Download
new physics beyond the sm astroparticle lhc synergy n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
NEW PHYSICS BEYOND THE SM: ASTROPARTICLE – LHC SYNERGY PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
NEW PHYSICS BEYOND THE SM: ASTROPARTICLE – LHC SYNERGY

NEW PHYSICS BEYOND THE SM: ASTROPARTICLE – LHC SYNERGY

143 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

NEW PHYSICS BEYOND THE SM: ASTROPARTICLE – LHC SYNERGY

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Workshop on PAMELA PHYSICS, Rome, 11 –12 May, 2009 NEW PHYSICS BEYOND THE SM:ASTROPARTICLE – LHC SYNERGY Antonio Masiero Univ. of Padova INFN, Padova

  2. WHY TO GO BEYOND THE SM “OBSERVATIONAL” REASONS THEORETICAL REASONS • INTRINSIC INCONSISTENCY OF SM AS QFT • (spont. broken gauge theory • without anomalies) • NO ANSWER TO QUESTIONS THAT “WE” CONSIDER “FUNDAMENTAL” QUESTIONS TO BE ANSWERED BY “FUNDAMENTAL” THEORY • (hierarchy, unification, flavor) • HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS • (but AFB……) • FCNC, CP • NO (but b sqq penguin …) • HIGH PRECISION LOW-EN. • NO (but (g-2) …) • NEUTRINO PHYSICS • YE m0, 0 • COSMO - PARTICLE PHYSICS • YE (DM, ∆B cosm, INFLAT., DE) Z bb NO NO NO NO YES YES Strong CP violation? YES

  3. MICRO MACRO PARTICLE PHYSICS COSMOLOGY HOT BIG BANG STANDARD MODEL GWS STANDARD MODEL HAPPY MARRIAGE Ex: NUCLEOSYNTHESIS POINTS OF FRICTION BUT ALSO • COSMIC MATTER-ANTIMATTER ASYMMETRY • INFLATION • - DARK MATTER + DARK ENERGY “OBSERVATIONAL” EVIDENCE FOR NEW PHYSICS BEYOND THE (PARTICLE PHYSICS) STANDARD MODEL

  4. INFLATION • CAUSALITY (isotropy of CMBR) • FLATNESS ( close to 1 today) • AGE OF THE UNIV. • PRIMORDIAL MONOPOLES SEVERE COSMOGICAL PROBLEMS COMMON SOLUTION FOR THESE PROBLEMS VERY FAST (EXPONENTIAL) EXPANSION IN THE UNIV.  V() VACUUM ENERGY  dominated by vacuum en. TRUE VACUUM NO WAY TO GET AN “INFLATIONARY SCALAR POTENTIAL” IN THE SM

  5. NO ROOM IN THE PARTICLE PHYSICS STANDARD MODEL FOR INFLATION V=2 2 + 4 no inflation Need to extend the SM scalar potential Ex: GUT’s, SUSY GUT’s,… ENERGY SCALE OF “INFLATIONARY PHYSICS”: LIKELY TO BE » Mw DIFFICULT BUT NOT IMPOSSIBLE TO OBTAINELECTROWEAK INFLATION IN SM EXTENSIONS

  6. THE COSMIC MATTER-ANTIMATTER ASYMMETRY PUZZLE:-why only baryons -why Nbaryons/Nphoton ~ 10-10 • NO EVIDENCE OF ANTIMATTER WITHIN THE SOLAR SYSTEM • ANTIPROTONS IN COSMIC RAYS: IN AGREEMENT WITH PRODUCTION AS SECONDARIES IN COLLISIONS • IF IN CLUSTER OF GALAXIES WE HAD AN ADMIXTURE OF GALAXIES MADE OF MATTER AND ANTIMATTER THE PHOTON FLUX PRODUCED BY MATTER-ANTIMATTER ANNIHILATION IN THE CLUSTER WOULD EXCEED THE OBSERVED GAMMA FLUX • IF Nba . = Nantibar AND NO SEPARATION WELL BEFORE THEY DECOUPLE . WE WOULD BE LEFT WITH Nbar./Nphoton << 10-10 • IF BARYONS-ANTIBARYONS ARE SEPARATED EARLIER DOMAINS OF BARYONS AND ANTIBARYONS ARE TOO SMALL TODAY TO EXPLAIN SEPARATIONS LARGER THAN THE SUPERCLUSTER SIZE ONLY MATTER IS PRESENT HOW TO DYNAMICALLY PRODUCE A BARYON-ANTIBARYON ASYMMETRY STARTING FROM A SYMMETRIC SITUATION

