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Public and Private Higher Education in Asia

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  1. Public and Private Higher Education in Asia An Expanding Typology Victor Ordonez East-West Center February 2009

  2. The Current Situation • What percentage of higher education institutions in your country are private today? • India • China • Malaysia • Japan • Thailand • Taiwan • Indonesia • Korea • Philippines • What percentage were private twenty years ago?

  3. Enrolment in higher education in Asia and the Pacific Region 1970-1990 Southern Asia Eastern Asia Former USSR South eastern Asia Asia Oceania Year

  4. Students in higher education per 100,000 inhabitants 1980 and 1992

  5. Share of enrollment in private higher education

  6. Privatization • Dangers to equity from fee-driven institutions: - economic class inequities - geographical inequities - discipline inequities - quality inequities • An alternative: public-private partnerships

  7. What is “private”? • By ownership • By funding • By regulation and control

  8. By Ownership • PUBLIC • State owned • Provincial institutions • Municipal institutions • Jointly funded institutions • Complex Research Institutuions/ Sspecialized Institutions (miliitary, medical, etc.) • Open unniversities

  9. By Ownership • PRIVATE • For profit • National, proprietary • International, cross-border • Not for profit • Sectarian: Catholic, Christian, Islamic • Non-sectarian: philanthropic, foundations • Specialized: corporate univs, international schools

  10. By Funding • PUBLIC PRIVATE • Totally funded • Partially funded (direct) • Subsidies, grants • Partially funded (indirect) • Scholarships, loans, vouchers • No funding x • Funding outside universities (institutes of research, etc.)

  11. By Control or Regulation • FOR THE PUBLIC SECTOR: • Who regulates? • Parliament and Budget Offices? • Ministries or Commissions of Higher Education? • A University Grants Commission? • Boards of Governors or Trustees? • How do they regulate? • FOR THE PRIVATE SECTOR: • A variety of extent of control, depending on countries, examples….

  12. By Control or Regulation • TWO PRINCIPLES: • The difference between governance and administration. • Preserving the nature of the public good of higher education.

  13. Public and Private Higher Education An Expanding Typology East-West Center February 2098