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Pakistan: Agricultural Trade and Development Challenges. Linda M. Young Political Science Dept. Montana State University. My Talk Tonight. Will start with background on me on Pakistan Overview of the agricultural negotiations What Pakistan wants how that surprised me
Linda M. Young
Political Science Dept.
Montana State University
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Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Sir Hari Singh BahadurMaharaja of Kashmir
Mário JalesICONE Projects Coordinator
Source: Agricultural Policies in OECD Countries, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Secretariat, 1998.
Source: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1995. Wheat: Background for 1995 Farm Legislation, AER-712, Economic Research Service, Washington, DC, Appendix Table 3.
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture – Economic Research Service. 1999. The European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy: Pressures for Change. International Agriculture and Trade Report, Situation and Outlook Series, WRS-99-2, Washington, DC, October, Figure 2, p. 7.
South Africa – 9%
Switzerland – 4%
United States – 1%
Rest of World – 2%
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture – Economic Research Service. 1999. The European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy: Pressures for Change. International Agriculture and Trade Report, Situation and Outlook Series, WRS-99-2, Washington, DC, October, Figure 3, p. 7.
Least-developed countries do not have to make commitments to reduce tariffs or subsidies. The base level for tariff cuts was the bound rate before January 1, 1995; or, for unbound tariffs, the actual rate charged in September 1986 when the Uruguay Round began. The other figures were targets used to calculate countries’ legally-binding “schedules” of commitments.
Source: World Trade Organization. 2003. “Understanding the WTO.” Geneva, Switzerland, p. 28.
Note: Data relate to 1998-00 for Canada and Korea, 1999-01 for the EU, Norway and the United States, and 2000-02 for Japan. National currency values converted to U.S. dollars at the average exchange rate applicable to the base period for each country.Source: David Blandford, “Disciplines on Domestic Support in the Doha Round,” Trade Policy Issues Paper 1, The International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium and International Food and Agricultural Trade Policy Council, July 2005, p. 14.
Lack of faith in “de-coupled support” and high levels of support
Decline in terms of trade for some
Little implementation of Marrakech Decision
Ministerial Decision on Measures Concerning the Possible Negative Effects of the Reform Programme on Least-Developed and Net Food-Importing Developing Countries
Wheat (importer to exporter)
Agriculture: 60% of export earnings
Sources: (1) Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). 2002. “Agricultural Policies in OECD Countries Monitoring and Evaluation 2002: Highlights,” Paris, France; and (2) US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. 2003. WTO Agricultural Trade Policy Commitments Database, Washington, DC. Available at http://www.ers.usda.gov/db/wto.
India included here
Note: Tariffs are bound MFN rates based on final URAA implementation.
Source: Gibson, P., J. Wainio, D. Whitley, and M. Bohman. 2001. Profiles of Tariffs in Global Agricultural Markets. Agricultural Economic Report No. 796, Economic Research Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, DC, Figure 2, p. 9.
Finance ministers and heads of central banks of the G-20 countries at meeting in Berlin, Nov. 2004.
One-third ag trade between developing countries
High tariffs by Brazil, China, India, and Mexico (25%)
United in calling for in developed country tariff
No consensus in developing country tariffs
Developed country ag trade reform useful, but also developing country tariff reduction
consumers lower prices
MORE POLITICAL POWER
Photo courtesy of theCentral Asia Institute
Easterly, William. 2003. “The Political Economy of Growth Without Development: A Case Study of Pakistan.” In Rodrik, Dani, In Search of Prosperity: Analytic Narratives on Economic Growth, Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford.
Photos courtesy of the Central Asia Institute
Photo courtesy of the Central Asia Institute.