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FULL CHAIN SIMULATION of CMS DETECTOR. Ijaz Ahmed National centre for Physics, Islamabad. Simulation Components (OSCAR). 􀂄 Primary Event Physics event (e.g. H → ZZ → eemm for mH = 300 GeV/c2) produced by an event generator: event production, decay tree, kinematics

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full chain simulation of cms detector


Ijaz Ahmed

National centre for Physics, Islamabad

simulation components oscar
Simulation Components (OSCAR)
  • 􀂄 Primary Event
  • Physics event (e.g. H → ZZ → eemm for mH = 300 GeV/c2)
  • produced by an event generator: event production, decay tree,
  • kinematics
  • 􀂄 Detector Description
  • Materials, shapes, geometrical hierarchies and positions as well as
  • specific attributes (e.g. sensitive detector) of the CMS detectors;
  • description of the CMS magnetic field
  • 􀂄 Physics Processes
  • The physics interactions (transportation, decay, electromagnetic
  • and hadronic processes e.g. ionization, multiple scattering,
  • bremsstrahlung, inelastic processes etc) for all types of particles
  • (photons, electrons, muons, neutrinos, pions, kaons, protons,
  • neutrons etc) in the event
  • 􀂄 Particle tracking and propagation in the detector (in matter) and
  • magnetic field
  • 􀂄 User actions
  • Miscellaneous selection cuts, tracking parameters, specific actions
  • for tuning and monitoring a simulation application
how to run oscar
How to run OSCAR
  • OSCAR is managed by SCRAM; the current public OSCAR release
  • is OSCAR_3_3_0
  • 􀂄 log on to a linux node
  • 􀂄 cd <a local scratch directory>
  • 􀂄 scram project OSCAR OSCAR_3_3_0
  • to set up a local project area for OSCAR
  • 􀂄 cmscvsroot OSCAR
  • 􀂄 cvs login
  • password: 98passwd
  • 􀂄 cd OSCAR_3_3_0/src
  • 􀂄 cvs co –r OSCAR_3_3_0 Workspace
  • 􀂄 cd Workspace
  • 􀂄 eval `scram runtime –csh`
  • 􀂄 source writeTrigger.csh
  • 􀂄 oscar –c oscarrc

Contains HEPEVT Ntuple address

what is in a pool file catalog xml file that knows where all the data files are
What is in a POOL File Catalog ?XML file that knows where all the data files are.

PoolFileCatalog.xml needs to be in current directory (or have to specify location via InputFileCatalogURL parameter in orcarc)

1 digitization from hits to digis
1) Digitization: from Hits to Digis
  • 􀂾 Output of Simulation (OSCAR) are Hits
  • 􀂉 Position, where a particle entered a sensitive detector volume
  • 􀂉 Direction of the particle, Exit point of the particle
  • 􀂉 Energy deposited
  • 􀂉 (exact format depends on detector type)
  • 􀂾 ORCA simulates reaction of detectors to the passing particle
  • 􀂉 E.g. ionization of gas in drift tube muon chamber, drift of
  • particles to wire, avalanche, signal
  • 􀂉 Detector electronics (analog to digital conversion, data
  • compression, …)
  • 􀂉 Parameterizations of actual processes used
  • 􀂉 Also includes full emulation of Level-1 Trigger electronics
  • 􀂉 Result: Digis
  • 􀂃 Digis are like the raw data that will come out of the experiment!!!
1 digitization adding pileup
1) Digitization: adding Pileup
  • At high LHC luminosity an average of 17 interactions
  • occur in the same bunch crossing
  • 􀂾 Detector response is slower than 25ns: also have to
  • consider interactions before and after
  • 􀃖 Overlay crossings -5 to +3
  • 􀂾 ~200 “minimum bias” events added to
  • 1 signal event (before digitization)







