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Security Issues & Paradigms in Mobile Computing Science & Networking. Michel Riguidel Tel : +33 1 45 81 73 02 riguidel@enst.fr. Les exigences de QoS, mobilité et de configurabilité. Information Technology evolution. Before 80 : Middle Age, Computing Sc. belongs to fiefs (IBM, …), no network

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security issues paradigms in mobile computing science networking

Security Issues & Paradigmsin Mobile Computing Science & Networking

Michel Riguidel

Tel : +33 1 45 81 73 02

riguidel@enst.fr

information technology evolution
Information Technology evolution
  • Before 80 : Middle Age, Computing Sc. belongs to fiefs (IBM, …), no network
      • All proprietary, no flow : All is parchment or proprietary spreadsheet
  • 80s : All is transparent for a computer scientist
      • All is file : UNIX (/dev/null, /dev/lpr, ...)
      • a file is a set of characters which can be manipulated by C language
  • 85s : All is readable on a desk (or a PC) for anybody
      • All is document (no more interoperability & transparency)
  • 95s: All is an available object on the network for communication
      • All is document, readable everywhere (HTML page) or executable everywhere (Java)
      • Privilege to information access : kiosk, server
  • 00s : All is a digital, fluid & live stream distributed over networks
      • Nomadic user, virtual presence (user or sw/content move), Virtual Machine & JavaBeans
      • Ubiquitous IT (networked planet grid) & Mobile computing infrastructure (Xeo satellites)
  • 05s : All is program, alive on ad hoc networks
      • An entity on the network is a Java Program (Jini Concept)
      • Intentional architecture
the new paradigm of it
The new Paradigm of IT

Towards a Convergence Telecom - Multimedia - IT

For a seamless IT with mobility, configurability

in zero-administration within an heterogeneous world

Hardware

Distributed

Multimedia

Data

end-user Profile, smart card

software object, Agent

Application, Service

Telephone, Set Top Box, PDA

PC, Server, Printer

Trusted Third Party

Router, Switch

Home Network, Local Network

Virtual Private Network for

Businesses,

Internet

Software

«Middleware Infrastructure»

of dynamically configurable

distributed IT

Content

Individuals

Communicating, autonomous, configurable, mobile, automatically plugged ENTITIES

onto an interoperable secured, Plug & Play, scaleable dynamically INFRASTRUCTURE,

All being distributedly managed by various Actors, according several point of view

infrastructure of a is urbanization of an information system

Distributed

Multimedia

Data

Java

Applet

Interface : XML

Protocol: IP

Infrastructure of a IS:Urbanization of an Information System

Infrastructure with QoS, mobility & security

Multimedia Hyperdocument

New Services

Intelligent Routers & Switchers

Configurability

Active & Ad hocNetworks

Mobile/fix, wired/wireless

Extra/Inter/Intranet

Mobile Terminals

Network Computers

New Services & Usage

biometric Authentication

Adaptive & multi-modal

Human Interface

Speech recognition

Adaptability & customization

of applications according

terminal configuration &

end-user’s services

New Services

Indexation by content

Protection of digital Objects

Navigation, Search engine

information filtering

software intensive system architecture is a key issue
Software Intensive System:Architecture is a key issue

Broadcast & Access

New OSI Layers

System Architecture

Usage, cooperation:

teleworking, videoconference,

real time negotiation

information

& documents

performance

QoS

interoperability

security

mobility

heterogeneity

distribution

dependability

maintainability

applications:

configurable, downloadable

distribution & services: M2M, P2P

Middleware, XML, Corba & mobile Code

communication

convergence IP & ATM

Multimedia

Cross media, video, image,

mobile code, hyperdocument

transmission:

wired & wireless

Content

Communication

Properties

urbanization versatility in access networks heterogeneity global roaming qos value added services

Ad hoc

IEEE802.11

Bluetooth

Core Network

UMTS

Urbanization :Versatility in Access NetworksHeterogeneity, Global roaming, QoS, Value Added Services

Access / Intermediation

IPv6

global interconnection seamless heterogeneity multimedia macromobility

Common challenges to be solved:

