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Otto, Diesel, and Rotary Engine Cycles Arenas Alejandro Julian Thompson Daniel Vertucci Matthew White Otto Engine Few things to remember Invented by Nikolas Augustus Otto in the 1870’s. Also know as the four-stroke engine because of its four-stroke cycle. Internal combustion engine.

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otto diesel and rotary engine cycles

Otto, Diesel, and Rotary Engine Cycles

Arenas Alejandro

Julian Thompson

Daniel Vertucci

Matthew White

few things to remember
Few things to remember
  • Invented by Nikolas Augustus Otto in the 1870’s.
  • Also know as the four-stroke engine because of its four-stroke cycle.
  • Internal combustion engine.
  • Most commonly used for automotive industrial purposes.
  • Used for cars, truck, generators, planes, and more.
  • Requires a sparkplug in order to begin combustion
four stroke cycle
Four-stroke Cycle
  • Intake Stroke
  • Compression Stroke
  • Power Stroke
  • Exhaust Stroke
four stroke cycle9
Four-stroke cycle

Intake Cycle

Compression Cycle

Power Cycle

Exhaust Cycle

slide13

There are a few differences between the diesel engine and the gasoline engine.

  • A gasoline engine intakes a mixture of gas and air, compresses it and ignites the mixture with a spark. A diesel engine takes in just air, compresses it and then injects fuel into the compressed air. So the diesel engine does not need a spark plug to operate. The heat of the compressed air lights the fuel spontaneously.
  • A gasoline engine compresses at a ratio of 8:1 to 12:1, while a diesel engine compresses at a ratio of 14:1 to as high as 25:1. The higher the compression ratio of the diesel engine leads to better efficiency and more power.
  • Gasoline engines generally use either carburetion, in which the air and fuel is mixed long before the air enters the cylinder, or port fuel injection, in which the fuel is injected just prior to the intake stroke (outside the cylinder). Diesel engines use direct fuel injection -- the diesel fuel is injected directly into the cylinder.
slide14

Diesel Fuel

Diesel fuel is heavier and oilier than regular gasoline and it smells different. Diesel gas

evaporates much more slowly than gasoline because it is heavier. Its chemical compound is

C14H30 as compared to gasoline which is C9H20. It takes less refining to create diesel fuel

which is why it is usually cheaper than gasoline. It has a higher energy density than gasoline.

One gallon of diesel fuel contains 155 million joules of energy compared to 132 million with

gasoline. The fact that diesel fuel has a higher energy density and diesel engines run more

efficiently than gasoline engines creates better mileage when traveling.

slide15

How it works

The main difference between a gasoline engine and a diesel engine is the spark plug.

The injector has to be able to withstand the temperature and pressure inside the

cylinder and still deliver fuel in a fine mist. The injection process is also different

from gasoline engines. In gasoline engines fuel is injected into the cylinder during

Intake stroke and then compressed. The fuel and air mixture limits the compression

Ratio of the engine. If the air is compressed to much then the fuel spontaneously

Ignites and creates knocking. A diesel compresses air only, so the compression

Ratio can be much higher. The diesel cycle includes 4 stages which are the intake

Of air, compression of air, fuel injection, and then the exhaust stage.

The higher the compression ratio the more horsepower from the engine.

It is the heat of the compressed air that ignites the fuel.

slide16

The 4 stroke cycle

combustion

exhaust

Intake of air

Compression

rotation and orbit
Rotation and Orbit
  • Each tip of the rotor follows a trochoidal path around the housing

Note: The shaft rotates three times for each

Rotation of the orbit

four stroke cycle revisited
Four-Stroke Cycle (Revisited)
  • Intake Stroke
  • Compression Stroke
  • Power Stroke
  • Exhaust Stroke
  • Same as Otto/Diesel Engine
rotary cycle
Rotary Cycle
  • No cylinders or pistons
  • Separate chambers of air
mazda
Mazda
  • 1967 Cosmo Sport
  • 2004 RX-8
biodiesel
Biodiesel
  • It can be made from many different types of plant oils
  • Soy beans are the most commonly used.
  • This makes biodiesel nontoxic and renewable when compared to fossil fuels
slide29

Biodiesel vehicles are starting to increase in popularity, especially among large fleets of vehicles

Park rangers in Yellowstone National park use biodiesel to decrease pollution from their pickups

Almost any type of diesel engine can be converted to run on biodiesel, like this hummer

slide30

Biodiesel doesn't hurt an engines performance, but increases safety

Biodiesel can help an engine run better because it acts as solvent

natural gas vehicles
Natural Gas Vehicles

Natural gas is a fossil fuel that is usually found above and below oil deposits

The idea of using natural gas was first developed in the 1930s, but until the invention of the leak-proof pipe transporting gas was difficult

slide32
NGVs burn natural gas that is compressed and stored in cylinders.
  • When the engine is started, natural gas flows into a fuel line.
  • The gas then enters a regulator where its pressure is reduced.
  • The natural gas feeds into the engine through a fuel injection system where it’s combined with air. The fuel/air mixture is adjusted to burn most efficiently and with the least possible emissions.
  • Natural gas burns in the engine just like gasoline.
  • NGVs can be refueled by attaching a hose at the fueling point.
slide34

http://www.biodiesel.org/

http://www.ngvc.org/ngv/ngvc.nsf

http://www.shermanlab.com/science/physics/thermo/engines/OttoG.php

http://www.geocities.com/henry_yu_84/illustratn/006e.jpg

http://www.rotaryengineillustrated.com/re101/mechanics1.php