  7. COSMIC MATTER-ANTIMATTER ASYMMETRY “EXPLAINED” BY INITIAL CONDITIONS Murayama

  8. SM FAILS TO GIVE RISE TO A SUITABLE COSMIC MATTER-ANTIMATTER ASYMMETRY • SM DOES NOT SATISFY AT LEAST TWO OF THE THREE SACHAROV’S NECESSARY CONDITIONS FOR A DYNAMICAL BARYOGENESIS: • NOT ENOUGH CP VIOLATION IN THE SM NEED FOR NEW SOURCES OF CPV IN ADDITION TO THE PHASE PRESENT IN THE CKM MIXING MATRIX • FOR MHIGGS > 80 GeV THE ELW. PHASE TRANSITION OF THE SM IS A SMOOTH CROSSOVER NEED NEW PHYSICS BEYOND SM. IN PARTICULAR, FASCINATING POSSIBILITY: THE ENTIRE MATTER IN THE UNIVERSE ORIGINATES FROM THE SAME MECHANISM RESPONSIBLE FOR THE EXTREME SMALLNESS OF NEUTRINO MASSES

  9. MATTER-ANTIMATTER ASYMMETRY NEUTRINO MASSES CONNECTION: BARYOGENESIS THROUGH LEPTOGENESIS • Key-ingredient of the SEE-SAW mechanism for neutrino masses: large Majorana mass for RIGHT-HANDED neutrino • In the early Universe the heavy RH neutrino decays with Lepton Number violatiion; if these decays are accompanied by a new source of CP violation in the leptonic sector, then it is possible to create a lepton-antilepton asymmetry at the moment RH neutrinos decay. Since SM interactions preserve Baryon and Lepton numbers at all orders in perturbation theory, but violate them at the quantum level, such LEPTON ASYMMETRY can be converted by these purely quantum effects into a BARYON-ANTIBARYON ASYMMETRY ( Fukugita-Yanagida mechanism for leptogenesis )

  10. UV COMPLETION OF THE SM TO STABILIZE THE ELW. SCALE: LOW-ENERGY SUSY COMPLETION OF THE SM FERMIONIC SPECTRUM TO ALLOW FOR NEUTRINO MASSES: NATURALLY SMALL PHYSICAL NEUTRINO MASSES WITH RIGHT-HANDED NEUTRINO WITH A LARGE MAJORANA MASS SEE-SAW SUSY SEE-SAW

  11. SUSY SEESAW: Flavor universal SUSY breaking and yet large lepton flavor violation Borzumati, A. M. 1986 (after discussions with W. Marciano and A. Sanda) ~ Non-diagonality of the slepton mass matrix in the basis of diagonal lepton mass matrix depends on the unitary matrix U which diagonalizes (f+ f)

  12. µ e+ in SUSYGUT: past and future CATENA, FACCIA, A.M., VEMPATI

  13. and PRISM/PRIME conversion experiment

  14. BARYOGENESIS AT THE ELECTROWEAK SCALE ? In the MSSM: -light stop: -light Higgs -large SUSY masses CARENA, NARDINI, QUIROS, WAGNER

  15. THE UNIVERSE ENERGY BUDGET

  16. DM  NEW PHYSICS BEYOND THE ( PARTICLE PHYSICS ) SM - if Newton is right at scales>size of the Solar System • ΩDM= 0.233 ± 0.013 * • Ωbaryons = 0.0462 ± 0.0015 ** *from CMB ( 5 yrs. of WMAP) + Type I Supernovae + Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) **CMB + TypeI SN + BAO in agreement with Nucleosynthesis (BBN)

  17. The BULLET CLUSTER: two colliding clusters of galaxies Stars, galaxies and putative DM behave differently during collision, allowing for them to be studied separately. In MOND the lensing is expected to follow the baryonic matter, i.e. the X-ray gas. However the lensing is strongest in two separated regions near the visible galaxies most of the mass in the cluster pair is in the form of collisionless DM

  18. DM: the most impressive evidence at the “quantitative” and “qualitative” levels of New Physics beyond SM • QUANTITATIVE: Taking into account the latest WMAP data which in combination with LSS data provide stringent bounds on DM and BEVIDENCE FOR NON-BARYONIC DM AT MORE THAN 10 STANDARD DEVIATIONS!!THE SM DOES NOT PROVIDE ANY CANDIDATE FOR SUCH NON-BARYONIC DM • QUALITATIVE: it is NOT enough to provide a mass to neutrinos to obtain a valid DM candidate; LSS formation requires DM to be COLD NEW PARTICLES NOT INCLUDED IN THE SPECTRUM OF THE FUNDAMENTAL BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE SM !

