written v. oral traditions anthropology material culture artifacts - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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written v. oral traditions anthropology material culture artifacts

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  1. written v. oral traditions • anthropology • material culture artifacts

  2. natural selection • genetic drift • gene flow • species

  3. paleontology fossils • East Africa Rift Valley • hominid bipedal • Homo erectus range (fire) • Homo sapiens

  4. adaptation = observable • DNA • Cline regional color • lactose intolerance • sickle cell trait • hunting response

  5. AfrocentrismEurocentrism

  6. Euro-centric Approachto World Studies North America Asia Europe South America Australia Africa

  7. Multicultural Approachto World Studies Europe North America Asia Concept or Event South America Australia Africa

  8. Afrocentrism/Eurocentrism • Ideology: beliefs, values and approaches to study • Comparison • Influence on academic research/ writing/ teaching

  9. GHANA (500s - c. 1076) MALI (mid 1200s - 1400s) SONGHAY (1400s - 1591) KONGO (1300 - ) BENIN (? - late 1400s) Arrival of Portuguese - 1488 400 200 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 B.C./A.D.

  10. Ghana 700-1200 A.D. • commercial center - gold and salt • Kanem-Bornu 800-1850 A.D. • major trade route - sculpture Islam • Mali 1200-1500 A.D. • trading capital Timbuktu

  11. Benin 1300-1800 A.D. • artists, hunters, traders • bronze plaques commissioned by Oba (king) • Songhai 1350-1600 A.D. • warriors and scholars • control major caravan markets • establish single empire

  12. Arrival of Europeans Portuguese 1488 • Prince Henry the Navigator 1441 • Interest in navigation technology, fields • Portuguese sailors experienced in N/S Atlantic

  13. Spain - political unification • expulsion of Jews and Muslims 1492 Slavery tied to European expansion • mercantilism • exploration and “discovery” • of the Americas (New World) • motives: gold, glory and God

  14. Cultures in conflict: Differences become deficits • color • religion and spirituality - polytheism/sacred • technology and trade • history - oral tradition • behavior - clothing, rituals, kinship, marriage, ancestors, music, art

  15. Slavery in Africa v. Slavery in Americas African slavery purpose and practices African Diaspora Americas slavery purpose and practices

  16. Old World/New World

  17. New World Corn Potato Tomato Peppers (Bell & Chili) Chocolate Vanilla Tobacco Beans (Lima, Pole, Navy, Kidney) Pumpkin Cassava Root (Manioc) Avocado Peanut, Pecan, Cashew Old World Horse Cattle Pig Sheep Chicken Honeybee Wheat, Asian Rice, Barley, Oats, Soy Sugar Cane Onion Lettuce Okra Peach & Pear

  18. New World Pineapple Blueberry Sunflower Petunia Black-eyed Susan Dahlia Marigold Quinine Wild Rice OldWorld Watermelon Citrus Fruit Banana Olive Lilac Daffodil Tulip Daisy Dandelion Crab Grass New World OldWorld

  19. Comparisons • Spain legal code 13th cent. Siete Partidas • slave = a person with a soul, part of family (household), rights and responsibilities slavery = contractual agreement, opposite of freedom Crown and Church as protectors colonies: Cuba, Puerto Rico, Jamaica

  20. Francelegal code - Code Noir slave = dependent person, required conformity in religion, dress, conduct, responsible to the State slavery = economic arrangement regulated by State State protects slave as both person and property colonies: St. Dominique, Martinique, Guadeloupe

  21. Great Britain no legal code common law private property is sacred value slave = a thing, neglected as object of religion slavery = as custom dictates/master controls State = Crown has no interest/ representative govt. influence $

  22. slave is bought, sold, mortgaged, leased, inherited murder of slave = crime against property slave crimes treated as more serious/ having social significance (insult, injury) colonies: Barbados, North American colonies

  23. Dutch variations • demonstrate complexity Surinam (British origins till 1667/ Protestant) harsh slavery: high importation, high deaths • plantation economy • isolated plantations • absentee landlords (70-80%)

  24. manumission of preferred slaves --Surinam marriage mulatto class = government worker revolts: hit one plantation and retreat

  25. Curacao(Spanish origins till 1634/ Catholic) • lax system of slavery: natural increase commerce economy (Portuguese Jews)plantations = social status • resident owners = paternalism

  26. manumission of laborers(freed men worse off than slaves) • concubinesmulatto class = no educ./ treatment • revolts: against violation of rights • influenced by Haitian revolts

