Public and Private Higher Education in Asia An Expanding Typology Victor Ordonez East-West Center February 2009
The Current Situation • What percentage of higher education institutions in your country are private today? • India • China • Malaysia • Japan • Thailand • Taiwan • Indonesia • Korea • Philippines • What percentage were private twenty years ago?
Enrolment in higher education in Asia and the Pacific Region 1970-1990 Southern Asia Eastern Asia Former USSR South eastern Asia Asia Oceania Year
Privatization • Dangers to equity from fee-driven institutions: - economic class inequities - geographical inequities - discipline inequities - quality inequities • An alternative: public-private partnerships
What is “private”? • By ownership • By funding • By regulation and control
By Ownership • PUBLIC • State owned • Provincial institutions • Municipal institutions • Jointly funded institutions • Complex Research Institutuions/ Sspecialized Institutions (miliitary, medical, etc.) • Open unniversities
By Ownership • PRIVATE • For profit • National, proprietary • International, cross-border • Not for profit • Sectarian: Catholic, Christian, Islamic • Non-sectarian: philanthropic, foundations • Specialized: corporate univs, international schools
By Funding • PUBLIC PRIVATE • Totally funded • Partially funded (direct) • Subsidies, grants • Partially funded (indirect) • Scholarships, loans, vouchers • No funding x • Funding outside universities (institutes of research, etc.)
By Control or Regulation • FOR THE PUBLIC SECTOR: • Who regulates? • Parliament and Budget Offices? • Ministries or Commissions of Higher Education? • A University Grants Commission? • Boards of Governors or Trustees? • How do they regulate? • FOR THE PRIVATE SECTOR: • A variety of extent of control, depending on countries, examples….
By Control or Regulation • TWO PRINCIPLES: • The difference between governance and administration. • Preserving the nature of the public good of higher education.
Public and Private Higher Education An Expanding Typology East-West Center February 2098