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Security Issues & Paradigms in Mobile Computing Science & Networking. Michel Riguidel Tel : +33 1 45 81 73 02 riguidel@enst.fr. Les exigences de QoS, mobilité et de configurabilité. Information Technology evolution. Before 80 : Middle Age, Computing Sc. belongs to fiefs (IBM, …), no network

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Security issues paradigms in mobile computing science networking l.jpg

Security Issues & Paradigmsin Mobile Computing Science & Networking

Michel Riguidel

Tel : +33 1 45 81 73 02

riguidel@enst.fr



Information technology evolution l.jpg
Information Technology evolution

  • Before 80 : Middle Age, Computing Sc. belongs to fiefs (IBM, …), no network

    • All proprietary, no flow : All is parchment or proprietary spreadsheet

  • 80s : All is transparent for a computer scientist

    • All is file : UNIX (/dev/null, /dev/lpr, ...)

    • a file is a set of characters which can be manipulated by C language

  • 85s : All is readable on a desk (or a PC) for anybody

    • All is document (no more interoperability & transparency)

  • 95s: All is an available object on the network for communication

    • All is document, readable everywhere (HTML page) or executable everywhere (Java)

    • Privilege to information access : kiosk, server

  • 00s : All is a digital, fluid & live stream distributed over networks

    • Nomadic user, virtual presence (user or sw/content move), Virtual Machine & JavaBeans

    • Ubiquitous IT (networked planet grid) & Mobile computing infrastructure (Xeo satellites)

  • 05s : All is program, alive on ad hoc networks

    • An entity on the network is a Java Program (Jini Concept)

    • Intentional architecture


  • The new paradigm of it l.jpg
    The new Paradigm of IT

    Towards a Convergence Telecom - Multimedia - IT

    For a seamless IT with mobility, configurability

    in zero-administration within an heterogeneous world

    Hardware

    Distributed

    Multimedia

    Data

    end-user Profile, smart card

    software object, Agent

    Application, Service

    Telephone, Set Top Box, PDA

    PC, Server, Printer

    Trusted Third Party

    Router, Switch

    Home Network, Local Network

    Virtual Private Network for

    Businesses,

    Internet

    Software

    «Middleware Infrastructure»

    of dynamically configurable

    distributed IT

    Content

    Individuals

    Communicating, autonomous, configurable, mobile, automatically plugged ENTITIES

    onto an interoperable secured, Plug & Play, scaleable dynamically INFRASTRUCTURE,

    All being distributedly managed by various Actors, according several point of view


    Infrastructure of a is urbanization of an information system l.jpg

    Distributed

    Multimedia

    Data

    Java

    Applet

    Interface : XML

    Protocol: IP

    Infrastructure of a IS:Urbanization of an Information System

    Infrastructure with QoS, mobility & security

    Multimedia Hyperdocument

    New Services

    Intelligent Routers & Switchers

    Configurability

    Active & Ad hocNetworks

    Mobile/fix, wired/wireless

    Extra/Inter/Intranet

    Mobile Terminals

    Network Computers

    New Services & Usage

    biometric Authentication

    Adaptive & multi-modal

    Human Interface

    Speech recognition

    Adaptability & customization

    of applications according

    terminal configuration &

    end-user’s services

    New Services

    Indexation by content

    Protection of digital Objects

    Navigation, Search engine

    information filtering


    Software intensive system architecture is a key issue l.jpg
    Software Intensive System:Architecture is a key issue

    Broadcast & Access

    New OSI Layers

    System Architecture

    Usage, cooperation:

    teleworking, videoconference,

    real time negotiation

    information

    & documents

    performance

    QoS

    interoperability

    security

    mobility

    heterogeneity

    distribution

    dependability

    maintainability

    applications:

    configurable, downloadable

    distribution & services: M2M, P2P

    Middleware, XML, Corba & mobile Code

    communication

    convergence IP & ATM

    Multimedia

    Cross media, video, image,

    mobile code, hyperdocument

    transmission:

    wired & wireless

    Content

    Communication

    Properties


    Urbanization versatility in access networks heterogeneity global roaming qos value added services l.jpg

    Ad hoc

    IEEE802.11

    Bluetooth

    Core Network

    UMTS

    Urbanization :Versatility in Access NetworksHeterogeneity, Global roaming, QoS, Value Added Services

    Access / Intermediation

    IPv6


    Global interconnection seamless heterogeneity multimedia macromobility l.jpg

    Common challenges to be solved:

