Energy Storage Systems For Advanced Power Applications
Download
1 / 41

Energy Storage Systems For Advanced Power Applications Paulo F. Ribeiro, Ph.D., MBA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 240 Views
  • Uploaded on

Energy Storage Systems For Advanced Power Applications Paulo F. Ribeiro, Ph.D., MBA PRIBEIRO@CALVIN.EDU Calvin College  Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA. Energy Storage Energy is a Life Sustainable Business Sustainability Efficiency Performance Conservation Renewable Sources

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Energy Storage Systems For Advanced Power Applications Paulo F. Ribeiro, Ph.D., MBA' - flavia-pittman


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

Energy Storage Systems For Advanced Power Applications

Paulo F. Ribeiro, Ph.D., MBA

PRIBEIRO@CALVIN.EDU

Calvin College

 Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

  • Energy Storage

  • Energy is a Life Sustainable Business

  • Sustainability

    • Efficiency

    • Performance

    • Conservation

    • Renewable Sources

  • Present socio-economic realities – limits developments

  • Better Understanding of Performance Issues is Needed


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

  • Abstract

  • Energy storage technologies do not represent energy sources

  • Provide valuable added benefits to improve:

  • stability, power quality and security of supply.

    • Battery Technologies

    • Flywheel Technologies

    • Advanced / Super Capacitors

    • Superconducting Energy Storage Systems


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

  • Introduction

  • Electric Power Systems - Experiencing Dramatic Changes

  • Electric load growth and higher regional power transfers in a largely interconnected network: >>complex and less secure power system operation.

  • Power generation and transmission facilities - unable to meet these new demands

  • Growth of electronic loads has made the quality of power supply a critical issue.

  • Power system engineers facing these challenges - operate the system in more a flexible.

  • In face of disturbances - generators unable to keep the system stable.

  • High speed reactive power control is possible through the use of flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS) devices.

  • Better solution: rapidly vary real power without impacting the system through power circulation.

  • Recent developments and advances in energy storage and power electronics technologies


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

  • Energy Storage Systems for Advanced Transmission and Distribution Applications

  • Energy Storage Technology – Power Convert

  • Factors:

    • The amount of energy that can be stored in the device.

    • The rate at which energy can be transferred into or out of the storage device.

  • Power/Energy ranges for near to mid-term technology have projected

  • Integration of energy storage technologies with Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) and custom power devices are among the possible advanced power applications utilizing energy storage.


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

Power vs. Energy Ranges Distribution Applications

for Near to Midterm Technology

SMES

100

10

Power (MW)

Flywheel

Batteries

Capacitor

1

1

10

100

1000

Energy

(MWsec)

Benefits: transmission enhancement, power oscillation damping, dynamic voltage stability, tie line control, short-term spinning reserve, load leveling, under-frequency load shedding reduction, circuit break reclosing, sub-synchronous resonance damping, and power quality improvement.


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

Source ASA Distribution Applications




Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

A. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) Distribution Applications

Solenoid Configuration

(100 MJ – 4kA - 96MW System)


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

A. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) Distribution Applications

  • SMES’ efficiency and fast response capability (MW/millisecond) have been, and can be further exploited in applications at all levels of electric power systems. Potential applications have been studied since 1970’s.

  • load leveling,

  • frequency support (spinning reserve) during loss of generation,

  • enhancing transient and dynamic stability,

  • dynamic voltage support (VAR compensation),

  • improving power quality,

  • increasing transmission line capacity, thus enhancing overall security and reliability of power systems.

  • Further development continues in power conversion systems and control schemes, evaluation of design and cost factors, and analyses for various SMES system applications..

[iii] D. Lieurance, F. Kimball, C. Rix, C. Luongo,”Design and Cost Studies for Small Scale Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage Systems,”IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, vol. 5, no. 2, June 1995, pp. 350-353.

S.M. Schoenung, W.R. Meier, R. L. Fagaly, M. Heiberger, R.B. Stephens, J.A. Leuer, R.A. Guzman,”Design, Performance, and Cost Characteristics of High Temperature Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage,”IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 8, no. 1, March 1993, pp. 33-38.


