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How We Learn from Experience

How We Learn from Experience

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How We Learn from Experience

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  1. How We Learn from Experience Classical and Operant Conditioning

  2. Classical Conditioning Discovered by Pavlov

  3. Using Sound of Tuning Fork to Associate with Food

  4. Watson condition Albert to fear white furry rats

  5. Conditioning of Fear • Watson made a very loud and sudden noise every time the white rat was on little Albert’s lap • The loud sudden noise scared Albert and made him cry • Soon only the presence of the white rat made Albert very fearful and he would cry

  6. The loud sudden noise is: • A conditioned stimulus • An unconditioned stimulus

  7. The White Rat is: • A) the conditioned stimulus • B) the unconditioned stimulus

  8. The Fear of the Loud Noise is: • A) A conditioned response • B) An unconditioned response

  9. The Fear of the Rat is: • A) the conditioned response • B) the unconditioned response

  10. How Learn Fear of Small, Enclosed Spaces?

  11. Stuck in a Small Space elicits fear • This is an unconditioned stimulus and unconditioned response. Why?

  12. Some of my students learned fear of small spaces by being locked in small space, like a trunk

  13. Locked in trunk can condition a person to fear small, enclosed spaces • Unconditioned Stimulus: • Unconditioned Response: • Conditioned Stimulus: • Conditioned Response:

  14. Almost Drowning • Almost drowning is an unconditioned stimulus that elicits the unconditioned response of fear. Why?

  15. Now a Person could have a conditioned fear of just being near deep water UCS: UCR: CS: CR:

  16. The Fear of Almost Drowning is: • An unconditioned stimulus • A conditioned stimulus • An unconditioned response • A conditioned response

  17. The Fear of Deep Water • An unconditioned stimulus • A conditioned stimulus • An unconditioned response • A conditioned response

  18. The experience of almost drowning is: • An unconditioned stimulus • A conditioned stimulus • An unconditioned response • A conditioned response

  19. The deep water has become: • An unconditioned stimulus • A conditioned stimulus • An unconditioned response • A conditioned response

  20. We all fear attacks from dogs

  21. If attacked as child might just seeing a dog could elicit a fear • Unconditioned Fear or conditioned fear? • What is the unconditioned stimulus and the conditioned stimulus?

  22. We all have fear of falling • So is falling an unconditioned or conditioned stimulus to the fear response? Is fear response to falling an unconditioned or or conditioned response?

  23. A person who had a bad fall from a tree might learn a fear of heights Is this an unconditioned fear or conditioned fear? Is being on a ladder a unconditioned stimulus or conditioned stimulus?

  24. We can become fearful of spiders just by seeing another person become scared when they see a spider. • Then we also begin to fear spiders: US? UR? CS? CR?

  25. All people would have a fear response to being bitten by a snake • What type of stimulus and response is this?

  26. Now Fear Seeing a Snake • What type of stimulus and response is this and why?

  27. Desensitization of a Fear of a Spider

  28. How could someone learn a taste aversion to cotton candy? To Brussels Sprouts?

  29. What is UCS, UCR, CS and CR for this conditioned taste aversion?

  30. Thorndike’s “Law of Effect” preceded but very vague

  31. B. F. Skinner work discovered the science of operant conditioning

  32. How did Skinner teach his rats to press the lever?

  33. Operant conditioning • Our voluntary (operant) responses are influenced by the consequences they receive. • Positive reinforcements encourage our operant responses by providing us something good • Examples of positive reinforcement: praise, attention, money, a sense of accomplishment, affection, good grades, blue ribbons

  34. Our behaviors are constantly being influenced by consequences they receive

  35. How did Skinner condition pigeons by giving positive reinforcement

  36. Positive Reinforcement • Getting something pleasant • Intrinsic: Simply gives us a good feeling via our pleasure centers • Extrinsic: Grades, money, approval, attention—i.e. from our environment

  37. Negative Reinforcements Also Encourage Operant Responses • Negative reinforcements enable us to escape or avoid an unpleasant consequence • Examples of negative reinforcement: escaping a headache, avoiding a speeding ticket, not failing a test, not getting wet or cold

  38. Punishment and extinction

  39. Quiz • You start a fitness program and lose a significant percentage of body fat. This consequence is: • Positive reinforcement • Negative reinforcement • Punishment • Extinction

  40. Quiz • You join a health club but never have the time to go. This consequence would best be identified as: • Positive reinforcement • Negative reinforcement • Punishment • Extinction

  41. Quiz • Your personal trainer at your fitness club is very critical about your attitude and fitness. This would be perceived by many of us as: • Positive reinforcement • Negative reinforcement • Punishment • Extinction

  42. You take an art class and find that your sketching ability improves significantly. This consequence is a: • a) positive reinforcement • b) negative reinforcement • c) punishment • d) extinction

  43. Your art teacher makes no comments about your art work. This consequence is: • Positive reinforcement • Negative reinforcement • Punishment • Extinction

  44. At the end of your art class, one of your projects is chosen to be in the student exhibit. This is a: • Positive reinforcement • Negative reinforcement • Punishment • Extinction

  45. During your art class other more experienced students make it clear that your work is inferior and unsophisticated. • Positive reinforcement • Negative reinforcement • Punishment • Extinction

  46. Animal trainers faithfully follow the principles of operant conditioning

  47. Shaping a mouse to learn through a maze

  48. Shaping of Complex Behaviors: Shaping Dog to Climb Wall

  49. Shaping Dog to Open Waste Can