Intro Iraq & the Persian Gulf War. US History McIntyre. Victory Parade for Operation Desert Storm Military personnel carry a huge American flag through New York City during a ticker tape victory parade for Operation Desert Storm. Image: © Joseph Sohm; ChromoSohm Inc./CORBIS June 1991.
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Intro Iraq & the Persian Gulf War US HistoryMcIntyre Victory Parade for Operation Desert Storm Military personnel carry a huge American flag through New York City during a ticker tape victory parade for Operation Desert Storm. Image: © Joseph Sohm; ChromoSohm Inc./CORBIS June 1991
Middle East Quick Quiz How much do you know about the middle east? 5 quiz questions 1) Who created most of the borders and countries of the Middle East? a. France and England b. Jordan and Syria c. Saudi Arabia d. The United Nations e. The United States
Middle East Quick Quiz How much do you know about the middle east? 5 quiz questions 2) What language is spoken in Iran? 3) When did it become illegal for women in Iran to go without wearing a veil? (with 5 years)
Middle East Quick Quiz How much do you know about the middle east? 5 quiz questions • 4) What is the most populous Islamic country in the world? • a. Egypt • b. Indonesia • c. Iran • d. Saudi Arabia
Middle East Quick Quiz How much do you know about the middle east? 5 quiz questions • 5) Which of following is Iraq? D C A B
Middle East Quick Quiz How much do you know about the middle east? 5 quiz questions • Answers!! • 1. A • 2. Farsi • 3. 1983 • 4. B (196 million people) • 5. C
Iraq Basics • Where?
Iraq Basics • Who? Ethnic Groups A. Arab • 2/3 of Iraq Kurds B. Kurd • 1/4 of Iraq • Own language & customs • Brutally suppressed in Iraq
Iraq Basics • Who? Religion A. Shiite • 3/5 of the population Kurds B. Sunni • 2/5th of population • 90% of world’s Muslims C. Main differences: Who should lead the Muslim community?
Iraqi History A. British Mandate • Post WWII British colony B. British Backed Monarchy • King chosen by England C. Dictatorships • 1958 Baath Revolution King Faisal I of Iraq Original caption: Death of King Faisal. Faisal, King of Iraq, whose sudden death is just announced. Image: © Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS Date Photographed: ca. 1930
Thinking Slide: How might Iraqi history affect how they view the Americans & their British allies in the current war in Iraq?
Baath Party B. What does it do? • Secular (non-religious) government • Uses oil $ for government projects • Hussein begins to eliminate opponents HUSSEIN CARD AS PART OF DECK OF 55 CARDS OF US CHARACTERS WANTED Reuters/CORBIS
That all changes with the Iran-Iraq War • Iranian Revolution A. Why? • Pro-western Shah unpopular because of his alliance w/US & secret police B. How? • Religious (Shiite) revolution C. Results • Fear in most neighboring Middle Eastern countries, especially majority Shiite Iraq
Iran-Iraq War A. Iraq’s Goals: • Remove Iran’s leaders, gain oil-land, & make Hussein a hero to neighbors B. How? • Long brutal war, including use of chemical weapons on both sides • UN creates a peace deal C. Results • Iraq left with big war debt
Persian Gulf War (the 1st one!) • Why? 1.Iraq’s claimed to the land 2. Claimed Kuwait was stealing oil (“slant drilling”) 3. $ owed to countries Kuwait 4.Hussein thought no one would stop him
Persian Gulf War (the 1st one!) • What happened?? • US invades w/full UN backing • US bombs Iraqi military & civilian infrastructure • We make no attempt to hold Iraqi towns or capture Saddam Hussein Destroyed Vehicles Along Kuwaiti Highway Destroyed cars and trucks line Kuwait's "Highway of Death" during the Persian Gulf War. The name was given to the stretch of road leading north out of Kuwait City which, while clogged with retreating Iraqi forces, was furiously bombed by coalition forces, killing most on it. Image: © Peter Turnley/CORBIS
Persian Gulf War Pictures Kuwait Oil Well Fires from Space View from the space shuttle Atlantis of black smoke billowing from burning oil wells in Kuwait, which were set ablaze by retreating Iraqi troops at the end of the Persian Gulf War. Image: Digital image © 1996 CORBIS; Original image courtesy of NASA/CORBIS
Persian Gulf War Pictures George Bush and Saddam Hussein on CNN Television Broadcast The faces of the US President George Bush and the leader of Iraq Saddam Hussein on a CNN television broadcast during the Gulf War, 1990. Image: © Zen Icknow/CORBIS Photographer: Zen Icknow Date Photographed: January 1990
Persian Gulf War (the 1st one!) • Results? UN Embargo & Oil for Food Program Peace Terms: • Iraq accepts border with Kuwait, surrenders all WMDs, destroys all WMD production capability • Iraq can sell oil in exchange for food & medicine
Thinking Slide: Do you think a program like the “oil for food” program was a good one given the situation at the time?
Second Iraq War • Bush Doctrine: US can attack them before they attack us • Why?:Bush argues Iraq is a threat because of WMDs • How?First US pushes for tighter inspections, then invades claiming Hussein was not cooperating
Thinking Slide: Do you think that the Bush Doctrine will have be used as much by later presidents as others like the: Monroe Doctrine: Told Europe to keep its hands off the AmericasTruman Doctrine: US pledges to support free peoples across the world against communism