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Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Nutrients, Bacteria and Caffeine. Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps. Jean-Francois Bouffard, B.I.T. Aquality Environmental Consulting Ltd. April 16, 2005. Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004. Introduction. Stream Study LEPA

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slide1

Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004Nutrients, Bacteria and Caffeine

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

The Next Steps

Jean-Francois Bouffard, B.I.T.

Aquality Environmental Consulting Ltd.

April 16, 2005

introduction

Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

Introduction
  • Stream Study
    • LEPA
    • AAFRD (Sarah Depoe)
    • AAFC-PFRA (Jason Vanrobaeys)
  • Caffeine
    • LEPA and Aquality
  • Bacteria
    • LEPA, ARHA, and Aquality

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

The Next Steps

methods

Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

Methods
  • Stream survey
    • 8 sites sampled during April 2004
    • During spring thaw (April 1st, 5th, 7th, 12th, and 20th)
  • Parameters
    • Nutrients, bacteria, ions, metals and pesticides (1 Site)
    • Flow gauging

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

The Next Steps

slide4

Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

The Next Steps

methods1

Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

Methods
  • Caffeine
    • May 21 (composite sampling)
      • 11 sites LLN – 3 bottles apiece
      • 2 streams
      • 2 beaches - Nakamun
    • Sept 7 – Follow up on May sampling – in lake only
  • Bacteria
    • In lake samples taken with ARHA during May 11th sampling

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

The Next Steps

slide6

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

The Next Steps

results

Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

Results

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

The Next Steps

results1

Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

Results

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

The Next Steps

results2

Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

Results

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

The Next Steps

results3

Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

Results

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

The Next Steps

results4

Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

Results

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

The Next Steps

discussion

Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

Discussion
  • Nutrients were highest in early April
  • TP and TN exceeded ASWQ guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life in 100% of the samples
  • NO2-N – 40% compliant
  • E.Coli – 91% compliant

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

The Next Steps

aawqi index

Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

AAWQI Index

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

The Next Steps

discussion2

Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

Discussion
  • Typical of other Alberta Streams
    • CAESA/AESA study 1996-2003
    • Lac la Nonne watershed considered to have moderate Ag intensity

(Anderson, A-M, S.E.Cooke and N. MacAlpine. 1999)

    • Other watersheds of similar Ag intensity produce similar results

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

The Next Steps

discussion3

Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

Discussion
  • Bacteria showed decreasing trend
  • High counts at Site 1 and 3 indicate recent fecal contamination
  • Trace exact source using Microbial Source Tracking techniques

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

The Next Steps

discussion4

Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

Discussion
  • Only 1 pesticide (2-4, D) was detected
    • Extremely low levels
    • Toxic to fish at much higher levels, minimal effect on humans
  • Change timing of sample collection

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

The Next Steps

discussion5

Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

Discussion
  • The detection of caffeine in Lac la Nonne confirms that human sewage is entering the lake
  • Possible sources include
    • Older/leaky septic systems
    • Illegal dumping/release of septage
    • Improperly placed outhouses

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

The Next Steps

the next step

Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

The Next Step
  • Minimize runoff
    • Preserving riparian areas
    • Restore wetlands
  • Accurate nutrient budget
    • Debate over sources of nutrients
      • 57% from cleared lands (Mitchell and Prepas, 1991)
    • Uncertain other sources

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

The Next Steps

the next step1

Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

The Next Step
  • Investigation into sources of human sewage
    • Septic tank inspections
  • Continue monitoring as a deterrent
  • Probably the easiest source of nutrients to control

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

The Next Steps

the next step2

Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

The Next Step
  • Complete and thorough State of the Watershed Report
    • Moose Lake, Lac la Biche, etc.
  • Watershed Management Plan under Alberta Water Act
  • Continue education and outreach

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

The Next Steps

acknowledgements

Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

Acknowledgements
  • LEPA and the volunteers who made all the sampling happen
  • Jason Vanrobaeys – PFRA
  • Sarah Depoe – AAFRD
  • Jay White - Aquality

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

The Next Steps

thanks

Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

Thanks!

