life cycle money space and the allocation of time
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Life-Cycle, Money, Space, and the Allocation of Time. by David Levinson, University of California, Berkeley. Levinson, David (1999) Title: Space, Money, Life-cycle, and the Allocation of Time . Transportation 26: 141-171. http://nexus.umn.edu/Papers/LifeCycle.pdf. Outline. Introduction Data

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life cycle money space and the allocation of time

Life-Cycle, Money, Space, and the Allocation of Time

by David Levinson,

University of California, Berkeley

Levinson, David (1999) Title: Space, Money, Life-cycle, and the Allocation of Time. Transportation 26: 141-171. http://nexus.umn.edu/Papers/LifeCycle.pdf

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Data
  • Travel Duration
  • Correlations
  • Activity Duration
  • Choice Model
  • Conclusions
introduction
Introduction
  • Travel and Activity are Two Sides of the Same Coin
  • Time in Travel = f (Time at Activity)
  • Time at Activity = f (Life-Cycle, Money, Space, Temporal Factors, Constraints)
  • Activities Considered (Home, Work, Shop, Other)
  • Daily Activity Budget (24 hrs)
slide4
Data
  • 1990/91 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey
  • Survey Inverted to Get Activity Diary
  • 21800 Households, 47000 individuals, 150000 Trips
  • Individuals whose total activities did not add to 1440 minutes, excluded
  • This study looks only at adults (18-65)
travel duration
Travel Duration
  • Travel Duration = f( Activity Duration & Frequency)
  • TDi = ß0 + ß1 * ADi + ß2 * AFi
  • Transport Planning Models Only Consider Activity Frequency, not Duration
  • ADi positive & significant in 6 of 9 activity categories, negative & significant for 1 of 9 (home) [ Staying Home is Substitute for Travel ]
correlations activity complements or substitutes
Correlations: Activity Complements or Substitutes
  • Non-Travel Activities are Substitutes
  • Travel is Complementary to Like Activity & Travel to Home; Substitutes for Other Activities.
activity duration
Activity Duration
  • Space (density, metro area, region)
  • Money (income, work-status, gender)
  • Life-Cycle (age, gender, household size, # adults, age of oldest child)
choice model
Choice Model
  • Logit model to predict share of time between 4 activities (incl. travel to act.) for individuals who undertook all four
  • Greatest part of explanatory power is in Activity Specific Constant.
  • 2nd most sig = activity frequency
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Activity Duration a key factor explaining travel duration
  • Activities are substitutes
  • Travel is complement only to like activity & return trip
  • Activity Duration is fairly constant between groups, with large individual variations which are not easily predicted
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