. Plug & play

. Configurability

. Management

. Quality of Service

. Upgradeability

. Adaptability

. Security, privacy

. Stability, safety

. Costs

Global Interconnection : « seamless »Heterogeneity, Multimedia, macroMobility

LANs

Interconnection of

Local Networks

Private

Internet Connections

Enterprise

Telecom Operators

& Internet

Cooperation

Cooperative Work

Mobiles

Remote Access

  • More Heterogeneity
    • Interoperability through different networks
      • No Esperanto : W-Corba, JavaRMI, J2EE, agents, … do not fit
      • M2M (middleware to middleware)
      • Selectivity, Resource management, …

Public Networks Connections

Global Roaming

dynamic links heterogeneity mobility
Dynamic Links :heterogeneity & mobility

WAP

GSM

Telecom Operators

& Internet

  • More Dynamicity
    • Changes depending upon
      • Policy, Traffic, …
      • Opportunities, locations, context, resource

Global Handover

slide10
New Services, Contents, Middleware,Network Service ProvidersClient-server => intermediation architecture

Multimedia Content-based

Search Engine,

Agent Platform, etc

Content Provider

Achilles

Barbara

Personal Area Network

  • More Content : Rich Content & Cross-Content
    • VoIP, "QoS" real time, critical flows, audio-video streaming
    • Content processing (searching, watermarking, …)

« QoS »

the digital world architecture urbanization
The digital World: Architecture & Urbanization
  • Ubiquity of computing & storing resources
    • communication anytime, anywhere, anyhow
    • concept of datagrid (metacomputing)
  • Externalization of General resources
    • Mips
    • Storage
    • Trust content (secret keys available everywhere)
  • Communicating Objects & Subjects
    • Objects are dynamically connected
    • Devices are permanently connected (IP v6)
    • Subjects have representations over the network (avatars)
  • Customization of its own Virtual Private Network & Community
  • Key technology
    • Cellular Mobile Telecommunications, Mobility, roaming
    • Internet, Data Grid, Cache Architecture
    • Satellite, Broadcast
the digital world architecture urbanization12
The digital World:Architecture & Urbanization
  • Customization
    • of its own Virtual Private Network & Community
      • Subjects have representations over the network (avatars)
      • Devices are permanently connected (IP v6)
  • Layer 2 : Data link
    • Communicating Objects & Subjects
      • Objects are dynamically connected
      • Communication anytime, anywhere, anyhow
    • Versatile medium access
  • Layer 7 : Bottom of Application Layer
    • Ubiquity of computing & storing resources
      • concept of datagrid (metacomputing)
    • Externalization of General resources
      • Mips, Storage, Trust content (secret keys available everywhere)
    • Semantic socket, « pluget »
      • Quality of communication (QoS, Security)
      • Nature of content
      • Negotiated resources
the past emergence of new context
The past & emergence of new context
  • Information on Years 80s & 90s
    • Simple and it works …
    • Not enough mips …
    • Proprietary
      • Dedicated entities with specific intelligence & engine
  • Assumptions which are no more verified for Years 00s
    • Catalogues of fix Applications
      • Bill Gates' concept is obsolete
    • Dedicated Infrastructure
      • Need of Global Interoperability & Roaming
      • For "Beyond 3G networks", Routes do not exist any more
      • The OSI model is no more "the" reference
    • Herzian spectrum : static allocation by ranges
      • Spectrum must be shared differently (new rules, UWB, …)
the future open smart configurable networks
The Future :Open, Smart & Configurable Networks
  • Non Functional Properties are essential
    • Policy aware networks
    • Mobility, QoS, interoperability, security
    • Configurability : changes versus time & space
      • Management issues, proactive & reactive mgt
  • Potential solution
    • Virtualization
      • Openness
      • Hw Trivial (not simple !) & Sw Virtual
    • More Intelligence in the network
    • Pros & Cons
      • Performance
      • Business models
  • Technological issues
    • Complexity reduction
    • Software engineering does not follow
long term vision
Long Term Vision
  • Vision
    • Hw & Sw separation and independence
      • Smart intelligence within the open network
      • Radio block (General Management of the Radio Resource)
      • Lower layers (UMTS MAC layer)
      • Upper Layers & Downloadable Applications
    • Relationship between the layers
      • Articulation between the architecture styles
      • Implementation of these architectures are different
    • Management
      • subsidiarity
  • Orientation
    • Open Network (Next seism in Computing & networking)
    • Software radio, software Terminal, "Software Network" : Ad hoc & Active Networks
    • New Architectures : P2P, M2M, …
convergence virtualization externalization
Convergence :Virtualization & Externalization
  • Wireless
    • Mobility & autonomy
    • Adaptation, Configurability
      • Depending of the context
  • Ambient Networks
    • Embedded Internet, Desegregating terminals
    • Disappearing computing, pervasive computing
      • ubiquity of access
      • communicating objects and devices
      • remote work (medicine, surgery)
    • Augmented reality
  • Data Grid & MetaComputing
    • Global computation (Genomes, cryptography, astrophysics, …)
  • Managing & securing Chain Value
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Convergence / Divergence dialectic
    • Merging wired & wireless
      • high date rate core networks
      • diversity of access to the network
    • New Content: multimedia, art creation
      • exploration of the content cosmos
    • Different Scales & heterogeneity
      • Bluetooth, WLan (802.xx), UMTS, Internet
    • Decentralization
  • Not a revolution but smooth & permanent changes
    • migration of standards
      • IPv4 versus IPv6
      • de facto: Windows towards Linux (open software)
      • GSM to GPRS
      • Etc.
computing or networking
Computing &/or Networking