= 200

2 reconstruction
2) Reconstruction
  • 􀂾 ORCA does Reconstruction of Raw Detector Data (or the Digis) in
  • several steps
  • 1) Detector-specific processing
  • 􀂃 Data unpacking, cluster finding, hit reconstruction, tracking,
  • applying calibration constants
  • 2) Global Tracking
  • 􀂃 include hits from different subsystems, e.g. Tracker and Muon System for muons
  • 3) Vertex Finding
  • 􀂃 Bases on Tracks found in the previous step
  • 4) Particle Identification 􀃖 Physics Objects
  • 􀂃 Produce objects used in physics analyses: electrons, photons, muons, jets, …
  • 􀂾 Both Offline Reconstruction / and High-Level Trigger
  • reconstruction
  • 􀂉 Similar algorithms, but offline algorithms may consume more time,
  • may use more calibration constants, …
  • 􀂾 Can save output of reconstruction: DSTs (“Data Summary Tapes”)
creating a working area
Creating a Working Area
  • 􀂾 login with your CMS account (group zh)
  • 􀂾 cd $SCRATCH
  • 􀂉 can also work on AFS workspace or AFS scratch
  • 􀂾 scram listcompact ORCA
  • […]
  • ORCA ORCA_8_2_0 /afs/cern.ch/cms/Releases/ORCA/ORCA_8_2_0
  • 􀂾 scram project ORCA ORCA_8_2_0
  • 􀂾 new directory ORCA_8_2_0 with subdirectories
  • src, config, tmp, logs
  • 􀂾 cd ORCA_8_2_0/src
  • 􀂾 eval `scram runtime –csh`
  • 􀂾 rehash
  • Ready to use pre-compiled executables
  • Set environment variables
  • Rebuild hash table of executables
standard executables
Standard Executables
  • ORCA can be used in many different ways
  • 􀂉 Data can be processed in steps ( Digitization, Reconstruction,… )
  • 􀂉 Many different executables exist
  • 􀂃 Standard executables
  • 􀂃 Test executables
  • 􀂃 You can make your own executables (e.g. in Workspace)
  • 􀂾 Standard Executables from Examples/ExProduction
  • 􀂉 writeAllDigis (read hits, digitize, write digis)
  • 􀂉 writeDST (read digis, reconstruct, write DST)
Example 1: from Hits to Digis
  • 􀂾 Log into CVS
  • 􀂉 cmscvsroot ORCA; cvs login (password: 98passwd)
  • 􀂾 Check out the code from CVS (in ORCA_8_2_0/src)
  • 􀂉 cvs co –r Summies04 Example/ExProduction
  • 􀂉 cd Examples/ExProduction
  • 􀂾 Set the parameters
  • 􀂉 writeAllDigis-Tutorial04.orcarc
setting parameters orcarc files
Setting Parameters: orcarc files


Attention: The file .orcarc in the current directory is always read and used.

Specify any other orcarc file with the –c option.

analysis with exrootanalysis
Analysis with ExRootAnalysis
  • This tutorial is dedicated to a ROOT-based analysis out of the CMS data samples stored in the POOL DB.
  • The tool is an ORCA application released under Examples/ExRootAnalysis.
  • The program can access any information stored in POOL (MC information, Digis and Reconstructed objects), process such information and store it in a ROOT tree.
  • The ROOT tree can then be analysed with ROOT
  • A number of examples will be carried out during the tutorial showing the main functionalities of the tool.
>cd scratch0

>mkdir AnalysisTutorial

>cd AnalysisTutorial

Quick start with ExRootAnalysis

To use ORCA under the SLC3 system we need to setup the SCRAM_ARCH environement variable:

  • for sh/ksh/bash

>export SCRAM_ARCH=slc3_ia32_gcc323

  • for csh/tcsh

> setenv SCRAM_ARCH slc3_ia32_gcc323

  • Setup a private ORCA project area:

>scram project ORCA ORCA_8_7_2

  • Configure CVS:

>cmscvsroot ORCA

>cvs login

  • Password for the anonymous CVS login: 98passwd
  • Now, we can get the code producing ROOT tree:

>cd ORCA_8_7_2/src cvs co -rTutorial_872 Examples/ExRootAnalysis

> cd Examples/ExRootAnalysis

  • Commands to compile the code:
  • for sh/ksh/bash

>scram b;

> eval `scram runtime -sh`

  • for csh/tcsh

>scram b;

