How We Learn from Experience Classical and Operant Conditioning
Conditioning of Fear • Watson made a very loud and sudden noise every time the white rat was on little Albert’s lap • The loud sudden noise scared Albert and made him cry • Soon only the presence of the white rat made Albert very fearful and he would cry
The loud sudden noise is: • A conditioned stimulus • An unconditioned stimulus
The White Rat is: • A) the conditioned stimulus • B) the unconditioned stimulus
The Fear of the Loud Noise is: • A) A conditioned response • B) An unconditioned response
The Fear of the Rat is: • A) the conditioned response • B) the unconditioned response
Stuck in a Small Space elicits fear • This is an unconditioned stimulus and unconditioned response. Why?
Some of my students learned fear of small spaces by being locked in small space, like a trunk
Locked in trunk can condition a person to fear small, enclosed spaces • Unconditioned Stimulus: • Unconditioned Response: • Conditioned Stimulus: • Conditioned Response:
Almost Drowning • Almost drowning is an unconditioned stimulus that elicits the unconditioned response of fear. Why?
Now a Person could have a conditioned fear of just being near deep water UCS: UCR: CS: CR:
The Fear of Almost Drowning is: • An unconditioned stimulus • A conditioned stimulus • An unconditioned response • A conditioned response
The Fear of Deep Water • An unconditioned stimulus • A conditioned stimulus • An unconditioned response • A conditioned response
The experience of almost drowning is: • An unconditioned stimulus • A conditioned stimulus • An unconditioned response • A conditioned response
The deep water has become: • An unconditioned stimulus • A conditioned stimulus • An unconditioned response • A conditioned response
If attacked as child might just seeing a dog could elicit a fear • Unconditioned Fear or conditioned fear? • What is the unconditioned stimulus and the conditioned stimulus?
We all have fear of falling • So is falling an unconditioned or conditioned stimulus to the fear response? Is fear response to falling an unconditioned or or conditioned response?
A person who had a bad fall from a tree might learn a fear of heights Is this an unconditioned fear or conditioned fear? Is being on a ladder a unconditioned stimulus or conditioned stimulus?
We can become fearful of spiders just by seeing another person become scared when they see a spider. • Then we also begin to fear spiders: US? UR? CS? CR?
All people would have a fear response to being bitten by a snake • What type of stimulus and response is this?
Now Fear Seeing a Snake • What type of stimulus and response is this and why?
How could someone learn a taste aversion to cotton candy? To Brussels Sprouts?
B. F. Skinner work discovered the science of operant conditioning
Operant conditioning • Our voluntary (operant) responses are influenced by the consequences they receive. • Positive reinforcements encourage our operant responses by providing us something good • Examples of positive reinforcement: praise, attention, money, a sense of accomplishment, affection, good grades, blue ribbons
Our behaviors are constantly being influenced by consequences they receive
How did Skinner condition pigeons by giving positive reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement • Getting something pleasant • Intrinsic: Simply gives us a good feeling via our pleasure centers • Extrinsic: Grades, money, approval, attention—i.e. from our environment
Negative Reinforcements Also Encourage Operant Responses • Negative reinforcements enable us to escape or avoid an unpleasant consequence • Examples of negative reinforcement: escaping a headache, avoiding a speeding ticket, not failing a test, not getting wet or cold
Quiz • You start a fitness program and lose a significant percentage of body fat. This consequence is: • Positive reinforcement • Negative reinforcement • Punishment • Extinction
Quiz • You join a health club but never have the time to go. This consequence would best be identified as: • Positive reinforcement • Negative reinforcement • Punishment • Extinction
Quiz • Your personal trainer at your fitness club is very critical about your attitude and fitness. This would be perceived by many of us as: • Positive reinforcement • Negative reinforcement • Punishment • Extinction
You take an art class and find that your sketching ability improves significantly. This consequence is a: • a) positive reinforcement • b) negative reinforcement • c) punishment • d) extinction
Your art teacher makes no comments about your art work. This consequence is: • Positive reinforcement • Negative reinforcement • Punishment • Extinction
At the end of your art class, one of your projects is chosen to be in the student exhibit. This is a: • Positive reinforcement • Negative reinforcement • Punishment • Extinction
During your art class other more experienced students make it clear that your work is inferior and unsophisticated. • Positive reinforcement • Negative reinforcement • Punishment • Extinction