..2..3..4..5

11. Comfortable to swim in 1..2..3..4..5

12. This is a desirable label 1..2..3..4..5

13. Gives me the look I like 1..2..3..4..5

14. I like the colors it comes in 1..2..3..4..5

15. Is functional for swimming 1..2..3..4..5

slide8

Snake Plot of Perceptions (Three Brands)

Figure 6.5

Ratings

Aqualine

Islands

Sunflare

Attributes

data reduction using multivariate analysis
Data Reduction Using Multivariate Analysis
  • Factor Analysis
    • Reduces the original number of attributes to a smaller number of factors, each containing a set of attributes that “hang together”
  • Cluster Analysis
    • Reduces the original number of respondents to a smaller number of clusters based on their benefits sought, as revealed by their “ideal brand”
slide10

Selecting the Appropriate Number

of Factors

Figure 6.6

The Scree

Percent Variance

Explained

No. of Factors

slide12

Factor Scores Matrix

Figure 6.8

Sample calculation of factor scores: From the snake plot, the mean ratings of Aqualine on Attributes

1 through 15 are 2.15, 2.40, 3.48, …, 3.77. Multiply each of these mean ratings by the corresponding

coefficient in the factor score coefficient matrix to get Aqualine’s factor scores. For example, on

Factor 1, Aqualine’s score is (2.15 x 0.145) + (2.40 x 0.146) + (3.48 x -0.018) + … + (3.77 x -0.019)

= 2.48. Similarly, its score on Factor 2 can be calculated as 4.36. All other brands’ factor scores are

calculated the same way.

slide13

Comfort

Aqualine

Gap 1

Islands

Molokai

Fashion

Splash

Sunflare

Gap 2

The AR Perceptual Map

Figure 6.9

2

-2

2

-2

slide15

Aqualine

Comfort

Molokai

Islands

Fashion

Sunflare

Splash

The OS Perceptual Map

Figure 6.11

slide16

Comparing AR and OS Methods

Figure 6.12

Source: Adapted from Robert J. Dolan, Managing the New Product Development Process: Cases and Notes

(Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1993), p. 102.

failures of gap analysis
Failures of Gap Analysis
  • Input comes from questions on how brands differ (nuances ignored)
  • Brands considered as sets of attributes; totalities, interrelationships overlooked; also creations requiring a conceptual leap
  • Analysis and mapping may be history by the time data are gathered and analyzed
  • Acceptance of findings by persons turned off by mathematical calculations?