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Knowledge Objectives. Understand the 4 strategies for foreign expansion Understand the benefits from foreign expansion. Opportunities and Outcomes of International Strategy. Identify International Opportunities. Explore Resources and Capabilities. Use Core Competence.

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Knowledge Objectives

  • Understand the 4 strategies for foreign expansion

  • Understand the benefits from foreign expansion


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Opportunities and Outcomes of International Strategy

Identify International Opportunities

Explore Resources and Capabilities

Use Core Competence

International Strategies

Modes of Entry

Increased market size

Return on investment

Economies of scale and learning

Advantage in location

International business-level strategy

Multidomestic strategy

Global strategy

Transnational strategy

Exporting

Licensing

Strategic alliances

Acquisitions

Establishment of a new subsidiary


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Management

problems and

risk

Management

problems and

risk

Opportunities and Outcomes of International Strategy

Use Core Competence

Strategic Competitiveness Outcomes

Modes of Entry

Better performance

Exporting

Licensing

Strategic alliances

Acquisitions

Establishment of a new subsidiary

Innovation


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Motivations for International Expansion

  • Increase Market Share

    • domestic market may lack the size to support efficient scale manufacturing facilities

  • Return on Investment

    • large investment projects may require global markets to justify the capital outlays

    • weak patent protection in some countries implies that firms should expand overseas rapidly in order to preempt imitators


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Motivations for International Expansion

  • Economies of Scale or Learning

    • expanding size or scope of markets helps to achieve economies of scale in manufacturing as well as marketing, R & D or distribution

    • can spread costs over a larger sales’ base

    • increase profit per unit

  • Location Advantages

    • low cost markets may aid in developing competitive advantage

    • may achieve better access to:

  • Raw materials

  • Lower cost labor

  • Key customers

  • Energy


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International Business-Level Strategy: Determinants of National Advantage

  • Factors of production: the inputs necessary to compete in any industry

    • labor

    • land

    • natural resources

    • capital

    • infrastructure

    • basic factors include natural and labor resources

    • advanced factors include digital communication systems and educated workforce


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International Business-Level Strategy: Determinants of National Advantage

  • Demand conditions:characterized by the nature and size of buyers’ needs in the home market for the industry’s goods or services

    • size of market segment can lead to scale-efficient facilities

    • efficiency can lead to domination of the industry in other countries

    • specialized demand may create opportunities beyond national boundaries


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International Business-Level Strategy: Determinants of National Advantage

  • Related and supporting industries: supporting services, facilities, suppliers and so on

    • support in design

    • support in distribution

    • related industries as suppliers and buyers


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International Business-Level Strategy: Determinants of National Advantage

  • Firm strategy, structure, and rivalry: the pattern of strategy, structure, and rivalry among firms

    • common technical training

    • methodological product and process improvement

    • cooperative and competitive systems





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Global

strategy

Transnational

strategy

Multidomestic

strategy

International Corporate-Level Strategy

High

Need for Global Integration

Low

Low

High

Need for Local Responsiveness


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Multidomestic

strategy

International Corporate-Level Strategy: Multidomestic Strategy

  • Strategy and operating decisions are decentralized to strategic business units (SBU) in each country

  • Products and services are tailored to local markets

  • Business units in one country are independent of each other

  • Assumes markets differ by country or regions

  • Focus on competition in each market

  • Prominent strategy among European firms due to broad variety of cultures and markets in Europe


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Global

strategy

International Corporate-Level Strategy: Global Strategy

  • Products are standardized across national markets

  • Decisions regarding business-level strategies are centralized in the home office

  • Strategic business units (SBU) are assumed to be interdependent

  • Emphasizes economies of scale

  • Often lacks responsiveness to local markets

  • Requires resource sharing and coordination across borders (which also makes it difficult to manage)


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Transnational

strategy

International Corporate-Level Strategy: Transnational Strategy

  • Seeks to achieve both global efficiency and local responsiveness

  • Difficult to achieve because of simultaneous requirements

    • strong central control and coordination to achieve efficiency

    • decentralization to achieve local market responsiveness

  • Must pursue organizational learning to achieve competitive advantage


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Strategic Competitiveness Outcomes: Returns

  • International diversification and returns:firm expands the sales of its goods or services across the borders of global regions and countries into different geographic locations or markets

    • may increase a firm’s returns

    • such firms usually achieve the most positive stock returns

    • firm may achieve economies of scale and experience, location advantages, increased market size and opportunity to stabilize returns


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Strategic Competitiveness Outcomes: Innovation

  • International diversification and innovation:firm expands the sales of its goods or services across the borders of global regions and countries into different geographic locations or markets

    • potentially greater returns on innovations (larger markets)

    • generate additional resources for investment in innovation

    • exposed to new products and processes in international markets, generates additional knowledge leading to innovations


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