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Plants (Kingdom Plantae). Multicellular eukaryotes Photoautotrophs Terrestrial? Not all plants are terrestrial Return to water from land Move to land was a major step. Move to Land Required Significant Adaptations. Water uptake and loss Gas exchange Reproduction Support. Move to Land.

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Plants kingdom plantae
Plants (Kingdom Plantae)

  • Multicellular eukaryotes

  • Photoautotrophs

  • Terrestrial?

    • Not all plants are terrestrial

  • Return to water from land

  • Move to land was a major step


Move to land required significant adaptations
Move to Land Required Significant Adaptations

  • Water uptake and loss

  • Gas exchange

  • Reproduction

  • Support


Move to land
Move to Land

  • Plants probably evolved from a group of green algae called the charophytes

  • Are a fringe species exhibiting multicellular traits

  • Why a fringe species?


Features common to green algae and plants
Features Common to Green Algae and Plants

  • Chlorophyll a and other accessory pigments (Chl b, b-carotene)

  • thylakoid membranes stacked into grana


Features common to green algae and plants1
Features Common to Green Algae and Plants

  • Chlorophyll a and other accessory pigments (Chl b, b-carotene)

  • similar photosynthesizing organelles

  • cell walls of cellulose

  • store carbohydrates as starch

  • alternation of generation


Highlights of plant evolution
Highlights of Plant Evolution

  • Four major periods

  • Move onto land (~425 - 475 mya)

    • prevent desiccation of whole plant

    • protect reproductive structures

    • Features seen in mosses (bryophytes)


Highlights of plant evolution1
Highlights of Plant Evolution

  • Evolution of vascular tissue and diversification (~400 mya)

    • simple diffusion not an option

    • Mosses - water-conducting tubes

    • transport and support

    • larger body size

      These are features first seen in ferns, horsetail, whisk ferns

      ****Similar protection of gametes


Plants kingdom plantae

Whisk Fern

Horsetail


Highlights of plant evolution2
Highlights of Plant Evolution

  • Evolution of seed (~360 mya)

    • additional protection from desiccation and predation

    • dispersal


Highlights of plant evolution3
Highlights of Plant Evolution

  • Emergence of flowering plants (~130 mya)

    • Seeds in protective ovary

    • Expanded potential for diversity

    • Complex structure with great potential for adaptation

    • Greater sexual reproductive success

    • Coevolution between insects and angiosperms


Nontracheophytes
Nontracheophytes

  • Mosses, liverworts and hornworts

  • Probably closest to ancestral form

  • protected gametangia

  • lack vascular tissue

  • Encrusting

  • Water needed for fertilization


Plants kingdom plantae

Gametophyte

Sporophyte

Sporophyte relies on gametophyte for nutrients


Nonseed tracheophytes plants
Nonseed Tracheophytes Plants

  • Ferns, horsetail, club mosses

  • Retain some traits of mosses

  • Evolved some traits also seen in seed-producing vascular plants


Traits shared with nontracheophytes
Traits Shared with Nontracheophytes

  • Antheridia and archegonia retain similar structure

  • Require water/moisture for sexual reproduction

  • Production of spores


Traits shared with seed producing plants
Traits Shared with Seed-Producing Plants

  • Vascular tissue - greater body size

  • Sporophyte is dominant stage of life cycle


Plants kingdom plantae

Sporophyte

Gametophyte


Seedless tracheophytes were the dominant vascular plants for 50 million years
Seedless tracheophytes were the dominant vascular plants for ~ 50 million years

  • Continents in tropical/subtropical zone

  • As continents drifted away from equator, conditions changed

  • Seed-producing plants were present during height of seedless vascular plant success


Rise of seed producing tracheophytes
Rise of Seed-Producing Tracheophytes ~ 50 million years

  • Well suited for environmental changes

  • Gametophyte smaller and retained in moist tissues of sporophyte

  • Pollination rather than swimming sperm

  • Evolution of seed

  • gymnosperms and angiosperms


Gymnosperm
Gymnosperm ~ 50 million years

  • “naked seed”

  • still have a seed coat

  • four divisions

  • Coniferophyta best known

  • evergreens

  • needle-shaped leaves, thick cuticle


Plants kingdom plantae

Sporophyte ~ 50 million years

Gametophyte

Gametophyte passes within sporophyte


Angiosperms
Angiosperms ~ 50 million years

  • “protected seed”

  • most diverse group

    • 235,000 known species vs. 721 species of gymnosperms

  • One division - Anthophyta

  • Two classes

    • Monocotyledones

    • Dicotyledones


Angiosperms1
Angiosperms ~ 50 million years

  • successful and effective design

  • different themes of the same design


Plants kingdom plantae

Sporophyte ~ 50 million years

Gametophyte

Gametophyte passes within sporophyte


Plants kingdom plantae

Develops ~ 50 million years

into fruit

Develop into

seeds