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

A. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) Distribution Applications

Energy-power characteristics for potential SMES applications for generation, transmission, and distribution.


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

Photo Source: UP Networks Distribution Applications

B. Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS)

Batteries are one of the most cost-effective energy storage technologies available, with energy stored electrochemically.

Key factors in battery for storage applications include: high energy density, high energy capability, round trip efficiency, cycling capability, life span, and initial cost.

Battery technologies under consideration for large-scale energy storage.

Lead-acid batteries can be designed for bulk energy storage or for rapid charge/discharge.

Mobile applications are favoring sealed lead-acid battery technologies for safety and ease of maintenance.

Valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries have better cost and performance characteristics for stationary applications.


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

BESS Example – Transmission/Distribution Application Distribution Applications

Lead-acid batteries, have been used in a few commercial and large-scale energy management applications.

The largest one is a 40 MWh system in Chino, California, built in 1988. The table below lists and compares the lead-acid storage systems that are larger than 1MWh.


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

= Distribution Applications

q

CV

e

A

=

C

d

1

=

2

E

CV

2

dt

=

*

+

*

dV

i

i

R

tot

C

tot

C. Advanced / Super / Capacitors

  • The amount of energy a capacitor is capable of storing can be increased by either increasing the capacitance or the voltage stored on the capacitor.

  • The stored voltage is limited by the voltage withstand strength of the dielectric.

  • As with batteries, the turn around efficiency when charging/discharging capacitors is also an important consideration, as is response time.

  • The effective series resistance of the capacitor has a significant impact on both. The total voltage change when charging or discharging capacitors is shown in equation


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

C. Advanced / Super / Capacitors Distribution Applications

NESSCAP 10F/2.3V


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

C. Advanced Capacitors Distribution Applications

Advantages Disadvantage

Power (higher density) Energy Density

Energy Efficiency (higher)

Maintenance

Discharge

Parameters Electrostatic Cap Ultra-Cap Battery

Discharge 10E-3-6 sec 1-30 sec 0.3-3 hours

Charge 10E-3-6 sec 1-30 sec 1-5 hours

Energy Density <0.1 Wh/kg 1-10Wh/kg 20-100Wh/kg

Power Density >10E4Wh/kg 10-20E4Wh/kg 5-200Wh/kg

Charge Eff. ~1.0 0.9-0.95 0.7-0.85

Cycle life infinite >500,000 500-2000

Ness Caps


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

Active Power, Inc. Distribution Applications

D. Flywheel Energy Storage (FES)

Flywheels can be used to store energy for power systems when the flywheel is coupled to an electric machine.

Stored energy depends on the moment of inertia of the rotor and the square of the rotational velocity of the flywheel.. Energy is transferred to the flywheel when the machine operates as a motor (the flywheel accelerates), charging the energy storage device. The flywheel is discharged when the electric machine regenerates through the drive (slowing the flywheel).

1

2

E

=

I

The moment of inertia (I) depends on the radius, mass, and height (length) of the rotor

2

The energy storage capability of flywheels can be improved either by increasing the moment of inertia of the flywheel or by turning it at higher rotational velocities, or both.


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

D. Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) Distribution Applications

Flywheel energy storage coupled to a dynamic voltage restorer.


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

Manufacturer Distribution Applications

Technology

Capacity (kW)

Capacity (time)

A

Flywheel

120 kW

20 sec

B

Flywheel/Battery

160 kW

15-30 min

C

Battery

3.1 - 7.5 kVA

15 min

Battery

0.7 - 2.1 kVA

10 min

Battery

700 - 2100 kVA

13 min

Battery

7.5 - 25 kVA

17 min

D

Battery

1250 kVA

15 min

Flywheel

700 kW

10 min

E

Battery

450 - 1600 kVA

6-12 min

F

Flywheel/Battery

5-1000 kVA

5-60 min

G

Battery

0.14 - 1.2 kVA

5-59 min

H

Battery

0.28 - 0.675 kVA

15 min

Example – End-User Application

Energy Storage / UPS Systems

Source: EPRI


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

Performance \ ESS Distribution Applications

SMES

BESS

FES

Advanced

capacitor

Dynamic Stability

Needs to be explored

Transient Stability

Voltage Support

Area Control/ Frequency Regulation

Transmission Capability Improvement

Power Quality Improvement

Advanced Power Systems Applications

SMES can inject and absorb power rapidly, but battery and flywheel systems are modular and more cost effective. Advanced flywheels and advanced capacitor technologies are still being developed and are emerging as promising storage technologies as well.


