Introduction to Commercial Design . ID-439 Contract Design I. Introduction. What is Commercial Design? The design of any facility that serve a business purpose. (see table on page 2) Once referred to Contract Design Portrays a aesthetic image of the company’s mission
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Introduction to Commercial Design ID-439 Contract Design I
Introduction • What is Commercial Design? • The design of any facility that serve a business purpose. (see table on page 2) • Once referred to Contract Design • Portrays a aesthetic image of the company’s mission • Enhances productivity thru understanding office communication, adjacencies and furniture needs • Enhances employee pride • Protects health, safety and welfare of the public
History of Commercial Design • Business has been conducted for thousands of years, evident in rooms found in the Pharaoh's palaces, cathedrals of the Middle Ages. • Industrial Revolution was a major factor in the development of offices outside the home. Moved from agricultural economy to an industrial economy. Office spaces during this period used a closed concept. • The late 19th and early 20th century saw a growth in office design with a specialization in commercial interior design (Elsie de Wolfe and Dorothy Draper)
Larkin Administration Building • 1906, Frank Lloyd Wright • Buffalo, NY • Mail order supplier • 1st Open office
Bull Pens • Before WWII, most furniture consisted of freestanding desks, files and bookcases • The typical layout was called a “bull-pen” setup (the placement of desks on a grid with aisles in between with the executives separated to one side in enclosed windowed offices.) • The bullpen was popular until the 1960’s. Typically, there were a few high level executives that oversaw a large number of clerical type workers.
Development of Corp. Office • Following WWII, there was a large influx of people seeking the American Dream. • More and more people were using the GI bill to get a college education. • All of a sudden, office space became a valuable commodity and the number of rental spaces dramatically increased to keep up with the paces, and the corporate office was born. • By the 1960’s, the workforce was growing by 850,000 annually, and the bullpen style became out of fashion.
The Quickbourner Team • Germany, 1959. Two brothers developed the concept of open office layout and brought the idea to the US in 1967. • They believed that many offices hindered work productivity. Their designs promoted good communication and flow. • Referred to as office landscaping. • Their plans were based upon a systems analysis of work flow and communication. • The layout was very free and non-rectilinear.
The Quickbourner Team • People in frequent contact with each other were placed close together. • Many acoustical problems were attempted to be corrected by the use of carpet, plants and acoustical ceiling tiles • This new approach of “landscape” planning had a tremendous impact on the way offices were to be designed. They were flexible, efficient, open and informal. • Americans, however, were slow to accept the idea because they didn’t want to give up their hardwall office, which were status symbols to the executives.
Robert Propst • Hired by Herman Miller, Inc. in 1960 • A researcher and inventor • Developed Action Office I for Herman Miller and introduced it in 1964. • A panel based system using a vertical approach • Despite what the modern office has become, his goal was to get away from boxes and corridors. • The use of the panels violated the Quickborner concept but was widely accepted as open office landscaping.
The “Big Three” • Haworth, Steelcase and Herman Miller • In 1974, Haworth, Inc. created the first electrified panel system in it’s Unigroup line. • Steelcase : Series 9000 • Herman Miller: Action Office
Types of Offices • Commercial Interior Designers are hired by a variety of different businesses. Your role as a designer is to learn all you can about the company you are designer for. • Types of Offices: • Accounting Real Estate Law Firms Design Firms • Banks Ad. Agencies Gov’t (GSA) Hospitals • Education Doctor/ Dental Engineering Retail
Overview of Office Operations The Executives: • CEO: Chief Executive Officer, the highest ranking individual. In smaller companies this may be the president or the principle. • CFO: Chief Financial Officer, senior executive responsible for overseeing the financial risks of the company. • COO: Chief Operating Officer, senior executive responsible for the day to day activities of the company. • CIO: Chief Information Officer, senior executive responsible for overseeing a companies information technology. • CLO: Chief Legal Officer, senior executive repsonsible for overseeing the legal aspects of the company.