Computer

Network

Management of Time/Space & I/O

Management of Space & I/O

Semantic : Turing Machine

Semantic : Store & Forward

Bandwidth

PC & Server

Router & Switch

Erlang

Data rate

QoS

Mips & Gigabytes

Bottleneck : I/O

Bottleneck : the last Mile, …, centimeter

Space : not x,y,z but structured addresses

gilder s versus moore s law
Gilder’s versus Moore’s law

2x/3-6 months

1M

1000 x

WAN/MAN Bandwidth

10,000

Log Growth

Processor Performance

100

2x/18 months

97

9

9

01

03

05

07

Greg Papadopoulos, Sun Microsystems

mobile context digital world
Mobile Context & Digital World
  • More Mobility
    • Nomadic people (with terminals)
    • Mobile services, content (caches), infrastructure (satellite constellation)
      • Downloading applications, agent framework, liquid software, VHE, …

Personalization

Mobility

“Ambience”

Contextualization :

communication infrastructure, equipment, environment

Localization

evolution of mobile networks from vertical to horizontal segmentation
Evolution of mobile networks :from vertical to horizontal segmentation

Today

Specific Network with unique service

Old : Binding services with communication technology

Tomorrow

Multi-service/client-server Network

New: SP competition over open Infrastructure

Services

Portal

Servers

Content

Content

Mobile

Internet

High rate

Internet

backbone network

by packets

PLMN

PSTN/ISDN

Data/IP Networks

CATV

Mobile

Access by

packets

High rate

Packets

Access

Circuit Access

2G/RTC/ISDN

Clients

Access Network, Transport & Switch Network

From Ericsson

dynamic provision of services to users

Communication Providers

Dynamic Provision of Services to Users

End user

Private

Value Added

Service

Provider

Directory Services

Calling Services

Voice Services

Value Added

Services

Information

Shopping

Banking

Telecom

Operator &

ISP

Culture

Entertainment

Automation

Devices

Services

quality of service
Quality of Service
  • QoS defined by UIT-T E.800 norm

Ease of use

Accessibility

Degree of satisfaction of

the service user

Audrey

Continuity

Service Logistics

Security

Integrity

information flows streams caches efficiency of the whole loop content delivery networks

INFORMATION

DOCUMENTS

Analysis

Simulation

Sensors

Decision

Actuators

Information Flows, Streams & Cachesefficiency of the whole Loop : Content Delivery Networks, ...