    . Plug & play

    . Configurability

    . Management

    . Quality of Service

    . Upgradeability

    . Adaptability

    . Security, privacy

    . Stability, safety

    . Costs

    Global Interconnection : « seamless »Heterogeneity, Multimedia, macroMobility

    LANs

    Interconnection of

    Local Networks

    Private

    Internet Connections

    Enterprise

    Telecom Operators

    & Internet

    Cooperation

    Cooperative Work

    Mobiles

    Remote Access

    • More Heterogeneity

      • Interoperability through different networks

        • No Esperanto : W-Corba, JavaRMI, J2EE, agents, … do not fit

        • M2M (middleware to middleware)

        • Selectivity, Resource management, …

    Public Networks Connections

    Global Roaming


    Dynamic links heterogeneity mobility l.jpg
    Dynamic Links :heterogeneity & mobility

    WAP

    GSM

    Telecom Operators

    & Internet

    • More Dynamicity

      • Changes depending upon

        • Policy, Traffic, …

        • Opportunities, locations, context, resource

    Global Handover


    Slide10 l.jpg
    New Services, Contents, Middleware,Network Service ProvidersClient-server => intermediation architecture

    Multimedia Content-based

    Search Engine,

    Agent Platform, etc

    Content Provider

    Achilles

    Barbara

    Personal Area Network

    • More Content : Rich Content & Cross-Content

      • VoIP, "QoS" real time, critical flows, audio-video streaming

      • Content processing (searching, watermarking, …)

    « QoS »


    The digital world architecture urbanization l.jpg
    The digital World: Architecture & Urbanization

    • Ubiquity of computing & storing resources

      • communication anytime, anywhere, anyhow

      • concept of datagrid (metacomputing)

    • Externalization of General resources

      • Mips

      • Storage

      • Trust content (secret keys available everywhere)

    • Communicating Objects & Subjects

      • Objects are dynamically connected

      • Devices are permanently connected (IP v6)

      • Subjects have representations over the network (avatars)

    • Customization of its own Virtual Private Network & Community

    • Key technology

      • Cellular Mobile Telecommunications, Mobility, roaming

      • Internet, Data Grid, Cache Architecture

      • Satellite, Broadcast


    The digital world architecture urbanization12 l.jpg
    The digital World:Architecture & Urbanization

    • Customization

      • of its own Virtual Private Network & Community

        • Subjects have representations over the network (avatars)

        • Devices are permanently connected (IP v6)

    • Layer 2 : Data link

      • Communicating Objects & Subjects

        • Objects are dynamically connected

        • Communication anytime, anywhere, anyhow

      • Versatile medium access

    • Layer 7 : Bottom of Application Layer

      • Ubiquity of computing & storing resources

        • concept of datagrid (metacomputing)

      • Externalization of General resources

        • Mips, Storage, Trust content (secret keys available everywhere)

      • Semantic socket, « pluget »

        • Quality of communication (QoS, Security)

        • Nature of content

        • Negotiated resources


    The past emergence of new context l.jpg
    The past & emergence of new context

    • Information on Years 80s & 90s

      • Simple and it works …

      • Not enough mips …

      • Proprietary

        • Dedicated entities with specific intelligence & engine

    • Assumptions which are no more verified for Years 00s

      • Catalogues of fix Applications

        • Bill Gates' concept is obsolete

      • Dedicated Infrastructure

        • Need of Global Interoperability & Roaming

        • For "Beyond 3G networks", Routes do not exist any more

        • The OSI model is no more "the" reference

      • Herzian spectrum : static allocation by ranges

        • Spectrum must be shared differently (new rules, UWB, …)


    The future open smart configurable networks l.jpg
    The Future :Open, Smart & Configurable Networks

    • Non Functional Properties are essential

      • Policy aware networks

      • Mobility, QoS, interoperability, security

      • Configurability : changes versus time & space

        • Management issues, proactive & reactive mgt

    • Potential solution

      • Virtualization

        • Openness

        • Hw Trivial (not simple !) & Sw Virtual

      • More Intelligence in the network

      • Pros & Cons

        • Performance

        • Business models

    • Technological issues

      • Complexity reduction

      • Software engineering does not follow


    Long term vision l.jpg
    Long Term Vision

    • Vision

      • Hw & Sw separation and independence

        • Smart intelligence within the open network

        • Radio block (General Management of the Radio Resource)

        • Lower layers (UMTS MAC layer)

