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Communicable Disease Basics. Objectives. Describe three ways infectious agents can be transmitted Describe at least three ways to decrease risk of infections in public settings List three examples of common infectious diseases and how to reduce risk of infection . Chain of Infection.

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Communicable Disease Basics


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    1. Communicable Disease Basics

    2. Objectives • Describe three ways infectious agents can be transmitted • Describe at least three ways to decrease risk of infections in public settings • List three examples of common infectious diseases and how to reduce risk of infection

    3. Chain of Infection

    4. Chain of Infection • Model used to understand the infection process • Each link represents step in transmission of infection • Each link has to be present and in order for an infection to occur

    5. 1 - The Infectious Agent -any disease causing microorganism (pathogen)

    6. Infectious agents are: • Bacterial • Viral • Fungal • Parasitic

    7. 2 - The Reservoir -Where a microorganism normally lives and reproduces

    8. Examples of reservoirs: • Humans • Animals • Water • Food

    9. 3 - The Portal of Exit -route of escape of the pathogen from the reservoir.

    10. Examples of portals of exit: • Flu or cold - mucous secretions • West Nile Virus - when the mosquito bites and feeds on the bird’s blood • Hepatitis A - stool • SARS - droplet, contact

    11. 4 - The Route of Transmission (Spread) -the way the pathogen gets from the reservoir to the new host

    12. Transmission:Respiratory Droplets • From respiratory tract (i.e., nose, mouth) secretions of infected person • E.g. cough, sneeze • Do not circulate in air for long time or travel far (mostly < 3 feet) • Many diseases spread by respiratory droplets; e.g. flu, cold, pertussis, SARS • Can spread germs directly or indirectly

    13. Droplet Transmission Agent is coughed or sneezed out into the air and floats on droplets

    14. Direct Spread by Droplets • Close contact with infected person (<3 ft) • Infected person coughs, sneezes, talks, sings • Droplets land directly on mucous membranes (eyes, nose, mouth) of susceptible person

    15. Indirect Spread by Droplets Droplets with the infectious agent land on a table, doorknob etc.

    16. Indirect Spread by Droplets Someone touches contaminated object

    17. Indirect Spread by Droplets Touch nose, mouth, eyes with contaminated hand

    18. Airborne Transmission • Germs stay suspended in air on small particles • Uncommon method of transmission • Only occurs for certain germs, such as tuberculosis • Less commonly for flu, SARS

    19. Airborne - This Needs to be Breathed in to be Infectious

    20. Airborne Transmission • Germs stay suspended in air on small particles • Uncommon method of transmission • Only occurs for certain germs, such as tuberculosis • Less commonly for flu, SARS

    21. Other Methods of Transmission • Food/water/hands contaminated with stool from infected person; e.g., norovirus • Blood exposures, sexual contact • a.k.a. blood-borne; e.g. HIV, hepatitis B and C • Vector-borne • E.g. Mosquitoes and West Nile virus, malaria • Unlikely methods of spread in courtroom

    22. What Do You Need to Do? • Make sure that you have available for staff and patient use an adequate supply of: • surgical masks • tissues • alcohol hand rub • trash cans with foot pedals to lift lid for disposing of tissues/masks

    23. 5 - The Portal of Entry -route through which the pathogen enters its new host

    24. Respiratory System • Inhale germs

    25. Other Portals of Entry Sexual contact Ingestion Breaks in Protective Skin Barrier

    26. 6 - TheSusceptible Host -A person who can get sick when they are exposed to a disease causing pathogen

    27. How to Break the Chain of Infection

    28. What Is the Purpose of Respiratory Hygiene? • To reduce the transmission of airborne diseases

    29. Hand Hygiene • Wash hands frequently with soap and warm water for at least 20 seconds • Alcohol hand gels

    30. Use gloves where contact with body secretions and excretions is taking place

    31. Cover Your Cough!

    32. Cough Etiquette • Limit close contact (<3 feet) with coughing clients • Cover cough/sneeze with tissue • Offer mask to coughing clients

    33. Keep a clean environment • Clean contaminated surfaces with commercial germicidal cleanser or wipes

    34. Maintain vaccinations for employees • Flu shot- every year for age >50 and high-risk groups • Tetanus shot every 10 years • Hepatitis B for persons who may contact objects contaminated with blood • Pneumovax (“pneumonia” vaccine) for age ≥65 • Hepatitis A

    35. What Are Some of the Airborne Diseases of Concern? • Pertussis • Tuberculosis • Influenza • Common colds

    36. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) • Droplet and contact transmission • Runny nose and prolonged severe cough • A bacterial infection • Most dangerous for babies • Vaccine preventable for children aged 7 and under

    37. Tuberculosis Agent • Caused by bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis Reservoir • Humans

    38. TB in King County

    39. Latent TB Infectionvs.Active TB Disease

    40. Latent TB Infection • Person infected with TB bacteria • Bacteria kept dormant by person’s immune system • Not sick or contagious • 10% develop TB disease over life time • Infection detected by TB skin test

    41. TB Skin Test (PPD)

    42. Active TBDisease • Usually involves lung infection • Cough >3 weeks, fevers, weight loss, night sweats • Can cause serious illness but is treatable with antibiotics • Contagious until appropriately treated

    43. Preventing Spread of TB • Patients with TB disease should delay court appearance until appropriate duration of therapy • Patients with active TB are no longer contagious after 2-3 weeks of appropriate therapy • should be cleared by doctor

    44. Influenza(Flu) Agent • Virus Reservoir • Humans • Animals (e.g. birds, pigs) • Generally different strains

    45. Flu Transmission:Respiratory Droplets • Direct: Close contact (<3 feet) • Droplets from cough/sneeze enter mouth, nose, eyes of susceptible person • Indirect: Contaminated surfaces • Cases peak each winter in U.S.

    46. How Do I Protect Myself From the Flu? • Flu Vaccine Recommended for: • Persons >50 years old • Anyone with a chronic illness, such as asthma or diabetes • Children age 6-23 months • Women who will be pregnant during flu season

    47. Habits for Good Health • Avoid close contact with people who are sick • Stay home when sick • Cover mouth/nose with tissue when coughing/sneezing • Avoid touching nose, mouth, eyes • Wash hands often with soap/water or alcohol rub

    48. What Can You Do to Reduce Your Chances of Getting Sick? • Encourage coughing clients to wash their hands (or use alcohol hand rub) • Wash your own hands frequently • Wipe down counters, pens, phones, computer keyboards, etc. with disinfectant cleaner as needed • Cough etiquette- cover with tissue • Offer mask to coughing clients

    49. Recommendations • Staff and clients should have access to: • Hand washing facilities • Tissues • Trash cans for disposing of tissues • Consider having alcohol hand rub available

    50. QUESTIONS???