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

A. Integration of Energy Storage Systems into FACTS Devices Distribution Applications

FACTS controllers are power electronics based devices that can rapidly influence the transmission system parameters such as impedance, voltage, and phase to provide fast control of transmission or distribution system behavior.

FACTS controllers that can benefit the most from energy storage are those that utilize a voltage source converter interface to the power system with a capacitor on a dc bus. This class of FACTS controllers can be connected to the transmission system in parallel (STATCOM), series (SSSC) or combined (UPFC) form, and they can utilize or redirect the available power and energy from the ac system.

Without energy storage, FACTS devices are limited in the degree of freedom and sustained action


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

A. Integration of Energy Storage Systems into FACTS Devices Distribution Applications

Steady State

Issues

Voltage Limits

Thermal Limits

Angular Stability Limits

Loop Flows

Dynamic

Issues

Transient Stability

Damping Power Swings

Post-Contingency Voltage Control

Voltage Stability

Subsynchronous Res.

Traditional Solutions

Breaking Resistors Load Shedding

Advanced Solutions

FACTS

Energy Storage

Fixed Compensation

Transmission Link

Enhanced Power Transfer and Stability

Line Reconfiguration

Better Protection

SVC

STATCOM

TCSC, SSSC

UPFC

FACTS

Devices

Increased Inertia


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

A. Integration of Energy Storage Systems Distribution Applications

Energy Storage for

Generation

Transmission

Distribution

End-User

Functions

Transmission Cap.

Reliability

Stability

Continuity

Reliability

Power Quality

Power Quality

Spinning Reserve

Load Leveling

Configurations

Shunt Comp.

Shunt / Series Comp.

Shunt / Series Comp.

Shunt Comp.

Applications

FACTS Devices

Statcom

PQ Parks

Arc Furnace


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

STATCOM with SMES Distribution Applications


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

STATCOM with SMES Distribution Applications

The performance of a power-electronics -energy-storage-enhanced device is very sensitive to the location with regard to generation and loads, topology of the supply system, and configuration and combination of the compensation device.

STATCOM/SMES dynamic response to ac system oscillations


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

No Compensation Distribution Applications

60.8

System Frequency

(Hz)

59.2

time (sec)

1 STATCOM + SMES

2 STATCOMs

60.8

60.8

System Frequency

(Hz)

System Frequency

(Hz)

59.2

59.2

time (sec)

time (sec)

Enhanced Voltage and Stability Control

Voltage and Stability Control

( 80 MVA Inverter + 100Mjs SMES)

(2 x 80 MVA Inverters)

STATCOM with SMES

Location and Configuration Type Sensitivity


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

FACTS with BESS Distribution Applications


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

FACTS with BESS Distribution Applications

(b) reactive power from 755Var to 355Var

(a) active power from 50W to 400 W

Predicted and experimental response of the SSSC/BESS


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

(a) STATCOM vs STATCOM/BESS Distribution Applications

(b) SSSC vs SSSC/BESS

(c) STATCOM/BESS vs SSSC/BESS vs UPFC

FACTS with BESS

Active power flow between areas


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

(a) STATCOM vs STATCOM/BESS Distribution Applications

(b) SSSC vs SSSC/BESS

(c) STATCOM/BESS vs SSSC/BESS vs UPFC

FACTS with BESS

Voltage at Area 2 bus


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

B. Advanced HVDC Transmission and Distribution Distribution Applications

Improvements in power electronic device technologies have led to significant improvements in the flexibility of dc transmission systems through the ability to use voltage source converters.