        • Upper Layers & Downloadable Applications

      • Relationship between the layers

        • Articulation between the architecture styles

        • Implementation of these architectures are different

      • Management

        • subsidiarity

    • Orientation

      • Open Network (Next seism in Computing & networking)

      • Software radio, software Terminal, "Software Network" : Ad hoc & Active Networks

      • New Architectures : P2P, M2M, …


    Convergence virtualization externalization l.jpg
    Convergence :Virtualization & Externalization

    • Wireless

      • Mobility & autonomy

      • Adaptation, Configurability

        • Depending of the context

    • Ambient Networks

      • Embedded Internet, Desegregating terminals

      • Disappearing computing, pervasive computing

        • ubiquity of access

        • communicating objects and devices

        • remote work (medicine, surgery)

      • Augmented reality

    • Data Grid & MetaComputing

      • Global computation (Genomes, cryptography, astrophysics, …)

    • Managing & securing Chain Value


    Conclusions l.jpg
    Conclusions

    • Convergence / Divergence dialectic

      • Merging wired & wireless

        • high date rate core networks

        • diversity of access to the network

      • New Content: multimedia, art creation

        • exploration of the content cosmos

      • Different Scales & heterogeneity

        • Bluetooth, WLan (802.xx), UMTS, Internet

      • Decentralization

    • Not a revolution but smooth & permanent changes

      • migration of standards

        • IPv4 versus IPv6

        • de facto: Windows towards Linux (open software)

        • GSM to GPRS

        • Etc.


    Computing or networking l.jpg
    Computing &/or Networking

    Computer

    Network

    Management of Time/Space & I/O

    Management of Space & I/O

    Semantic : Turing Machine

    Semantic : Store & Forward

    Bandwidth

    PC & Server

    Router & Switch

    Erlang

    Data rate

    QoS

    Mips & Gigabytes

    Bottleneck : I/O

    Bottleneck : the last Mile, …, centimeter

    Space : not x,y,z but structured addresses


    Gilder s versus moore s law l.jpg
    Gilder’s versus Moore’s law

    2x/3-6 months

    1M

    1000 x

    WAN/MAN Bandwidth

    10,000

    Log Growth

    Processor Performance

    100

    2x/18 months

    97

    9

    9

    01

    03

    05

    07

    Greg Papadopoulos, Sun Microsystems


    Mobile context digital world l.jpg
    Mobile Context & Digital World

    • More Mobility

      • Nomadic people (with terminals)

      • Mobile services, content (caches), infrastructure (satellite constellation)

        • Downloading applications, agent framework, liquid software, VHE, …

    Personalization

    Mobility

    “Ambience”

    Contextualization :

    communication infrastructure, equipment, environment

    Localization


    Evolution of mobile networks from vertical to horizontal segmentation l.jpg
    Evolution of mobile networks :from vertical to horizontal segmentation

    Today

    Specific Network with unique service

    Old : Binding services with communication technology

    Tomorrow

    Multi-service/client-server Network

    New: SP competition over open Infrastructure

    Services

    Portal

    Servers

    Content

    Content

    Mobile

    Internet

    High rate

    Internet

    backbone network

    by packets

    PLMN

    PSTN/ISDN

    Data/IP Networks

    CATV

    Mobile

    Access by

    packets

    High rate

    Packets

    Access

    Circuit Access

    2G/RTC/ISDN

    Clients

    Access Network, Transport & Switch Network

    From Ericsson


    Dynamic provision of services to users l.jpg

    Communication Providers

    Dynamic Provision of Services to Users

    End user

    Private

    Value Added

    Service

    Provider

    Directory Services

    Calling Services

    Voice Services

    Value Added

    Services

    Information

    Shopping

    Banking

    Telecom

    Operator &

    ISP

    Culture

    Entertainment

    Automation

    Devices

    Services


    Quality of service l.jpg
    Quality of Service

    • QoS defined by UIT-T E.800 norm

    Ease of use

    Accessibility

    Degree of satisfaction of

    the service user

    Audrey

    Continuity

    Service Logistics

    Security

    Integrity


    Information flows streams caches efficiency of the whole loop content delivery networks l.jpg

    INFORMATION

    DOCUMENTS

    Analysis

    Simulation

    Sensors

    Decision

    Actuators

    Information Flows, Streams & Cachesefficiency of the whole Loop : Content Delivery Networks, ...