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

The Next Steps

prediction

Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

Prediction
  • Avg daily urine prod =1.4L
  • Avg urine caffeine conc = 1500 µg/L
  • Adult urine caffeine production = 2100 µg
  • Avg urination freq = 5x daily
  • Volume of flush = 9.8 L= 49 L/Day

Introduction

Methods

Results

Conclusion

The Next Steps

prediction1

Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

Prediction

Adult caffeine produced per day

Total amount of water

=

2100 µg caffeine

50.4 L

=

= 42 µg/L (Predicted)

Introduction

Methods

Results

Conclusion

The Next Steps

prediction2

Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

Prediction
  • Detection level = 0.02 µg/L
  • Predicted conc. = 42 µg/L
  • Possible to detect caffeine diluted up to 2100 times!

Introduction

Methods

Results

Conclusion

The Next Steps

fecal contamination issues
Fecal Contamination Issues
  • Human and animal feces contain high levels of nutrients
  • Nutrients limited in aquatic systems
    • Phosphorus
    • Nitrogen
  • Contains several pathogens which can be fatal to humans and others (contact or ingestion)
effect of excess phosphorus
Effect of Excess Phosphorus
  • Primary Impacts
    • Excessive macrophyte growth
    • Algal blooms
    • Negative impact on livestock
slide29
Fecal contamination is a public health risk
  • Drinking water contamination, contact recreation, harvest of irrigated foods

‘Water contaminated with human feces are generally regarded as a greater risk to human health, as they are more likely to contain human-specific enteric pathogens’

T. Scott et al. 2002

sources of fecal contamination
Sources of Fecal Contamination
  • Residential sources
  • Lakeside cottages/subdivisions
    • Leaky septic systems
    • Rogue dumping
    • Improper outhouse placement
  • Urban effluent
sources of fecal contamination1
Sources of Fecal Contamination
  • Agricultural sources
    • Feedlots
    • In-situ watering by cattle
    • Manure application practices (timing, amount)
sources of fecal contamination2
Sources of Fecal Contamination
  • Wildlife sources
    • Bear, elk, deer, birds, etc.
what is bst
What is BST?
  • Using DNA fingerprinting to identify sources of microbial contamination in surface water.
  • Term coined in 2002 by Hagedorn and Wiggins
what is bst1
What is BST?
  • Methods fall into 3 categories: molecular, biochemical and chemical
  • No standard method developed
  • Emerging area of research and technology development, particularly for drinking water
how does it work
How does it work?
  • Fecal bacteria are uniquely adapted to the host animal in which they live
  • Using DNA analysis techniques we can identify these markers in fecal bacteria
how it is done
How it is Done
  • Samples collected around the watershed
  • Fecal bacteria are cultured and analyzed in lab
  • Compared to pre-existing database
identifying sources of contamination
Identifying Sources of Contamination
  • Pinpoint by taking samples at suspected sources
    • Analyzed
    • New genetic markers added to project database
dealing with suspected sources of contamination
Dealing with Suspected Sources of Contamination
  • Collect samples from location downstream of suspected contamination source
  • Results compared to samples in database
advantages
Advantages
  • This technique has a much greater power of resolution compared to previous methods
  • No longer tracking an analog of fecal contamination
  • Allows us to create mitigation plans based on better knowledge
canadian examples
Canadian Examples
  • Research at the University of Victoria (Maeys and Mazumder, 2004)
  • Elbow River study: ruminants and humans (Sosiak and Dixon, 2004)
  • Aquality to provide as a commercial service (Spring, 2005)
further study
Further Study
  • More comparative studies to determine best method for watershed studies
  • Field protocol: timing, number of samples collected, number of isolates identified, location and number of sites
  • Need to optimize analytical and statistical methods to minimize sources of error
slide44

Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

Introduction

Methods

Results

Conclusion

The Next Steps