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RPTB Overview - Objectives. To provide a framework to identify credible incidents/dismiss hoaxes. To serve as a Planning Tool that can be adapted to a specific user’s needs To provide guidance from the time of discovery through remediation and return to normal operation.

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rptb overview objectives
RPTB Overview - Objectives
  • To provide a framework to identify credible incidents/dismiss hoaxes.
  • To serve as a Planning Tool that can be adapted to a specific user’s needs
  • To provide guidance from the time of discovery through remediation and return to normal operation
rptb overview response guidance
RPTB Overview - Response Guidance

Offers guidance on…

  • Whom to notify
  • Actions to take
  • How to conduct a ‘Threat Evaluation’
  • How to collect samples
  • How to analyze samples
  • How to remediate and recover
rptb overview organization
RPTB Overview - Organization

Six modules:

1. Water Utility Planning Guide

2. Contamination Threat Management Guide

3. Site Characterization & Sampling Guide

4. Analytical Guide

5. Public Health Response Guide

6. Remediation and Recovery Guide

  • Module ‘0’ provides an Overview
potential users
Potential Users
  • Drinking water utilities
  • Laboratories
  • Emergency responders
  • State drinking water programs
  • Technical assistance providers
  • Public health officials
  • EPA and other federal agencies
  • Law enforcement
module 1 water utility planning guide9
Module 1: Water Utility Planning Guide
  • Overview of contamination threats and incidents:
    • Threat warning sources
    • Due Diligence – threat response
  • Preparing for contamination threats:
    • Updating ERPs
    • Establish ICS
    • Develop communication plan
    • Enhance physical security
warnings of potential contamination
Warnings of Potential Contamination

Security

Witness

Breach

Account

Public Health

Notification by

Notification

Perpetrator

THREAT

WARNING

Consumer

Notification by

Complaint

Law Enforcement

Unusual Water

Notification by

Quality

News Media

contamination threat vs incident
Contamination Threat vs. Incident
  • Contamination threat – an indication that a contaminant may have been introduced (not confirmed).
  • Contamination incident - the confirmed presence of a harmful substance (requires a response)
module 2 contamination threat management guide14
Module 2:Contamination Threat Management Guide

Module 2 provides:

  • A framework for decision-making
  • A threat evaluation and management process
  • Descriptions of response actions
threat evaluation and management process
Threat Evaluation and Management Process
  • Evaluation of all available information to determine if contamination is:
    • ‘Possible’
    • ‘Credible’
    • ‘Confirmed’
  • Work with minimal information
  • Iterative process that is updated as more information becomes available
players in the threat management process
Players in the Threat Management Process
  • Drinking water utilities (WUERM)
  • Drinking water primacy agency
  • Public health officials
  • Emergency responders
  • Local law enforcement
  • FBI
is the threat possible
Is the Threat ‘Possible’?
  • A threat is deemed ‘possible’ if the circumstances indicate the opportunity for contamination
  • One-hour target for ‘possible’ stage
is the threat possible18
Is the Threat ‘Possible’?
  • Information available at ‘possible’ stage:
    • Details of the threat warning
  • If a threat is ‘possible’, potential response actions include:
    • Isolation and containment
    • Initiate site characterization and sampling
is the threat credible
Is the Threat ‘Credible’?
  • A threat is deemed ‘credible’ if additional information corroborates the threat
  • 2 - 8 hour target for ‘credible’ stage.
is the threat credible20
Is the Threat ‘Credible’?
  • Information available at ‘credible’ stage:
    • Site characterization results.
    • Information from external resources
  • If a threat is ‘credible’, potential response actions include:
    • Public notification
    • Sample analysis & more site characterization
is the threat confirmed
Is the Threat ‘Confirmed’?
  • A contamination incident is confirmed once conclusive evidence is obtained
  • May take several days to confirm
confirmation of a threat through
Confirmation of a threat through:
  • Results of Sample Analysis:
    • Advantage: provides definitive evidence
    • Disadvantage: may ‘miss’ contaminant during sampling or design of analytical approach
  • Preponderance of Evidence:
    • Results of site characterization
    • Assessment by law enforcement
    • Assessment by public health agencies
    • Additional factors and information
is the threat confirmed23
Is the Threat ‘Confirmed’?
  • Information available at ‘confirmed’ stage:
    • Results of sample analyses
    • Additional site characterization
    • Information from external resources
  • If a threat is ‘confirmed’, potential response actions include:
    • Revising of actions taken to protect public
    • Planning for remediation and recovery
module 3 site characterization and sampling guide26
Module 3: Site Characterization and Sampling Guide
  • Intended for water utility staff and first responders
  • Contains procedures for conducting site characterization activities
  • Implemented at ‘possible’ stage to establish ‘credible’ and ‘confirmed’ threat
site characterization procedures
Site Characterization Procedures
  • Planning by the WUERM and/or Incident Commander
  • Implementation by the Site Characterization Team
    • Site Evaluation
    • Field safety screening
    • Rapid field testing of the water
    • Sample collection
site characterization process
Site Characterization Process