    More Intelligence

    at the periphery of IS

    More Knowledge and reactivity

    in the Loop

    STREAMS

    STREAMS

    EXECUTION

    MANAGEMENT

    TRANSMISSIONS

    TRANSMISSIONS

    More irrigation in IS

    by differentiated Information Flows

    Data

    <= Data Fusion

    Broadcast =>

    Sensors& Actuators

    Synthesis


    The ecology of networks l.jpg
    The ecology of networks

    • Social networks

      • who knows who => Virtual Private Communities

  • Knowledge networks

    • who knows what => Knowledge Management

  • Information networks

    • who informs what => “à la Internet”

  • Work networks

    • who works where => GroupWare

  • Competency networks

    • what is where => Knowledge with time and space

  • Inter-organizational network

    • organizational linkages => Semantic Interoperability


  • Mobility infospheres evolution of spaces regular intelligent l.jpg

    PAN-Bluetooth-WLan-UMTS-Internet

    Mobility & InfospheresEvolution of Spaces : regular & intelligent

    From K. M. Carley CMU

    permanent links

    through IPv6

    As spaces become intelligent individual's infospheres grow,

    changes occur in the and in which people are embedded.

    Infospheres : circles

    interaction : bold lines

    knowledge network : dashed line


    The seven osi layers l.jpg

    Application

    Presentation

    Session

    Transport

    Network

    Link

    Physics

    The Seven OSI Layers

    Dynamic

    Multimode

    Browser & Players

    Between TCP & UDP, there are thousands of upper transport protocols

    Active Networks : computation within Nodes

    Ad hoc Networks : moving nodes, No fix Routes

    Turbocode

    Wireless & Optics


    Communication infrastructure client server is dead policy aware networks l.jpg
    Communication Infrastructure : Client-server is dead =>Policy Aware Networks

    Horizontal unbalance of the semantic distribution in networks:

    network entities are efficient “lifts” for the OSI layered modelextremities (client & server) bearing the whole intelligence

    Connection between A and B

    secure interoperable protocols

    Pab & Pba

    with adaptive QoS

    A: client

    Towards

    Active & Ad hoc

    Networks

    Network infrastructure

    More intelligence:

    memory, visibility, flexibility

    B: server


    Active network model l.jpg

    NodeOS

    Router

    Active Network Model

    APIs

    Application Program Interfaces

    • Execution Environment

      • Execution Machine

      • Interfaces to program the network

    EE 1

    Java

    (Capsule)

    EE 2

    (IPv4)

    EE 3

    (IPv6)

    EE 4

    Asm

    Intel

    • Open Operating system (Node OS)

      • Resource management

      • Open APIs towards EEs

      • Infrastructure for Security Functions

    Trivial Hw

    (Physical Resource)


    R seaux actifs d fis l.jpg
    Réseaux actifs : défis

    • Ouvrir le réseau aux (fournisseurs de) services

    • Modification dynamique du comportement du réseau

      • par les utilisateurs, applications, et opérateurs

    • Définir une interface (API) de programmation des réseaux

    Un réseau programmable est un réseaude transmission de paquets ouvert et extensible disposant d'une infrastructure dédiée à l'intégration et à la mise en œuvre rapide de nouveaux services

    Réseau extensible qui offre des facilités pour changer dynamiquement son comportement (tel qu’il est perçu par l’usager)

    Ouvrir le réseau

    Virtualiser les composants

    Configurer dynamiquement

    Le Réseau devient une machine virtuelle programmable


    Active networks l.jpg

    Application

    Presentation

    Session

    Transport

    Application

    Network

    Link

    Physics

    Active Networks

    • To keep the Network proprietary ! over an Open Infrastructure

    • To distribute intelligence within the Network

    • DiffServ is a straightforward Active Network !

      • The Java Packet program is a constant (flow header)

    • MPLS is an elegant simple Active Network !

      • The program is a stack of constant (shim header) which is run over the entry and exit nodes to create Tunnels

    • More to come

      • Filtering, …


    Spontaneous device networking self organizing ad hoc l.jpg
    Spontaneous Device Networking :self-organizing, ad-hoc

    • Wireless : no route

      • Access control ?

      • Net etymology : mesh, graph

      • How to find his own way ?

