introduction to human nutrition n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Introduction to Human Nutrition PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Introduction to Human Nutrition

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 47

Introduction to Human Nutrition - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 149 Views
  • Uploaded on

Introduction to Human Nutrition. Course Web Page. Chapter Outline. Nutrition defined (1.1) Nutrition and health (1.1, 1.6) Healthy People 2020 goals (1.5) Classifying the nutrients (1.2) Nutritional research Hunger and appetite (1.7) Factors impacting food choices, small group exercise.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Introduction to Human Nutrition' - fionnuala


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
chapter outline
Chapter Outline
  • Nutrition defined (1.1)
  • Nutrition and health (1.1, 1.6)
    • Healthy People 2020 goals (1.5)
  • Classifying the nutrients (1.2)
  • Nutritional research
  • Hunger and appetite (1.7)
    • Factors impacting food choices, small group exercise
nutrition defined
Nutrition Defined
  • Nutrition – the science of foods and the nutrients they contain
  • Study the:
    • action of foods and the nutrients in the body
    • relationship between diet and health
nutrition defined1
Nutrition Defined
  • Actions in the body include:
    • Ingestion
    • Digestion
    • Absorption
    • Transport
    • Metabolism
    • Excretion
nutritional goals
Nutritional Goals
  • Quality intake that allows you to function at your best and promotes health.
    • Intake that provides adequate levels of each nutrient
  • Quantity of intake that promotes a healthy body weight.
diet and health
Diet and Health
  • Diet - the foods one consumes
      • The quality of your daily diet affects the risk of chronic diseases
        • Meaning…..The food choices you make daily have a cumulative impact on your health
nutrition and health
Nutrition and Health
  • Chronic health issues associated with diet include:
    • Cardiovascular disease
    • Hypertension
    • Obesity
    • Type II Diabetes
    • Osteoporosis
    • See pages 5/6
leading causes death us
Leading Causes Death - US
  • Heart disease: 616,067
  • Cancer: 562,875
  • Stroke: 135,952
  • Chronic respiratory diseases: 127,924
  • Accidents (unintentional injuries): 123,706
  • Alzheimer's disease: 74,632
  • Diabetes: 71,382
  • Influenza and Pneumonia: 52,717
  • Kidney disease: 46,448
  • Septicemia: 34,828 CDC, 2009
improving your health
Improving your Health
  • Goal is to reduce the number of risk factors that are in your control
    • Risk factor = something that statistically increases the incidence of a disease
      • Risk factors may not be the cause of the disease
improving health
Improving Health
  • Risk factors in your control:
    • Smoking
    • Alcohol intake
    • Over-consumption of calories
    • Physical inactivity
    • Poor quality diet
improving health1
Improving Health
  • Risk factors you cannot control:
    • Age
    • Gender
    • Genetics (family history)
    • Ethnicity
maine data
Maine Data
  • 27% report NO physical activity
    • 1 in 5 engage in moderate physical activity ~5 days/week
  • 74% do NOT eat 5 servings of fruits and vegetables daily
  • 25% of Maine adults are obese (2007)
healthy people 2020
Healthy People 2020
  • Americans with a healthful diet:
    • Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods within and across the food groups, especially:
      • whole grains, fruits, vegetables, low-fat or fat-free milk or milk products, and lean meats and other protein sources.
    • Limit the intake of saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, sodium (salt), and alcohol.
healthy people 20201
Healthy People 2020
  • Limit caloric intake to meet caloric needs.
    • All Americans should avoid unhealthy weight gain, and those whose weight is too high may also need to lose weight
what s considered food
What’s Considered Food?
  • Foods contain nutrients and are derived from plant or animal sources
  • Nutrients are used by the body to provide energy and to support growth, maintenance and repair of body tissues
    • ~ 40 nutrients identified at this time
classifying nutrients
Classifying Nutrients

There are 6 Classes of Nutrients

1. Carbohydrates

2. Lipids (fats)

3. Proteins

4. Vitamins

5. Minerals

6. Water

describing the nutrients
Describing the Nutrients
  • There are several ways to classify the classes of nutrients.
    • Essential or nonessential
    • Organic or inorganic
    • Macronutrient or micronutrient
    • Energy yielding or not
classifying nutrients1
Classifying Nutrients
  • Essential nutrients– nutrients the body either cannot make or cannot make enough of to meet its needs.
    • These nutrients must be obtained from foods (ingested in some manner)
    • Examples:
      • Vitamins
      • Calcium, iron, and other minerals
      • Some of the amino acids
essential nutrients
Essential Nutrients
  • To be classified as an essential nutrient:
    • The biological function of nutrient is known
    • Omission from the diet leads to a decline in a biological function
    • Return of the nutrient restores the biological function
classifying nutrients2
Classifying Nutrients
  • Nonessential nutrients– body can make from other nutrients ingested