Five Stages

  • Customizing the Plan
  • Approaching the Site
  • Characterizing the Site
  • Collecting Samples
  • Exiting the Site
1 customizing the plan
1. Customizing the Plan
  • Site Characterization Plan customized based on nature of threat (4 hazard categories)
    • low, radiological, chemical, and/or biological
  • Site characterization team assembled based on type of threat and safety needs
2 approaching the site
2. Approaching the Site
  • Establishing site zones:
    • Site perimeter and staging area
    • Protective action zone where specialized PPE may be required
  • Conduct field safety screening:
    • Detect environmental hazards (air & surfaces).
  • Initial evaluation of site conditions
  • Determine if it is safe to proceed
3 characterizing the site
3. Characterizing the Site
  • Repeat field safety screening
  • Evaluate site conditions:
    • Signs of intrusion or tampering
    • General signs of contamination
    • Indicators of chemical contamination
  • Rapid field testing of the water:
    • Additional information for the threat assessment
    • Tentative identification of contaminants
    • Determine if special precautions are required for sampling
3 characterizing the site cont d
3. Characterizing the Site – cont’d.
  • Currently Available Rapid Analytical Assessment Tools:
    • Acute Toxicity Testing
    • Rapid Immunoassays
    • Rapid Enzyme Test
    • Rapid PCR
    • Field Deployable GC/MS
3 characterizing the site cont d33
3. Characterizing the Site – cont’d.

Rapid Analytical Methods

  • Technology is rapidly improving
  • Results are only presumptive
  • These methods are no substitute for standard laboratory analyses
4 sample collection
4. Sample Collection
  • To follow rapid field testing
  • Samples to be collected and analyzed in accordance with State Primacy Agency/EPA/USGS guidelines
5 exiting the site
5. Exiting the Site
  • Initiated upon completion of site characterization
  • Confirm collection of appropriate samples
  • Properly document findings
  • Secure the site
  • Securing a site may involve multiple steps for higher hazard level sites and/or crime scenes
module 4 analytical guide37
Module 4: Analytical Guide
  • Intended for planners and labs that may provide support to the water utility during an event
  • Provides a general approach to the analysis of unknowns in water
  • Identifies analytical procedures for:
    • Chemicals
    • Radionuclides
    • Pathogens
  • Not intended as a ‘how to’ lab manual
environmental chemistry labs
Environmental Chemistry Labs
  • Labs suited to complete analyses for compliance with the Safe Drinking Water or Clean Water Acts
  • May require advance notice for analysis
radiochemistry labs
Radiochemistry Labs
  • For analysis of a range of radionuclides
  • Include EPA, DOE, State and some commercial labs

http://www.epa.gov/radiation/programs.htm-er

  • Federal Radiological Management Center (FRMAC) operated by FEMA

http://www.fema.gov/rrr/rep/index.shtm

biotoxin labs
Biotoxin Labs
  • Currently few labs with this capability
  • Labs with this capability are listed in the Laboratory Response Network (LRN)

http://www.bt.cdc.gov/emcontact/index.asp

chemical weapons labs
Chemical Weapons Labs
  • Chemicals placed on Chemical Weapons Convention (CSC) Schedule 1
  • Two labs in US qualified and permitted

US Army Edgewood Laboratory

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories

  • Access through Federal Agencies
microbiological labs
Microbiological Labs
  • For analysis of waterborne pathogens
  • May include hospital, medical, public health and/or environmental microbiology labs
  • Labs with this capability listed in Laboratory Response Network (LRN)

http://www.bt.cdc.gov/emcontact/index.asp

laboratory response network lrn
Laboratory Response Network (LRN)
  • Developed by CDC, Association of Public Health Labs and FBI
  • Designated to handle bioterrorism events
      • Pathogens
      • Biotoxins
  • Composed of City, County, State and Federal Public Health labs

http://www.bt.cdc.gov/emcontact/index.asp

module 5 public health response guide48
Module 5:Public Health Response Guide

Five Public Health Response Actions:

  • Plan the public health response
  • Determine public health consequences
  • Implement appropriate operational responses 
  • Implement the public notification strategy
  • Make available a short term alternate water supply (if necessary)
1 plan the public health response
1. Plan the public health response

Pre-Threat Planning:

  • Integrate Health Dept into Utility ERP
  • Identify agencies involved and roles
  • Develop communication strategy
  • Develop operational/health response plans
2 determine public health consequences from incident
2. Determine Public Health Consequences from Incident

Post-Threat (contaminant identified)

  • Assess acute/chronic health effects
  • Determine exposure routes of concern
  • Determine stability of contaminant in water
  • Calculate ability to spread in distribution system
3 implement appropriate operational responses
3. Implement Appropriate Operational Responses
  • Isolation and containment of suspect water
  • Elevation of disinfection levels
4 public notification guidance
4. Public Notification Guidance
  • Content:
    • Specific instructions to consumers
    • Explanation of situation
    • What is being done to address it
  • Format:
    • Short and simple
    • In all common languages
  • Methods of delivery:
    • Broadcast media
    • Distribution through community centers
5 short term alternate water supply
5. Short-Term Alternate Water Supply
  • Water for consumption and sanitation:
    • Bottled water
    • Bulk water hauled to distribution center
  • Water for firefighting:
    • Pumper trucks filled from neighboring supply
    • Contaminated water if no other immediately available alternative
module 6 remediation and recovery guide55
Module 6:Remediation and Recovery Guide
  • Intended for entities involved in characterization, risk assessment and remediation
  • Designed to address incidents that pose immediate and/or long term risks
  • Overall objective – return water system to service ASAP
roles and responsibilities
Roles and Responsibilities
  • Recovery is coordinated under the Incident Command System
  • ‘No single agency (government or private sector) possesses the authority and expertise to unilaterally implement the remediation and recovery program.’
steps to remediation and recovery
Long term alt. water supply

System Characterization / Feasibility study

Risk Assessment

Detailed analysis of alternatives

Remediation technology selection

Remedial Design

Remedial Action

Post Remediation Monitoring

Communication to restore public confidence

Steps to Remediation and Recovery
1 long term alternate water supply
1. Long Term Alternate Water Supply
  • Need depends on nature and severity of contamination
  • State and Federal assistance is likely to be required
      • EPA, FEMA, Army Corps of Engineers
2 system characterization feasibility study
2. System Characterization / Feasibility Study
  • Detailed assessment of nature and extent of contamination
  • Preliminary feasibility study of treatment options
3 risk assessment
3. Risk Assessment
  • Evaluate risk reduction achieved in immediate response actions
  • Establish preliminary remediation goals
  • Assess potential risk reduction from long-term remedial actions
4 detailed analysis of remedial alternatives
4. Detailed Analysis of Remedial Alternatives
  • Evaluation based on:
    • effectiveness
    • technical feasibility
    • treatability of contaminant
5 remediation technology selection
5. Remediation Technology Selection

Advantages/Disadvantages based on:

  • Protection of human health and the environment
  • Compliance with applicable regulations
  • Implementability
  • Cost
6 remedial design
6. Remedial Design
  • Lead agency (assisted by utility, etc.) responsible for design
  • Includes preparation of:
    • Specifications
    • Documentation
    • Detailed Drawings
7 remedial action
7. Remedial Action
  • Implementation of Remedial Design
  • Treatment system construction, operation and maintenance
  • Treatment of contaminated water AND rehabilitation of system components
8 post remediation monitoring
8. Post Remediation Monitoring

Post-treatment Start-up monitoring:

  • Monitoring for contaminants of concern
  • Regular system performance inspections and maintenance
  • Regular water distribution system inspection and maintenance
  • Maintenance of security measures
9 communication to restore public confidence
9. Communication to Restore Public Confidence
  • Public Outreach
  • Workshops
  • Meetings
  • Presentations
  • Information Repository
  • Revised Public Notifications
summary
Summary
  • The threat of contamination is a reality faced by drinking water systems
  • All threats should be evaluated to determine if they are “possible” or “credible”
  • Effective management of a contamination threat relies on:
    • Timely and relevant information
    • A systematic evaluation of the threat
    • Appropriate response decisions
summary cont d
Summary (cont’d.)
  • Planning for an effective response to a contamination threat or incident may be the most efficient and effective defense

http://www.epa.gov/watersecurity

EPA RPTB download:

    • http://cfpub.epa.gov/safewater/watersecurity/home.cfm?program_id=8