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Argument Writing. “Argument literacy is fund a mental to being educated … Because argument is not standard in most school curricula, only 20% of those who enter college are prepared in this respect.” Gerald Graff, 2003 ( Common Core, Appendix A). What is an argument?.

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argument writing

Argument Writing

“Argument literacy is fundamental to being educated… Because argument is not standard in most school curricula, only 20% of those who enter college are prepared in this respect.”

Gerald Graff, 2003

(Common Core, AppendixA)

what is an argument
What is an argument?

An argument is a “claim” that must be supported by evidence.

an effective claim
Takes a clear position

Is debatable – people could reasonably have different opinions on the issue

Is narrow enough to be supported effectively within the scope of the assignment

An Effective Claim
teaching how to focus a claim
Teaching How to Focus a Claim
  • A claim is a statement with which others may agree or disagree. It is not an opinion.
  • Non-claim

Margot is the sympathetic figure in the story “All Summer in a Day.”

  • Claim Revision

Margot misses the anticipated hour of sun because of her classmates’ actions, but she has really brought this punishment on herself.

types of claims
Types of Claims
  • Claims of cause and effect
    • Argues that one person, thing, or event caused something else to occur
  • Claims of definition or fact
    • Argues what a definition is or if something accepted as a “fact” is really so
  • Claims about values
    • Argues the worth of something and whether we value it or not.
  • Claims about solutions or policies
    • Argues for or against specific approaches to problems.
why address counterclaims
Why Address Counterclaims?

Acknowledging counterclaims —

  • Enhances the writer’s credibility and thoroughness
  • Recognizes that the reader may have a different point of view.

“Conceding that the opposing point is valid and then building upon it to further one’s own claim allows a writer to make the audience feel appreciated without giving up her or his own position.”

http://www.winthrop.edu/wcenter/wcenter/toulmin.htm

organizational structure
Organizational Structure

Introduction

  • Present the claim – a debatable statement

Body

  • Present evidence to support the claim
    • Cite credible sources
    • Make a connection between the evidence and the claim
  • Present counterclaim(s)
    • Cite credible sources
    • Make a connection between the evidence and the claim

Conclusion

  • Concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented
links to support argument writing
Links to Support Argument Writing
  • Common Core English Language Arts Standards

http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/english-language-arts-standards

  • Appendix A: Research supporting key elements of the standards

http://www.corestandards.org/assets/Appendix_A.pdf

  • Appendix B: Text exemplars and sample performance tasks

http://www.corestandards.org/assets/Appendix_B.pdf

  • Appendix C: Samples of student writing

http://www.corestandards.org/assets/Appendix_B.pdf

  • Application to ELL and students with disabilities

http://www.corestandards.org/assets/application-for-english-learners.pdf

http://www.corestandards.org/assets/application-to-students-with-disabilities.pdf