Traditional direct current systems see limited use as high power, high voltage dc (HVdc) transmission systems.

Advanced dc systems allows lower voltage dc transmission system capable of supporting a large number of standard “off the shelf” inverters.

Energy storage can be added to the dc system, providing improved response to fast load changes drawn by the inverters.

DC system with capacitive energy storage added to the dc system through a dc to dc converter.


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

C. Power Quality Enhancement with Energy Storage Distribution Applications

Custom power devices address problems found at distribution level, such as voltage sags, voltage swells, voltage transients and momentary interruptions.

The most common approaches to mitigate these problems focus on customer side solutions such as Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) systems based on battery energy storage.

Alternative UPS systems based on SMES and FESS are also available.

Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) with capacitor storage


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

Q Distribution Applications

FACTS + Energy Storage

The Role of Energy Storage: real power compensation can increase operating control and reduce capital costs

STATCOM

Reactive Power Only

Operates in the vertical axis only

P

MVA Reduction

P - Active Power

Q - Reactive Power

The Combination or Real and Reactive Power will typically reduce the Rating of the Power Electronics front end interface.

Real Power takes care of power oscillation, whereas reactive power controls voltage.

STATCOM + SMES

Real and Reactive Power

Operates anywhere within the

PQ Plane / Circle (4-Quadrant)


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

Power Electronics - Semiconductor Devices Distribution Applications

Decision-Making Matrix


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

Universal Topology + Energy Storage Implementation Distribution Applications

E2 / 2

P&Q

E1 / 1

I

X

Regulating Bus Voltage + Injected Voltage + Energy Storage

Can Control Power Flow Continuously, and Support Operation Under Severe Fault Conditions (enhanced performance)

Plus Energy Storage


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

  • Cost Considerations Distribution Applications

  • Energy storage system costs for a transmission application are driven by the operational requirements.

  • The costs of the system can be broken into three main components:

    • The energy storage system,

    • The supporting systems (refrigeration for SMES is a big item) and

    • The Power Conversion System.

  • The cost of the energy storage system is primarily determined by the amount of energy to be stored. The configuration and the size of the power conversion system may become a dominant component for the high-power low-energy storage applications. For the utility applications under consideration, estimates are in the range of $10-100K per MJ for the storage system.  


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

Cost Considerations Distribution Applications

In order to establish a realistic cost estimate, the following steps are suggested:

·  identify the system issue(s) to be addressed;

·   select preliminary system characteristics:

·  define basic energy storage, power, voltage and current requirements;

·  model system performance in response to system demands to establish effectiveness of the device;

·  optimize system specification and determine system cost;

·  determine utility financial benefits from operation;

·  compare system’s cost and utility financial benefits to determine adequacy of utility’s return on investment,

·  compare different energy storage systems performance and costs


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

$ Distribution Applications

I

$$$

$

I

additional cost savings possible

Technology & Cost Trends


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

  • Conclusions Distribution Applications

  • Potential performance benefits produced by advanced energy storage applications:

    • improved system reliability

    • dynamic stability

    • enhanced power quality

    • transmission capacity enhancement

    • area protection, etc..

  • FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems) devices which handle both real and reactive power to achieve improved transmission system performance are multi-MW proven electronic devices now being introduced in the utility industry. In this environment, energy storage is a logical addition to the expanding family of FACTS devices.


Energy storage systems for advanced power applications paulo f ribeiro ph d mba

  • Conclusions Distribution Applications

  • As deregulation takes place, generation and transmission resources will be utilized at higher efficiency rates leading to tighter and moment-by-moment control of the spare capacities.

  • Energy storage devices can facilitate this process, allowing the utility maximum utilization of utility resources.

  • The new power electronics controller devices will enable increased utilization of transmission and distribution systems with increased reliability.

  • This increased reliance will result in increased investment in devices that make this asset more productive.

  • Energy storage technology fits very well within the new environment by enhancing the potential application of FACTS, Custom Power and Power Quality devices.