This was a deserved reputation for a long time Plagued by periodic barbarian invasions from the Balkans and by frequent civil wars, Macedonia remained a minor kingdom too troubled by its own problems to be a major source of concern for the Greeks.
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Plagued by periodic barbarian invasions from the Balkans and by frequent civil wars, Macedonia remained a minor kingdom too troubled by its own problems to be a major source of concern for the Greeks
Greek city-states considered Macedonia to be outside the Greek world and inhabited by a bunch of barbarians
Not worthy of serious consideration unless their help was needed in a war
Kingdom of Macedonia was north of Greece
Lighthouse at Alexandria
Ptolemy took over Egypt, Cyprus, Palestine, and Phoencia
Ptolemies would lose everything but Egypt but would hang on to it until last of the Ptolemies, Cleopatra, took wrong side in Roman civil war and was forced to commit suicide in 31 BC
Antigonus Gonatus took Macedonia and part of Greece
He and his successors would rule it until the Romans displaced them in the second century BC
Second line of contenders finally came to a semblance of a settlement
Selecus took over Syria, most of Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and western Persia
Seleucid Kingdon would later divide in half and incorporated into the Roman and Parthian empires
Alexander’s empire would become permanently divided into independent, frequently hostile, kingdoms ruled by the descendants of his Macedonian officers
Ptolemy of Egypt