More Intelligence

at the periphery of IS

More Knowledge and reactivity

in the Loop

STREAMS

STREAMS

EXECUTION

MANAGEMENT

TRANSMISSIONS

TRANSMISSIONS

More irrigation in IS

by differentiated Information Flows

Data

<= Data Fusion

Broadcast =>

Sensors& Actuators

Synthesis

the ecology of networks
The ecology of networks
  • Social networks
      • who knows who => Virtual Private Communities
  • Knowledge networks
      • who knows what => Knowledge Management
  • Information networks
      • who informs what => “à la Internet”
  • Work networks
      • who works where => GroupWare
  • Competency networks
      • what is where => Knowledge with time and space
  • Inter-organizational network
      • organizational linkages => Semantic Interoperability
mobility infospheres evolution of spaces regular intelligent

PAN-Bluetooth-WLan-UMTS-Internet

Mobility & InfospheresEvolution of Spaces : regular & intelligent

From K. M. Carley CMU

permanent links

through IPv6

As spaces become intelligent individual's infospheres grow,

changes occur in the and in which people are embedded.

Infospheres : circles

interaction : bold lines

knowledge network : dashed line

the seven osi layers

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

Link

Physics

The Seven OSI Layers

Dynamic

Multimode

Browser & Players

Between TCP & UDP, there are thousands of upper transport protocols

Active Networks : computation within Nodes

Ad hoc Networks : moving nodes, No fix Routes

Turbocode

Wireless & Optics

communication infrastructure client server is dead policy aware networks
Communication Infrastructure : Client-server is dead =>Policy Aware Networks

Horizontal unbalance of the semantic distribution in networks:

network entities are efficient “lifts” for the OSI layered modelextremities (client & server) bearing the whole intelligence

Connection between A and B

secure interoperable protocols

Pab & Pba

with adaptive QoS

A: client

Towards

Active & Ad hoc

Networks

Network infrastructure

More intelligence:

memory, visibility, flexibility

B: server

active network model

NodeOS

Router

Active Network Model

APIs

Application Program Interfaces

  • Execution Environment
    • Execution Machine
    • Interfaces to program the network

EE 1

Java

(Capsule)

EE 2

(IPv4)

EE 3

(IPv6)

EE 4

Asm

Intel

  • Open Operating system (Node OS)
    • Resource management
    • Open APIs towards EEs
    • Infrastructure for Security Functions

Trivial Hw

(Physical Resource)

r seaux actifs d fis
Réseaux actifs : défis
  • Ouvrir le réseau aux (fournisseurs de) services
  • Modification dynamique du comportement du réseau
    • par les utilisateurs, applications, et opérateurs
  • Définir une interface (API) de programmation des réseaux

Un réseau programmable est un réseaude transmission de paquets ouvert et extensible disposant d'une infrastructure dédiée à l'intégration et à la mise en œuvre rapide de nouveaux services

Réseau extensible qui offre des facilités pour changer dynamiquement son comportement (tel qu’il est perçu par l’usager)

Ouvrir le réseau

Virtualiser les composants

Configurer dynamiquement

Le Réseau devient une machine virtuelle programmable

active networks

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Application

Network

Link

Physics

Active Networks
  • To keep the Network proprietary ! over an Open Infrastructure
  • To distribute intelligence within the Network
  • DiffServ is a straightforward Active Network !
    • The Java Packet program is a constant (flow header)
  • MPLS is an elegant simple Active Network !
    • The program is a stack of constant (shim header) which is run over the entry and exit nodes to create Tunnels
  • More to come
    • Filtering, …
spontaneous device networking self organizing ad hoc
Spontaneous Device Networking :self-organizing, ad-hoc
  • Wireless : no route
    • Access control ?
    • Net etymology : mesh, graph
    • How to find his own way ?
  • Some Issues
    • Service discovery
    • Spectrum coexistence
    • Management
    • Security
ad hoc networks
Ad hoc Networks
  • Each node can be a router and/or a terminal
    • Astrid cannot talk to Charlotte (hidden nodes)
    • Basil : potential collisions
  • C can reach the cell A via B

A

B

C

D

Radio range

ad hoc networks34

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

Link

Physics

Ad hoc Networks
  • No more Routes
  • No more Topology
  • Blind search
  • Search with Reminiscence
  • Extension to Self organizing Network
zimmermann s open interconnection model
Zimmermann’s open interconnection model