    • Some Issues

      • Service discovery

      • Spectrum coexistence

      • Management

      • Security


    Ad hoc networks l.jpg
    Ad hoc Networks

    • Each node can be a router and/or a terminal

      • Astrid cannot talk to Charlotte (hidden nodes)

      • Basil : potential collisions

    • C can reach the cell A via B

    A

    B

    C

    D

    Radio range


    Ad hoc networks34 l.jpg

    Application

    Presentation

    Session

    Transport

    Network

    Link

    Physics

    Ad hoc Networks

    • No more Routes

    • No more Topology

    • Blind search

    • Search with Reminiscence

    • Extension to Self organizing Network


    Zimmermann s open interconnection model l.jpg
    Zimmermann’s open interconnection model

    End-to-end

    Application

    Application

    Presentation

    Presentation

    Session

    Session

    Top-down

    Transport

    Transport

    Network

    Network

    Link

    QoS

    Link

    • From top to bottom and from A to B

    • Seven layers model: isotropic, no time and space

    • Homology to win interoperability

    • Vertical software engineering

    • To shred any content into packets, datagrams, frames, and finally bits

    • We ignore content semantics

    Physics

    Physics

    QoS

    QoS


    Theory of communication shannon weaver model 1949 l.jpg

    emission

    reception

    Theory of communicationShannon & Weaver model (1949)

    • Linear & unidirectional model

    • Neither the relationship between the actors nor the situation are taken into consideration

    • Eliminate semantics

      • J Lacan (seminar II, 1954), R Barthes (ethos, logos, pathos)

    message



    Security issues in a mobile world l.jpg
    Security issues in a mobile world

    • Specification of policies compatible with the Content and the Container

    • Set up of a context-oriented, plural, configurable policy

    • Design of new encryption protocols

    • Placing cryptology and steganography in perspective

    • Introducing security in an open world


    Challenges l.jpg
    Challenges

    • Years 2001

      • Distorting reality prism with

        • Internet (asynchronous messages & meshes of routers) and

        • GSM (voice content & cellular architecture with Base stations)

    • Security & mobility

      • Use of infrastructures

        • Need of geographical references

          • Need of protecting the spatial structure

        • Fix infrastructure : articulation of mobile part and fix part via a cryptographic protocol

        • Mobile part (ad hoc networks) : search for invariant structures

      • Use of history of movements

        • Traceability of moving objects and subjects

    • Building alibis

      • Ontologies are moving in these virtual spaces

      • Identification and then confirming their existence in a defined location using alibis


    New situation no more deterrence l.jpg
    New situation : no more deterrence

    • Before 11th September (QQ33N)

      • Symbolic attack : no more

        • undetectable or discrete attack

        • balance between investment protection cost & risk to lose assets

    • After 11th September (QQ33N)

      • The whole communities can lose confidence

      • Security against on cyberwar

        • at a greater scale for large infrastructure

      • Main threat

        • Denial of service for a long time with multiple accidental coincidences

    • Basic security

      • Audit, accountability (identification & authentication)


    Classical security solutions l.jpg
    Classical Security solutions

    • PKIs, Certificates (X509), SSL, IPSec, Firewalls

    • Security classical cryptography model

      • Audrey & Basil share a secret

        • can be used to scramble the message (cryptography)

        • can be used to insert a subliminal mark in order to leave a trace (steganography)

    Point to point

    Cryptography

    Trusted third party


    Security solutions it today 2 focal key points l.jpg
    Security Solutions IT today : 2 focal key points

    S/MIME

    PGP

    Security with proxy

    Content Security

    P3P

    FIPA security

    WAP security

    XML

    SSL/TLS/LIPKEY

    Articulation : distributed security Infrastructure

    Network Boundary

    IPsec

    IP

    IKE/ISAKMP

    BitStream Ciphering

    Route Security

    A lot of “standard” solutions

    Utilization often complex

    One protocol does not eliminate all the threats


    Digital era vulnerability customized security l.jpg
    Digital era :vulnerability & customized security

    Buyer

    01000011

    1100101001010101000011

    011000101100

    01010101000011

    00101100

    order

    01001010101000011

    110010100101000011

    Seller

    0101100

    1100101001010

    vulnerable

    1011000011101001

    Mobile

    only clones

    payment

    Bank

    Intelligent : can be adjusted and personalized


    Mobility within a convergence world l.jpg
    Mobility within a Convergence world

    • Open or closed ?