  19. The Energy Scale from the“Observational” New Physics neutrino masses dark matter baryogenesis inflation NO NEED FOR THE NP SCALE TO BE CLOSE TO THE ELW. SCALE The Energy Scale from the “Theoretical” New Physics Stabilization of the electroweak symmetry breaking at MW calls for an ULTRAVIOLET COMPLETION of the SM already at the TeV scale+ CORRECT GRAND UNIFICATION “CALLS” FOR NEW PARTICLES AT THE ELW. SCALE

  20. (Difficult) Conditions for the axion to constitute 100% of DM Hertzberg, Steigmark, Wilczek Visinelli, Gondolo

  21. THE “WIMP MIRACLE” Bergstrom Many possibilities, but WIMPs are singled out by an exceptional “coincidence”: parameters of the STANDARD MODELS of PARTICLE PHYSICS and COSMOLOGY conspire to provide a viable cold DM candidate at the ELECTROWEAK SCALE

  22. WIMPS (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles)  # exp(-m/T) # does not change any more #~# m Tdecoupl. typically ~ m /20    depends on particle physics (annih.) and “cosmological” quantities (H, T0, … 10-3  h2_ COSMO – PARTICLE CONSPIRACY ~ <(annih.) V  > TeV2 From T0 MPlanck ~ 2 / M2 h2 in the range 10-2 -10-1 to be cosmologically interesting (for DM) m ~ 102 -103 GeV (weak interaction) h2 ~ 10-2 -10-1 !!! THERMAL RELICS (WIMP in thermodyn.equilibrium with the plasma until Tdecoupl)

  23. STABLE ELW. SCALE WIMPs from PARTICLE PHYSICS SUSYEXTRA DIM. LITTLE HIGGS. 1) ENLARGEMENT OF THE SM (x, ) (x, ji) SM part + new part Anticomm. New bosonic to cancel 2 Coord. Coord. at 1-Loop 2) SELECTION RULE DISCRETE SYMM. STABLE NEW PART. R-PARITY LSP KK-PARITY LKP T-PARITY LTP Neutralino spin 1/2 spin1 spin0 mLSP ~100 - 200 GeV * mLKP ~600 - 800 GeV 3) FIND REGION (S) PARAM. SPACE WHERE THE “L” NEW PART. IS NEUTRAL + ΩL h2 OK mLTP ~400 - 800 GeV * But abandoning gaugino-masss unif. Possible to have mLSP down to 7 GeV Bottino, Donato, Fornengo, Scopel

  24. WHICH SUSY HIDDEN SECTOR SUSY BREAKING AT SCALE F F = (105 - 106) GeV F = MW MPl GRAVITY GAUGE INTERACTIONS MESSENGERS Mgravitino~ F/MPl ~ (102 -103) eV Mgravitino ~ F/MPl ~ (102 -103) GeV OBSERVABLE SECTOR SM + superpartners MSSM : minimal content of superfields

  25. After LEP: tuning of the SUSY param. at the % level to correctly reproduce the DM abundance: NEED FOR A “WELL-TEMPERED” NEUTRALINO

  26. NEUTRALINO LSP IN THE CONSTRAINED MSSSM: A VERY SPECIAL SELECTION IN THE PARAMETER SPACE? Favored by gµ -2 Favored by DM Excluded: stau LSP Excluded by bsγ Ellis, Olive, Santoso, Spanos

  27. LSP NEUTRALINO: THE FREEDOM IN “UN-CONSTRAINED” MSSM NON-UNIVERSAL HIGGS MODEL GUTless Model ELLIS, OLIVE, SANDICK ELLIS, FALK, OLIVE, SANTOSO

  28. CMSSM: Regions of the param. space favored in a likelihood analysis

  29. GRAVITINO LSP? • GAUGE MEDIATED SUSY BREAKING (GMSB) : LSP likely to be the GRAVITINO ( it can be so light that it is more a warm DM than a cold DM candidate ) Although we cannot directly detect the gravitino, there could be interesting signatures from the next to the LSP ( NLSP) : for instance the s-tau could decay into tau and gravitino, Possibly with a very long life time, even of the order of days or months

  30. DIFFERENT FROM THE THERMAL HISTORY OF WIMPS SWIMPS(Super Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) • - LSP Gravitino in SUSY • - First excitation of the graviton in UED … They inherit the appropriate relic density through the decay of a more massive thermal species that has earlier decoupled from the thermal bath