End-to-end

Application

Application

Presentation

Presentation

Session

Session

Top-down

Transport

Transport

Network

Network

Link

QoS

Link

  • From top to bottom and from A to B
  • Seven layers model: isotropic, no time and space
  • Homology to win interoperability
  • Vertical software engineering
  • To shred any content into packets, datagrams, frames, and finally bits
  • We ignore content semantics

Physics

Physics

QoS

QoS

theory of communication shannon weaver model 1949

emission

reception

Theory of communicationShannon & Weaver model (1949)
  • Linear & unidirectional model
  • Neither the relationship between the actors nor the situation are taken into consideration
  • Eliminate semantics
    • J Lacan (seminar II, 1954), R Barthes (ethos, logos, pathos)

message

security issues in a mobile world
Security issues in a mobile world
  • Specification of policies compatible with the Content and the Container
  • Set up of a context-oriented, plural, configurable policy
  • Design of new encryption protocols
  • Placing cryptology and steganography in perspective
  • Introducing security in an open world
challenges
Challenges
  • Years 2001
    • Distorting reality prism with
      • Internet (asynchronous messages & meshes of routers) and
      • GSM (voice content & cellular architecture with Base stations)
  • Security & mobility
    • Use of infrastructures
      • Need of geographical references
        • Need of protecting the spatial structure
      • Fix infrastructure : articulation of mobile part and fix part via a cryptographic protocol
      • Mobile part (ad hoc networks) : search for invariant structures
    • Use of history of movements
      • Traceability of moving objects and subjects
  • Building alibis
    • Ontologies are moving in these virtual spaces
    • Identification and then confirming their existence in a defined location using alibis
new situation no more deterrence
New situation : no more deterrence
  • Before 11th September (QQ33N)
    • Symbolic attack : no more
      • undetectable or discrete attack
      • balance between investment protection cost & risk to lose assets
  • After 11th September (QQ33N)
    • The whole communities can lose confidence
    • Security against on cyberwar
      • at a greater scale for large infrastructure
    • Main threat
      • Denial of service for a long time with multiple accidental coincidences
  • Basic security
    • Audit, accountability (identification & authentication)
classical security solutions
Classical Security solutions
  • PKIs, Certificates (X509), SSL, IPSec, Firewalls
  • Security classical cryptography model
    • Audrey & Basil share a secret
      • can be used to scramble the message (cryptography)
      • can be used to insert a subliminal mark in order to leave a trace (steganography)

Point to point

Cryptography

Trusted third party

security solutions it today 2 focal key points
Security Solutions IT today : 2 focal key points

S/MIME

PGP

Security with proxy

Content Security

P3P

FIPA security

WAP security

XML

SSL/TLS/LIPKEY

Articulation : distributed security Infrastructure

Network Boundary

IPsec

IP

IKE/ISAKMP

BitStream Ciphering

Route Security

A lot of “standard” solutions

Utilization often complex

One protocol does not eliminate all the threats

digital era vulnerability customized security
Digital era :vulnerability & customized security