 Examples:

      • Cholesterol
      • Some amino acids
classifying nutrients by composition
Classifying Nutrients by Composition
  • Organic nutrients - contain carbon
      • Carbohydrates
      • Lipids
      • Proteins
      • Vitamins
  • Inorganic nutrients - do not contain carbon
      • Minerals
      • Water
quantity needed
Quantity Needed
  • Macronutrients: need in relatively large amounts
    • Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins
  • Micronutrients: need in relatively small amounts
    • All other nutrients
classifying nutrients3
Classifying Nutrients
  • Energy-yielding nutrients (3):
    • Carbohydrates
    • Fats (lipids)
    • Proteins
  • Where does the energy come from?
a little more on energy
A little more on energy
  • Measure energy in kilocalories in U.S.
    • What most think of as a “calorie” is really a kilocalorie
    • Kcal = amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 10C
  • Measure energy in kilojoules (kJ) in most other countries
energy in the body
Energy in the Body
  • The body uses the energy yielding nutrients to fuel all activities
    • All energy yielding nutrients are “caloric”.
  • If more energy is ingested than is needed to fuel body activities the extra energy is stored as _________ and ________ occurs.
energy yielding nutrients1
Energy-Yielding Nutrients
  • Carbohydrates: C, H, O
    • 4 kcal/gram
    • Body’s primary source of energy
      • Use as glucose
      • Glucose is the brain’s only source of energy
    • Carbohydrate stores are limited ~12-24 hours (in liver and muscle)
classes of carbohydrates
Classes of Carbohydrates
  • Simple sugars
    • Monosaccharides and disaccharides
  • Complex carbohydrates
    • Starch
    • Fibers
  • Carbohydrate rich foods……..
lipids
Lipids
  • Lipids – fats and oils: C, H, O
    • 9 kcal/gram
    • Body’s alternate source of energy
      • Use fat along with glucose as an energy source most of the time
    • Stores are unlimited
types of lipids
Types of Lipids
  • Fats – solids
  • Oils – liquids
  • Saturated (solids/fats)
    • No carbon to carbon double bonds
  • Unsaturated (liquids/oils)
    • Carbon to carbon double bond(s) present
  • Lipid rich foods?
proteins
Proteins
  • Proteins: C, H, O, N, S
    • 4 kcal/gram (same as _______)
    • Body’s least desirable source of energy
      • WHY? …….
    • Protein is used for energy only when carbohydrate is NOT available as an energy source.
    • Protein rich foods?
energy yielding non nutrient
Energy-Yielding Non-nutrient
  • Alcohol – 7 kcal/gram
  • Non-nutrient because it interferes with growth, maintenance and repair of the body
    • Alcohol’s metabolites are harmful
energy density
Energy Density
  • Measure of the kcal per gram of food
  • _______ has the highest energy density of the 3 energy-yielding nutrients.
  • Foods with a high energy density provide more kcal per gram than low density foods.
evaluating a food label
Evaluating a Food Label
  • _____ grams carbohydrate
  • _____ grams fat
  • _____ grams protein
  • TOTAL KCAL: ____________
6 classes of nutrients
6 Classes of Nutrients
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids (fats and oils)
  • Proteins
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Water

Pages 8/9

vitamins
Vitamins
  • Essential
  • Organic, micronutrient
  • Not energy-yielding
  • Can be water-soluble or fat-soluble

Examples:

minerals
Minerals
  • Essential
  • Inorganic, micronutrient
    • Major minerals: Ca, P, Na
    • Trace minerals: Fe, Zn
  • Not energy-yielding
  • Indestructible
water
Water
  • Water (H2O)
    • Essential
    • Organic or inorganic?
    • Noncaloric
    • We are ~60% water
food choices
Food Choices
  • Small group exercise
    • What influences your food choices each day?
    • Why do you eat what you eat?
    • Get into groups of ~4 and make a list of what impacts your food choices most days.
      • Turn this list in next time we meet.
food choices1
Personal preferences

Habit

Ethnic heritage

Tradition

Social interactions or pressure

Availability

Convenience

Economy $

Positive or negative associations

Emotional Comfort

Values -Religious, political, environmental

Health concerns

Nutritional value

Food Choices