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The History of “The Star- Spangled Banner”
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  1. The History of “The Star- Spangled Banner”

  2. Britain had signed a Treaty to end the Revolution in 1783. America became a country and the British agreed to give up their forts and allow settlers to move west.

  3. The British were fighting Napoleon and their vast Navy was in need of sailors. Napoleon wanted to conquer Europe.

  4. In order to keep their forces strong, the British began the process of impressment. Impressment is rather like kidnapping. When the British boarded an American ship, the British commanders would take the sailors with them to fight on their ships. This angered the Americans!

  5. im·press·mentn. • The act or policy of seizing people or property for public service or use.

  6. The British also decided NOT to give back the forts in America. Therefore, the settlers couldn’t move west. This angered the Americans even more!

  7. The British also urged the Indians to fight the Americans. They gave the Indians arms and money to fight. This angered the Americans even MORE!!!

  8. America was a new country and many did not think it could protect itself.

  9. Shipping was very important to the early Americans. Business was dependent upon shipping to other countries. Those who were involved in sea trade, did not want to go to war against Britain. They didn’t want to see trade disrupted.

  10. The War of 1812 President James Madison asked the Congress to declare war on England in 1812. Many were against the war, but Madison got Congress to sign on and the war began. James Madison (aka Little Jemmy) 4th President of the U.S.A Madison was a small man – about 5’ 4” and weighed under 100 pounds. He had enormous intelligence and was often underestimated by others. It is a universal truth that the loss of liberty at home is to be charged to the provisions against danger, real or pretended, from abroad. - J.M.

  11. The American Reaction • The American army invaded Canada, still a British colony, hoping to conquer this British territory. • The Indians joined the British and the Americans were not prepared for the battle. • The Americans burned the Parliament building in York (now known as Toronto) and retreated.

  12. Meanwhile, in Europe, the British defeated Napoleon. This left the British free to concentrate on their war with America.

  13. The British came in full force; the largest, most professional group of soldiers in the whole world. They sailed towards America.

  14. Washington, D.C. Attacked To get revenge for the burning of York in Canada, the British attacked Washington, D.C. Thinking that the British might be on their way to Washington, Madison and other political and military leaders left town.

  15. Dolley Madison, wife of President James Madison, remained behind. No one truly believed the British would attack Washington.

  16. The British focused their energy on Washington and attacked ferociously. First, they burned the Capitol. Then, they destroyed all of the books in the Library of Congress. Then, they headed for the President’s house. The army and militia of America was nowhere to be seen.

  17. The people of Washington watched in horror as the British army destroyed the Capitol. Many civilians were killed. The British lost very few soldiers. They headed to the President’s house, where Dolley was about to give a dinner party.

  18. Dolley ran for her life, but only after she had managed to save many important historical items, including the portrait of George Washington, velvet curtains, and important papers. “Our kind friend, Mr. Carroll, has come to hasten my departure, and is in a very bad humor with me because I insist on waiting until the large picture of Gen. Washington is secured, and it requires to be unscrewed from the wall. This process was found to be too tedious for these perilous moments; I have ordered the frame to be broken, and the canvas taken out; it is done – and the precious portrait placed in the hands of 2 gentlemen of New York for safekeeping.” - Dolley Madison George Washingtonby Gilbert Stuart, 1797 - The White House

  19. Before the British burned Madison’s home, they sat down and enjoyed the dinner Dolley had prepared for her guests. They then set fire to the President’s mansion.

  20. The British could not know that a hurricane was on its way to Washington. To the citizens of Washington it seemed that the hand of God reached out and punished the British. The hurricane hit and many soldiers lost their lives. Tornadoes touched down. Washington was in ruins.

  21. After the destruction of Washington, the British headed for Baltimore but patriots there were not going to give up their city without a fight. BALTIMORE Baltimore was established in 1729 to serve the economic needs of 18th century Maryland farmers. William Goddard inaugurated the first Post Office system in the United States in Baltimore in 1774. The Baltimore Water Company, the first water company in the United States, was chartered in 1792. The British called Baltimore a “nest of pirates.” During the war years, Baltimore’s economy was sustained through privateering. Swiftly sailing schooners seized British merchant ships. This city alone accounted for about thirty percent of all British merchant ships captured by the US during the war.

  22. pri·va·teern. • A ship privately owned and crewed but authorized by a government during wartime to attack and capture enemy vessels.

  23. Imagine a port filled with ships. Commander of Baltimore, Major General Samuel Smith, convinced the ship owners to sink their own ships in the water. This turned out to be a great plan because the British warships couldn’t come into the harbor because of the sunken vessels.

  24. Fort McHenry in Baltimore, Maryland • Built in 1776 • The fort was shaped like a star, with cannons mounted at every point. • Location excellent for 2 reasons: • 1. It was located far enough from Baltimore to provide protection without endangering the city. 2. It was surrounded on three sides by water meaning that enemy ships sailing into Baltimore would have to pass the fort first. In 1814, Fort McHenry was commanded by Lt. Col. George Armistead.

  25. Fort McHenry TODAY

  26. Mary Pickersgill In 1813, a year before the British attacked, Lt. Col. Armistead had hired Mary Pickersgill to sew a huge flag, 30 feet high and 42 feet wide. Mary had never made such a huge flag. Her workshop wasn’t big enough! She, her daughter Caroline, and seven other women sewed the giant flag in a brewery after working hours. They sewed until midnight every night by the light of an oil lamp. MaryPickersgill in 1846 Mrs. Pickersgill was paid $405.90 for her services. Mrs. Pickersgill mother, Rebecca Young, made the first flag of the Revolution under George Washington’s directions.

  27. When The Banner Was Done… It had 15 stripes and 15 stars representing the number of states in the Union at that time. Each star was two feet across. Major Armistead had one of the biggest flags in the country. R. McGill Mackall (1889-1987) Mary Pickergill Making the "Star Spangled Banner"

  28. WHY SO BIG ??? Armistead asked that the flag be made extra large so that it would be plainly visible to the English Fleet. He had also hoped the large flag would lift the spirits of the Baltimoreans, allowing them to see this flag fly in defiance of the British.

  29. When Francis Scott Key saw the flag from a ship 8 miles down the Patapsco River on September 14, 1814, the flag was still waving in the breeze after 25 hours of heavy bombardment by the British.

  30. Francis Scott Key’s Role Francis Scott Key was an American lawyer. American John Skinner was in charge of prisoner exchanges. The two men sailed up to the British fleet in a small boat. The British had captured their friend, Dr. William Beanes. Mr. Key and Mr. Skinner had come to ask the Admiral for the release of their friend.

  31. Francis Scott Key’s Role Francis Scott Key was an American lawyer. American John Skinner was in charge of prisoner exchanges. The two men sailed up to the British fleet in a small boat. The British had captured their friend, Dr. William Beanes. Mr. Key and Mr. Skinner had come to ask the Admiral for the release of their friend.