>eval `scram runtime -csh`

  • Configure .orcarc (PoolCatalogFile, InputCollections, FirstEvent, MaxEvents): $EDITOR .orcarc
Finally, we can run ExRootAnalysis: ExRootAnalysis
  • Finding DST samples
  • =================== ORCA test data samples: http://cmsdoc.cern.ch/orca/testdata.html
  • For example, here is one of those test samples:
  • InputFileCatalogURL = @{xmlcatalog_http://cmsdoc.cern.ch/orca/catalog/PoolFileCatalog_8_7_1.xml}@ InputCollections=/System/StW871DST2x1033/h300eemm/h300eemm
  • Script that lists all available DST samples and their location:


  • To find PoolCatalogFile and InputCollections run script with sample name as parameter:
  • /afs/cern.ch/cms/oo/reconstruction/scripts/findDSTs eg03c_HZZ4e_m150
  • Create shared library for interactive ROOT session =
  • ================ Return back to ORCA_8_7_2/src and install Examples/ExRootAnalysisReader:

>cd ../.. cvs co -rTutorial_872 Examples/ExRootAnalysisReader

>cd Examples/ExRootAnalysisReader

  • Command to build shared library:

> scram b

  • Simple analysis using TTree::Draw
========== Now we can start ROOT and look at the data stored on the tree Note 1: under SLC3 system use root.exe to run ROOT Note 2: ROOT automatically locates the shared library Start ROOT and load shared library:

>cd ../../Examples/ExRootAnalysis



  • Open ROOT tree file and do some basic analysis using Draw or TBrowser:


> Analysis->Draw("VtxPVF.Z");

>TBrowser browser;

  • Note 1: Analysis - tree name, it can be learnt e.g. from TBrowser
  • Note 2: VtxPVF - branch name; Z - variable (leaf) of this branch Complete description of all branches can be found in Examples/ExRootAnalysis/doc/RootTree.html
  • This file is also available via web based CVS interface: http://cmsdoc.cern.ch/swdev/viewcvs/viewcvs.cgi/*checkout*/ /ORCA/Examples/ExRootAnalysis/doc/RootTree.html Macro-based analysis
==================== Analysis macro consists of histogram booking, event loop (histogram filling), histogram display Basic analysis macro:
  • { // Load shared library

>gSystem->Load("libExRootAnalysisReader"); // Create chain of root trees

> TChain chain("Analysis");

> chain.Add("test.root"); // Create object of class ExRootTree

> ExRootTree *tree = new ExRootTree(&chain);

> Long64_t numberOfEntries = tree->GetEntries();

  • // Get pointers to branches used in this analysis

>TClonesArray *branchVtx = tree->UseBranch("VtxPVF", "TRootVertex");

>TClonesArray *branchJet = tree->UseBranch("JetIC5A", "TRootJet"); // Book histograms

>TH1 *histVtxZ = new TH1F("histVtxZ", "vertex position", 50, -50.0, 50.0); // Loop over all events for(Int_t entry = 0; entry < numberOfEntries; ++entry) { // Load selected branches with data from specified event

>tree->ReadEntry(entry); // If event contains at least 1 vertex

> if(branchVtx->GetEntries() > 0) { // Take first vertex

>TRootVertex *vtx = (TRootVertex*) branchVtx->At(0); // Plot vertex Z co-ordinate

> histVtxZ->Fill(vtx->Z);

> cout << vtx->Z << endl; } } // Show resulting histogram

> histVtxZ->Draw(); } More advanced macro-based analysis ================================== ExRootAnalysisReader/test contains macro Example.C using class ExRootTree to access data and class ExRootResult to manage histograms booking and output Here are commands to run this macro:

>cd ../../Examples/ExRootAnalysisReader/test

  • $EDITOR test.list



> .X Example.C("test.list") Note: file test.list should contain list of root files that you would like to analyse (one root file per line)


4 Vectors

Produced by Monte Carlo and stored in Ntuple

Produced by GEANT and stored in DB


Include Pileup and stored in DB (Trk)



Reconstructed objects

Tracks, clusters, jets, e/g