Vice Presidents • The second highest layer of management. • They report directly to the CEO and are responsible for specific departments or division of the business • VP of Marketing • VP of Research • VP of Economic Development • VP of Engineering
Managers and Supervisors • Managers report to the VP over their division • Payroll Manager • Sales Manager • Facility Manager • Supervisors oversee and provide instruction to subordinates and administer discipline /penalties to workers. Supervisors report to the managers. • Supervisors make up the largest number of mid-management positions in a business.
Organizational Charts … • The larger the company, the more complex the organizational structure. • Organizational Charts are helpful in understanding the organization in terms of rank. They help visualize the formal reporting structure of the business. • Organizational charts do not show day-to-day work relationships. As a designer, you will find this information thru programming methods.
The designers role is to: • Understand what each department does • Understand how the departments relate to each other • Understand what individuals do in each department • Understand the relationships of individuals to each other by department.
Divisions / Departments • Executive Division: Presidents, VP’s • Corporate/Legal Division: may consist of many departments such as Legal, Communications, Tax Dept., Real Estate, Insurance, Purchasing and Public Relations. • Finance Division: Accounts Payable, Accounts Receivable • Operations Division: responsible for the production of goods or services. Engineering, Design Dept. • Marketing Division: advertising and sales • Administration Division: support services, receptionists, mail rooms, file/supply rooms, training rooms
Typical Office Spaces • Executive Suite • Staff offices • General offices • Reception • Support areas
The Executive Division • The Executive Division consists of all the senior executives. • Sometimes called Vice Presidents (VP’s) • CEO, CFO, CEO, CIO, CLO. • This division determines the overall policies and implements the policies of the board of directors. • The Executive Suite often sets the tone of the business. The location is desirable and the material and furniture specified portray the image of the company. It should impress their customers.
The Executive Division Typically private offices with a separate reception area, executive conference room, private entrance. Desk chairs are typically high back executive chairs, leather with headrest. All offices in the executive suite coordinate from the same series. Usually have a conference area, soft seating area and work area.
The Executive Division Executive Boardroom: Convenient for guest access Must impress clients Might be adjacent to kitchen Might have access from CEO office Promote teleconferencing Flat screen, LCD projector Needs credenza for serving food and beverages.
Reception Area First Impression A lot of money is spent in this area Will have a waiting area nearby Executive suite should be nearby and visitors should not have to walk thru cluttered office areas Needs accent lights
General Office/ Staff Offices Often utilizes the open office concept Customer may never actually see this area Considered the Production area Less money is spent in this area Managers / supervisors may have cubicles or dry wall offices
Support / Ancillary Spaces Supply storage Mail Rooms Central Files Resource Library Break room Staff Conference
Staff Conference Rooms Used for weekly / daily meeting Should be flexible, use modular tables Provide multiple lighting options Shapes: Boat, racetrack, rectangle Provide modesty panel for training setups Durable surfaces Fixed ht. chairs or mechanical ht. mid-back chairs
Staff Break Room Create a fun space for employees to escape from work. Should be durable, easy to maintain Keep expenses down Break areas may exist on each floor of a multi-floor building
Image • Your design should reflect the firm’s attitude toward several things: • Corporate Image • Budget • Goals and plans for the future • Attitude toward employees, customers and vendors • Cultural and global perspective
Traditional Law Firms Banks University Churches What is traditional? Mahogany, molding, stripes, leather, burgundy, green and navy blue
Transitional An all around “safe” option, neither too traditional nor too contemporary Less molding, cleaner lines with simple edge details.
