Claims, Evidence, and Reasoning. How to write a scientific explanation. Claims. Claims are statements that answer your original question. The claim is usually one sentence in length. It must be accurate, specific, and completely answer the question. Evidence.
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Claims, Evidence, and Reasoning How to write a scientific explanation
Claims • Claims are statements that answer your original question. • The claim is usually one sentence in length. • It must be accurate, specific, and completely answer the question.
Evidence • The evidence is all of the scientific data that supports your claim. • Your evidence must be related to your claim. • Evidence can be specific data from a lab. This can come from your own group or another group in class.
Evidence (cont.) • Evidence can also come from other sources such as: computer simulations, websites, textbook, class notes, personal experience, etc. • It is important to have numerous pieces of evidence in order to prove your claim.
Reasoning • Reasoning is the explanation that connects your claim to the evidence that supports it. • Your reasoning shows why the data you chose counts as evidence. • This explanation acts as a “conclusion” of your experiment.
Reasoning (cont.) • It shows a detailed understanding of the scientific principles involved and uses correct science vocabulary. • The reasoning should usually be at least 2 to 3 sentences in length.
Real-World Claims • People make claims all the time. • Friends, parents and just about every commercial on TV is making a claim about something. • Discuss some claims you have heard recently at your table.
Some examples... • Global Warming • Energy Drinks • Diets • Axe Body Spray • Airborne • Organic Food • Vaccinations • Sketchers • “2012”
Real-World Claims What does Vince want you to do? Why is Vince so convincing? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ns4mnmNBk1Y
We will watch the video again... • Write down all the evidence that Vince uses to convince you to buy Sham Wow.
Holds 20x it’s weight in liquid • Demos – dried off the counter • Washable • Better for the environment • $20 a month on paper towels • Change the size • different/multiple uses • 10 year warranty • Made in Germany – Germans make good things?
What more could Vince do to convince you that you should buy Sham Wow? • Let’s make Vince’s presentation even better and add the reasoning to his evidence.
Claim: You should buy a Sham Wow. Evidence: Does not drip. Holds 20 times it’s weight in liquid. Absorbs all liquid from a carpet. Reasoning: Next page
Reasoning: The Sham Wow towel works so well because it contains micro fibers. Micro fiber towels are made from two synthetic (man made) materials, usually nylon and polyester. The fibers are treated with chemicals and mechanically changed to make them very small, smaller that 1/100th the diameter of a human hair. This gives the towel a lot of surface area to make contact with the spill and absorb the liquid. The tiny fibers get into the small places where most towel fibers cannot reach. Source: http://www.cleanlink.com/cp/article/Microfiber-101-The-Science-of-Tiny-Threads--3488
Claim, Evidence, Reasoning • Claim, Evidence, Reasoning is a framework for constructing scientific explanations. • Claim – the main idea/what you know • Evidence – the facts that support the claim • Reasoning – explanation of the logic behind why the facts support the claim
An explanation consists of: A claim that answers the question. Evidence from students' data. Reasoning that involves a "rule" or scientific principle that describes why the evidence supports the claim.
Smile Video – ABC News report about research into smiling. • Look for the Claim, the Evidence, the Reasoning. • (Hint – ideas will not be presented in that order) You may take notes in your science journal
In your Science Journal: • 1. What is the claim the reporter is making? • 2. What evidence does she cite in the report that supports that claim? • 3. What is the scientific explanation (reasoning)? • Physiological reason smiling makes you happy. • Physiological reason people who smile feel better.
In your Science Journal: Tell me.... Claim, Evidence, Reasoning... Identify the Claim Identify the Evidence Identify the Reasoning – what scientific explanation connects the evidence to the little girl’s claim?