  27. Comparative slavery • Country’s length of experience • Spain/ Portugal domination of slave trade 15 - 16th century • Brazil and Caribbean--sugar islands • England/ France domination • 17 - 19th century (80% 1701-1850)

  28. Country’s legal concept of slavery • Country’s cultural perceptions • Differences • religious conversion • police regulations • manumission practices • prejudice and discrimination

  29. Demographics: • proportion of population • male ratio • African cultures • distribution

  30. Economic pattern: • drive for quick profit • expansion of land • overproduction of staples • prices fall • attrition • paternalism • slavery as social system

  31. Abolition: France 1794 Danish 1805 British 1808 • Importation: only 5% to North American colonies, yet by 1860 have 35% of all slaves --Factors of influence?

  32. Slavery in North America • New England: MA, CT, RI, ME, NH, VT • Ties to slave trade • New England enriched merchants and colonies through duties/ created gentility • Puritans justified slavery • labor shortage • colony established by God for “elect” • enslavement was act of mercy

  33. Legal sanctions • 1641 first enactment -- war prisoners, voluntary • By 1670s -- children of slaves • Results • slavery became basis of economic life • creation of large merchant class • brought African influence on America

  34. Slave roles lack of plantations meant less numbers • except: Narragansett Planters -- 5-40 per plantation (dairy, horse breeding) occupations diverse: most frequent = farmer, whitesmith, blacksmith, shipbuilder, distiller, iron forge worker, sailor, servant, manager of warehouse, business, caulker laborers = hired out

  35. Slave roles living arrangements: with family • familiarity and inclusion use in colonial defense: trained for militia until 1660 (thereafter barred)

  36. Controls mild compared to NY and South slave codes: protect property,safeguard against insurrection preserve socioeconomic/political gap

  37. Common Deviance runaways assault or defamation of whites theft drunkenness limit movement care of poor conditions for freedom (manumission)

  38. Punishments: • banishment to W. Indies • mutilation for control • death • manumission of indigent or old • fines v. lash

  39. Protections • no work on Sunday • willful death i.e. 1686 death penalty for master • interracial sex forbidden 1705

  40. Status as property and person (Puritan household member) • taxable, seized for debts, movable goods • right to life • right to property (buy, sell, transfer, hold) • court rights: testify, sue, make contracts, request inquest, trial by jury

  41. Diversions house raising, maple sugar festivals, corn husking, hunting, fishing, fiddling, storytelling, vacations Training Day (militia training) Election Day (mock elections)

  42. Humane in comparison economy could not absorb many less numbers = less fear = less controls • 1720 = 9.3 per 1000 • 1740 = 11.6 • 1760 = 1.9 By 1750 = 3% of total population 1800 1:50 in N. Eng. 2:3 in S. Carolina

  43. intimate association = kinder (illness, clothing, food, education, punishments) religion = slaves as person with soul education = liberal, needed for diverse jobs, brought higher prices

  44. Achievers under the system Jupiter Hammon Newport Gardiner Phillis Wheatley • Lucy Terry

  45. Abolition of slavery sue for freedom in courts: Jennie Slew Elizabeth Freeman “Mum Bett” Quok Walker 1783 natural rights argument

  46. Middle Colonies: • New York, New Jersey, Pa. - 6.5% Dutch colonial background -- harsh slavery Pa. -- colonial haven for Quakers (German) • Society of Friends • conformed to norms until 1773 • Philadelphia and Quaker influence NY Pa NJ

  47. Economic Growth • commerce • growth of commerce, port cities, multiplied need for slaves, workers, servants • port cities • Need for slaves • workers: laborers, artisans, sailors, servants

  48. Statutory recognition • NY = 1665 • Pa. = 1700 • NJ = 1702 Slavery peaked by 1720, then decline • 1720 - 10% of region/ 15% = NY • 1720 = 66.7 per 1000 • 1740 = 11.4 • 1760 = 20.3 • 1780 = 1.6 NY Pa NJ

  49. Middle Colony • Achievers Gustavas Vasa (Olaudah Equiano) James Derham Paul Cuffe Richard Allen James Forten Absalom Jones

  50. Southern Colonies: • VA, MD, DE, NC, SC, GA Types of plantation labor: task (rice), gang (tobacco, cotton) Upper South Lower South 1720 = 147 per 1000 891 1740 = 149 375 1760 = 171 171 1780 = 72 179 • Total of population: • 7% in 1680/ 25% in 1720 MD DE VA NC SC GA