      • Both : Möbius ribbon

    • Historical world : footprint & witness

      • We must authenticate the scene, the situation

      • We must trust a witness located at t = t0 and at x = x0

      • Audrey & Basil know each other

      • Local confidence

    • Mobility introduces new threats

      • a subject S is going to travel : trajectory x(t)

        • S is not alone

        • S leaves traces, depends upon the « ambience »

      • S wants to trust the object O

        • S and O are going to create alibis depending upon time and space

      • Alibis

        • are trusted relationships between the infrastructure, S & O

        • E.g. : the individual is going to sign with the station base that he/she was present in this cell


    Security policy depending upon space time l.jpg
    Security policy depending upon space & time

    • User point of view

      • he/she defines his/her own security policy for comfort

        • Service access if the user in inside a perimeter

          • One restricts on his own our mobile phone usage inside a given zone for a certain period of time

          • One asks for a control from the telecom operator

          • Secret shared with the operator

    • Service Provider point of view

      • Creation of a cryptographic protocol to sign the user ID with the location ID (here the base station name)

      • Buyer may be anonymous but one knows that he was here at t = t0

    • It is no more a virtual world


    Object traceability l.jpg
    Object traceability

    • Trust model

      • Content security (end-to-end)

      • Container security (depending upon operator, Internet, etc)

    • The whole system has a memory

      • Audit function (.log files to record events)

    • Historical signature

      • Digital signature of the content : integrity

      • Digital signature of the traces

        • Labeling, watermarking

        • Ephemeral watermarking


    Security functions in a mobile universe l.jpg
    Security functions in a mobile universe

    • Identification

      • Biometry, smart card, trusted entity

      • Anonymous

        • need to find a witness for the situation

        • capture a secret depending upon the situation

    • Authentication

      • Of the scene:

        • to exchange a secret with someone that we will see again

    • Audit

      • History of the objects /subjects trajectory

      • Ephemeral watermarking

    • Data Protection

      • Both Cryptography & steganography


    Architecture projection of constraints l.jpg
    Architecture : Projection of constraints

    • Architecture

      • Expression of constraints

      • Design : Projection of the specification onto an implementation

    • The expression of the constraints (QoS, Security, mobility, interoperability) must be incarnate and instantiate through

      • The network architecture

      • The protocol specification

      • The applications

      • Some expressions will be through markers

        • In a clear world


    Reconstruction of space time and trust l.jpg
    Reconstruction of space, time and trust

    • Network models

      • Anarchical model

        • Internet, WLAN, WPAN

      • Master-slave

        • WLAN

      • Hierarchical

        • Cellular networks

    • Semantics of protocols

      • Oligarchic

        • PKIs

    • Architectures of Applications

      • Client server architecture model

        • Audrey & Basil are living in an isotropic world

        • Producer & consumer of content

      • Administration

        • « management » : very often a bureaucracy

      • Others


    The new paradigms the focal point is not ip l.jpg
    The new paradigms :the focal point is not IP

    • Computation ubiquity (bottom of layer 7)

      • Horizontal software engineering (M2M, P2P), Agents

      • XML metalanguage

        • To find an Esperanto (interoperability)

        • Allows to describe policies, rules, intentions, predicates

      • Metacomputation: « grid »

        • Swarm of computers (10 6) running one single application

      • Issue : the semantical socket at the bottom of the application layer

    • Access ubiquity (layer 2 – MAC)

      • Vertical software engineering

      • High data rate Internet (digital divide)

      • Urbanization

        • Construction of an Harlequin mantle (802.11, 802.15, UMTS, …)

      • Dialectic of usages


    Remedies to mobility vulnerabilities l.jpg
    Remedies to mobility vulnerabilities

    • Distribution

      • Trusted hierarchy by subsidiarity

      • One can distribute secrets which are longer

    • Intelligence everywhere

      • Inside the network

      • Network have a better throughput

      • Capillarity larger & larger

    • Security hopping (security evasion)

      • Classical cryptography : immutable world

      • To zap one billions of security policy implementations

        • 1 single security policy but 10 9 implementations

        • Each solution is fallible but the whole is highly secure

    • Secret contents

      • Delivery Content Network (DCNs), Storage Area Networks

      • Flood the network with machines able to compute secrets

        • Secret Content Networks : huge repository of keys


    Conclusion l.jpg
    Conclusion

    • L’urbanisation des systèmes de communication

      • Ubiquité, universalité

      • Complexité : Structure, Architecture, Urbanisme

    • Les nouvelles exigences dans les futurs réseaux

      • QoS, mobilité, configurabilité, sécurité

    • Le seuil de la complexité des architectures

      • Performance versus intelligence

      • Les points de vue

        • opérateurs, manufacturiers, fournisseurs de services et utilisateurs

      • La complexité projetée dans l’urbanisme, l’architecture, les protocoles, les extrémités et la subsidiarité (management réparti)

    • Le rythme des ruptures et des évolutions

      • dans le cadre de la convergence et

      • des réajustements de la tectonique des 3 plaques

        • Télécoms, Informatique, Audiovisuel