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Managing Database Storage Structures. Objectives. After completing this lesson, you should be able to do the following: Describe how table row data is stored in blocks Define the purpose of tablespaces and data files Create and manage tablespaces Obtain tablespace information

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objectives
Objectives
  • After completing this lesson, you should be able to do the following:
    • Describe how table row data is stored in blocks
    • Define the purpose of tablespaces and data files
    • Create and manage tablespaces
    • Obtain tablespace information
    • Describe the main concepts and functionality of Automatic Storage Management (ASM)
storage structures

Database

Tablespace

Segment

Extent

Oracle datablock

Storage Structures

Logical

Physical

OS file

OSblock

how table data is stored
How Table Data Is Stored

Columns

Blocks

Table A

Table B

Rows

Segment

Segment

Table

Tablespace

Extent

Row piece

anatomy of a database block
Anatomy of a Database Block

Block header

Growth

Free space

Row data

tablespaces and data files

Database

Tablespace

Data files

Tablespaces and Data Files
  • The Oracle database stores data logically in tablespaces and physically in data files.
    • Tablespaces:
      • Can belong to only one database
      • Consist of one or more data files
      • Are further divided into logical units of storage
    • Data files:
      • Can belong to only onetablespace and one database
      • Are a repository for schema object data
space management in tablespaces
Space Management in Tablespaces
  • Locally managed tablespace:
    • Free extents are managed in the tablespace.
    • A bitmap is used to record free extents.
    • Each bit corresponds to a block or group of blocks.
    • The bit value indicates free or used extents.
    • The use of locally managed tablespaces is recommended.
  • Dictionary-managed tablespace:
    • Free extents are managed by the data dictionary.
    • Appropriate tables are updated when extents are allocated or unallocated.
    • These tablespaces are supported only for backward compatibility.
tablespaces in the preconfigured database
Tablespaces in the Preconfigured Database
  • SYSTEM
  • SYSAUX
  • TEMP
  • UNDOTBS1
  • USERS
  • EXAMPLE
where we are
Where We Are
  • Using tablespaces to separate data
  • Creating various types of tablespaces
  • Managing tablespaces
  • Obtaining tablespace information
  • Describe the main concepts and functionality of Automatic Storage Management (ASM)
what is automatic storage management
What Is Automatic Storage Management?
  • Is a portable and high-performancecluster file system
  • Manages Oracle database files
  • Spreads data across disksto balance load
  • Mirrors data
  • Solves many storage management challenges

Application

Database

Filesystem

ASM

Volumemanager

Operating system

asm key features and benefits
ASM: Key Features and Benefits
  • Stripes files, but not logical volumes
  • Provides online disk reconfiguration and dynamic rebalancing
  • Allows for adjustable rebalancing speed
  • Provides redundancy on a per-file basis
  • Supports only Oracle database files
  • Is cluster aware
  • Is automatically installed
asm concepts
ASM: Concepts

ASMdisk group

Database

ASM file

Data file

Tablespace

Segment

ASM disk

Extent

File system

file

orRaw device

Allocation unit

Oracle datablock

Physicalblock

summary
Summary
  • In this lesson, you should have learned how to:
    • Describe how table row data is stored in blocks
    • Define the purpose of tablespaces and data files
    • Create and manage tablespaces
    • Obtain tablespace information
    • Describe the main concepts and functionality of ASM, such as:
      • Disk mirroring
      • Dynamic rebalancing
      • ASM disk groups
practice overview managing database storage structures
Practice Overview:Managing Database Storage Structures
  • This practice covers the following topics:
    • Creating tablespaces
    • Gathering information about tablespaces