Buyer

01000011

1100101001010101000011

011000101100

01010101000011

00101100

order

01001010101000011

110010100101000011

Seller

0101100

1100101001010

vulnerable

1011000011101001

Mobile

only clones

payment

Bank

Intelligent : can be adjusted and personalized

mobility within a convergence world
Mobility within a Convergence world
  • Open or closed ?
    • Both : Möbius ribbon
  • Historical world : footprint & witness
    • We must authenticate the scene, the situation
    • We must trust a witness located at t = t0 and at x = x0
    • Audrey & Basil know each other
    • Local confidence
  • Mobility introduces new threats
    • a subject S is going to travel : trajectory x(t)
      • S is not alone
      • S leaves traces, depends upon the « ambience »
    • S wants to trust the object O
      • S and O are going to create alibis depending upon time and space
    • Alibis
      • are trusted relationships between the infrastructure, S & O
      • E.g. : the individual is going to sign with the station base that he/she was present in this cell
security policy depending upon space time
Security policy depending upon space & time
  • User point of view
    • he/she defines his/her own security policy for comfort
      • Service access if the user in inside a perimeter
        • One restricts on his own our mobile phone usage inside a given zone for a certain period of time
        • One asks for a control from the telecom operator
        • Secret shared with the operator
  • Service Provider point of view
    • Creation of a cryptographic protocol to sign the user ID with the location ID (here the base station name)
    • Buyer may be anonymous but one knows that he was here at t = t0
  • It is no more a virtual world
object traceability
Object traceability
  • Trust model
    • Content security (end-to-end)
    • Container security (depending upon operator, Internet, etc)
  • The whole system has a memory
    • Audit function (.log files to record events)
  • Historical signature
    • Digital signature of the content : integrity
    • Digital signature of the traces
      • Labeling, watermarking
      • Ephemeral watermarking
security functions in a mobile universe
Security functions in a mobile universe
  • Identification
    • Biometry, smart card, trusted entity
    • Anonymous
      • need to find a witness for the situation
      • capture a secret depending upon the situation
  • Authentication
    • Of the scene:
      • to exchange a secret with someone that we will see again
  • Audit
    • History of the objects /subjects trajectory
    • Ephemeral watermarking
  • Data Protection
    • Both Cryptography & steganography
architecture projection of constraints
Architecture : Projection of constraints
  • Architecture
    • Expression of constraints
    • Design : Projection of the specification onto an implementation
  • The expression of the constraints (QoS, Security, mobility, interoperability) must be incarnate and instantiate through
    • The network architecture
    • The protocol specification
    • The applications
    • Some expressions will be through markers
      • In a clear world
reconstruction of space time and trust
Reconstruction of space, time and trust
  • Network models
    • Anarchical model
      • Internet, WLAN, WPAN
    • Master-slave
      • WLAN
    • Hierarchical
      • Cellular networks
  • Semantics of protocols
    • Oligarchic
      • PKIs
  • Architectures of Applications
    • Client server architecture model
      • Audrey & Basil are living in an isotropic world
      • Producer & consumer of content
    • Administration
      • « management » : very often a bureaucracy
    • Others
the new paradigms the focal point is not ip
The new paradigms :the focal point is not IP
  • Computation ubiquity (bottom of layer 7)
    • Horizontal software engineering (M2M, P2P), Agents
    • XML metalanguage
      • To find an Esperanto (interoperability)
      • Allows to describe policies, rules, intentions, predicates
    • Metacomputation: « grid »
      • Swarm of computers (10 6) running one single application
    • Issue : the semantical socket at the bottom of the application layer
  • Access ubiquity (layer 2 – MAC)
    • Vertical software engineering
    • High data rate Internet (digital divide)
    • Urbanization
      • Construction of an Harlequin mantle (802.11, 802.15, UMTS, …)
    • Dialectic of usages
remedies to mobility vulnerabilities
Remedies to mobility vulnerabilities
  • Distribution
    • Trusted hierarchy by subsidiarity
    • One can distribute secrets which are longer
  • Intelligence everywhere
    • Inside the network
    • Network have a better throughput
    • Capillarity larger & larger
  • Security hopping (security evasion)
    • Classical cryptography : immutable world
    • To zap one billions of security policy implementations
      • 1 single security policy but 10 9 implementations
      • Each solution is fallible but the whole is highly secure
  • Secret contents
    • Delivery Content Network (DCNs), Storage Area Networks
    • Flood the network with machines able to compute secrets
      • Secret Content Networks : huge repository of keys
conclusion
Conclusion
  • L’urbanisation des systèmes de communication
    • Ubiquité, universalité
    • Complexité : Structure, Architecture, Urbanisme
  • Les nouvelles exigences dans les futurs réseaux
    • QoS, mobilité, configurabilité, sécurité
  • Le seuil de la complexité des architectures
    • Performance versus intelligence
    • Les points de vue
      • opérateurs, manufacturiers, fournisseurs de services et utilisateurs
    • La complexité projetée dans l’urbanisme, l’architecture, les protocoles, les extrémités et la subsidiarité (management réparti)
  • Le rythme des ruptures et des évolutions
    • dans le cadre de la convergence et
    • des réajustements de la tectonique des 3 plaques
      • Télécoms, Informatique, Audiovisuel