Contemporary Mixture of wood, metal and glass Ideal for Advertising Agencies Technology oriented
Status and Rank • Status and Rank is established by : • Size of the office • Space standards • Set by job functions • Must respect space standards • Small firms may not have standards • Location of Office • Corner windows • views • Quality and Quantity of FF&E • Wood vs. laminate • Extra files/ bookcases/ credenza/ hutch
Office Furniture Terminology • Desks (conventional furniture) • Executive • Typically 36 x 72 or larger • Single pedestal or Double Pedestal • Bridge • Table desk • Executive “U” or “L” • Secretarial • 30 x 60 or 30 x 66 • Secretarial “U” or “L”
Office Furniture Terminology • Credenza • Kneespace • Typically 24” deep and matches main desk (72” long) • Positioned behind the desk • Min. of 42” between desk and credenza, 48” is better • Storage Credenza • Does not offer space for a computer
Office Furniture Terminology • Files and Storage • Vertical File • Old style file, typically 15” wide (letter) or 18” wide (Legal) • Usually 28 – 30” deep, max. of 5 drawers • Front-to-back filing method • Lateral File • New style, 30”, 36” or 42” wide • Usually 18” deep, max. of 5 drawers • Needs a counterweight • Must specify filing method: front-to-back or side-to-side, letter,legal, handing or compressor.
Office Furniture Terminology • Files and Storage • Open Files • Uses an end tab file folder • Medical offices • Need magnetic shelf divider to support files • Can be taller than 5 shelves high • Mobile Files • Installed on a track • Verify dead loads • Considered a high-density filling method
Office Furniture Terminology • Seating • Desk Chair – Generic • Task Chair – Ergonomic • Executive Chair – High-back • Management Chair – Mid-back • Conference Chair • Side or Guest Chair • Sled base, stacking, high density • Soft Seating : Lounge furniture When specifying chairs with castors, you MUST consider the flooring: Hard floor = soft castor Soft flooring = Hard castors
Office Furniture Terminology • Ergonomic Features • Height and width adjustable arms • Adjustable seat depth • Tension control • Waterfall fronts • Lumbar support • Seat pitch (negative pitch is best) • Seat height adjustment (18” – 23”) • Pneumatic vs. mechanical lifts
Trends in Office Design • Today’s offices should: • Easily adapts to changing technology • Offer Flexibility • Utilize innovative space planning – smaller office size for same function • Accommodate a diverse workforce
Trends in Office Design • Downsizing • 80’s and 90’s to survive economic hardships • Reduction in number of employees • Mostly cut middle mgm’t • Thousands of jobs were eliminated • Reengineering • Changes in the processes and procedures within a company • Often radical, but ultimately more cost effective
Trends in Office Design • Delayering • Opposite of the”pyramid” chart • More responsibility on the worker • Makes them feel more a part of the company • Teaming • Used to develop products faster and to be more competitive in the introduction of new products • Linear team: work is passed from one to another, repetitive • Parallel team: team members are from different dept’s. Not the only project they are working on. A design team is an example. • Circular team: brainstorming to do very creative work. Members come and go throughout the course of the project. The team disbands when project is completed.
Trends in Office Design • Future predictions • Workers need to be innovative and entrepreneurs even when working for others • No longer 40 year employees, may work for 5 or more firms • Workers must be flexible with a breadth of knowledge • Specialist will not be of much value
Trends in Office Design • How and where are people working? • Team environments, more open spaces, no panels • Virtual office (out of a briefcase) Concept: Anywhere, Anytime • Home office (thanks to technology) • Telecommuting: on the road • No longer 8 – 5: flex-time is part of the recruiting process
Alternative Office Concepts • Caves and Commons: • cave = individual office and Commons = team environment • Unassigned Office: • systems or enclosed office used by any number of workers. Can be reserved • Hoteling: • unassigned work spaces that are available to workers by reservation like a hotel. First used by Ernst and Young in Chicago. A concierge is assigned the task of taking the reservation and insuring that the space is equipped properly
Alternative Office Concepts • Free Address • Same as an unassigned work space, usually available on a first come first-served basis • Hot Desk • Same as a free address, literally means still “hot” from the last user • Landing sites • Cannot be reserved, a free address that one “lands” in when going into the office