  31. G. GIUDICE

  32. DM and NON-STANDARD COSMOLOGIES BEFORE NUCLEOSYNTHESIS • NEUTRALINO RELIC DENSITY MAY DIFFER FROM ITS STANDARD VALUE, i.e. the value it gets when the expansion rate of the Universe is what is expected in Standard Cosmology (EX.: SCALAR-TENSOR THEORIES OF GRAVITY, KINATION, EXTRA-DIM. RANDALL-SUNDRUM TYPE II MODEL, ETC.) • WIMPS MAY BE “COLDER”, i.e. they may have smaller typical velocities and, hence, they may lead to smaller masses for the first structures which form GELMINI, GONDOLO

  33. DM DE DO THEY “KNOW” EACH OTHER? DIRECT INTERACTION  (quintessence) WITH DARK MATTER • DANGER: • Very LIGHT m ~ H0-1 ~ 10-33 eV Threat of violation of the equivalence principle constancy of the fundamental “constants”,… INFLUENCE OF  ON THE NATURE AND THE ABUNDANCE OF CDM Modifications of the standard picture of WIMPs FREEZE - OUT EX.: SCALAR-TENSOR GRAVITY CATENA, FORNENGO, A.M., PIETRONI, SHELCKE CDM CANDIDATES

  34. NEUTRALINO RELIC ABUNDANCE IN GR AND S-T THEORIES OF GRAVITY

  35. SCHELKE, CATENA, FORNENGO, A.M., PIETRONI

  36. CONSTRAINTS ON THE ENHANCEMENT OF THE UNIV.EXPANSION RATE FROM THE LIMITS ON THE ANTIPROTON ABUNDANCE SCFMP

  37. LARGER WIMP ANNIHILATION CROSS-SECTION IN NON-STANDARD COSMOLOGIES • Having a Universe expansion rate at the WIMP freeze-out larger than in Standard Cosmology possible to provide a DM adequate WIMP population even in the presence of a larger annihilation cross-section ( Catena, Fornengo, A.M., Pietroni) • Possible application to increase the present DM annihilation rate to account for the PAMELA results in the DM interpretation (instead of other mechanisms like the Sommerfeld effect or a nearby resonance) El Zant, Khalil, Okada

  38. ARKANI-AHMED, FINKBEINER, SLATYER, WEINER

  39. SPIN - INDEPENDENT NEUTRALINO - PROTON CROSS SECTION FOR ONE OF THE SUSY PARAM. FIXED AT 10 TEV PROFUMO, A.M., ULLIO

  40. Neutralino-nucleon scattering cross sections along the WMAP-allowed coannihilation strip for tanbeta=10 and coannihilation/funnel strip for tanbeta=50 using the hadronic parameters ELLIS, OLIVE, SAVAGE Ellis, Olive, Sandick LHC Sensitivity

  41. PROSPECTS FOR DISCOVERING THE CMSSM AT THE LHC IN LIGHT OF WMAP RED: FULL SAMPLE OF CMMS MODELS BLUE: POINTS COMPATIBLE WITH WMAP GREEN: POINTS ACCESSIBLE TO LHC YELLOW: POINTS ACCESSIBLE TO PRESENT DIRECT DM SEARCHES Ellis et al.

  42. PREDICTION OF Ω DM FROM LHC AND ILC FOR TWO DIFFERENT SUSY PARAMETER SETS BALTZ, BATTAGLIA, PESKIN, WIZANSKY

  43. LFV - DM CONSTRAINTS IN MINIMAL SUPERGRAVITY A.M., Profumo, Vempati, Yaguna

  44. NEUTRALINO LSP IN SUPERGRAVITY A.M., PROFUMO, ULLIO

  45. A.M., PROFUMO,ULLIO

  46. SEARCHING FORWIMPs LHC, ILC may PRODUCE WIMPS WIMPS escape the detector MISSING ENERGY SIGNATURE WIMPS HYPOTHESIS DM made of particles with mass 10Gev - 1Tev ELW scale With WEAK INTERACT. FROM “KNOWN” COSM. ABUNDANCE OF WIMPs PREDICTION FOR WIMP PRODUCTION AT COLLIDERS WITHOUT SPECYFING THE PART. PHYSICS MODEL OF WIMPs BIRKEDAL, MATCHEV, PERELSTEIN , FENG,SU, TAKAYAMA

  47. SMOKING GUN(S) FOR DM? N. Weiner, La Thuile March ‘09 DAMA/LIBRA