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A Future for Initial Teacher Education and Training in Wales

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  1. A Future for Initial Teacher Education and Training in Wales Dr Carl Peters Executive Dean, Faculty of Education and Social Sciences, University of Wales, Newport

  2. Framing the Future • Recruiting the ‘right’ people into teaching • Recruiting the ‘right number’ of people • Making sure they have ‘a job’ at the end • Making sure they are well prepared for the job • Making sure they remain well prepared • Doing all of these consistently all the time • Working effectively together all the time

  3. Recruiting the right people “Recruit great people and train them well” (Barber) “Attracting good people into teaching” and “Focussing on the quality not quantity” (Whelan in Andrews) Some evidence that qualification levels on entry correlate with effectiveness as a teacher but qualifications are not in themselves a sufficient condition for being a good teacher (Donaldson) Processes and criteria for selection including UCAS points/degree class vary across providers Insufficient attention paid to how well applicants might build relationships with young people, their likely professionalism and future potential

  4. Lessons? • Finland: national test of literacy and numeracy and problem-solving followed by university test of communication skills, motivation and academic ability • France: national competitive exam for entry to profession • S. Korea: applicants for Primary ITT must be in the top 5% of their academic cohort in the national college entrance exam

  5. Recruiting the right number • “The high number of training places on offer has failed to reinforce teaching status by making entry challenging and opens up the opportunity for schools to recruit cheaper NQTs rather than experienced professionals” (Leighton Andrews) • Modelling demand remains very challenging • Pool of latent teachers means we must deal with the employment aspects of ITET as a priority

  6. Making sure they have a job • Teacher qualifications should be seen as attractive in business and industry (Donaldson citing situation in Finland) • We only suggest teaching as a career outcome • Emphasise the employability aspects of ITET courses

  7. Making sure they are well prepared • Recognise WG priorities of literacy, numeracy and dealing with disadvantage – all qualifying teachers to be trained in literacy and numeracy. • Donaldson showed that ITET providers were strong in: classroom management; pedagogy; subject development; planning and evaluation but weaker in: ICT, safeguarding; ALN; assessment and behaviour management. • He felt that ITET must address underachievement, literacy, numeracy, ALN, deep learning and management of challenging behaviour

  8. also • He also suggests that trainee teachers found placement, seminars, group study and lectures most effective but felt that the use of distance/blended learning and understanding of other related disciplines was underdeveloped • Placements must be more consistent and good with a benchmark set to be a partner • More time is needed for ITET • University-based teacher educators should undertake an agreed programme of CPD each year

  9. Making sure they remain well prepared – Induction (or it’s not all about ITET) • “Continuous improvement of pedagogical skills and knowledge” (Barber) • “Investing in teachers’ professional knowledge and skills” (Whelan) • Focus on literacy, numeracy and behaviour management (Andrews) • Not seamless, not rigorous and too variable • There is a role for HEIs in induction (Donaldson)

  10. Features of good induction (Howe 2006 in Donaldson) • Individual induction plans and funds • Involvement of HEIs in the first year • Reduced teaching workload • Collaborative training ethos in schools • Separation of support and assessment of induction

  11. International lessons • In Italy serving teachers are recruited as NQT supervisors for 2-4 years with a halved teaching commitment • In Japan NQTs spend 2 days a week in one to one coaching with a guidance teacher • In Norway, ITET providers develop the local authority induction programmes

  12. EPD and CPD • CPD to be linked to system wide needs: literacy and numeracy, and • CPD opportunities (sic) will include the opportunity to gain the Master’s qualification (Andrews) • Master’s in Educational Practice • 85% of funding now delegated to schools in Wales • Professional Learning Communities and HEIs • Consortia – Integrated Achievement Service and HEIs

  13. International lessons • In many highly scoring PISA countries only about 1/3 of the teachers’ working time is spent teaching pupils • Finnish teachers have one afternoon a week to plan together and across schools • Many countries have communal offices to ensure and encourage interaction between teachers • Japan and China use lessons as research opportunities for teachers to seek improvements to teaching

  14. Some interesting figures • Singapore and the Netherlands require teachers to undertake 100 hours of CPD per year • In Sweden 15 days a year is allocated for CPD per teacher • In Sweden teachers can get 20% of their week funded to attend PG courses • In S. Korea teachers of 3 years standing can get 5 weeks (180 hours) off for CPD leading to an Advanced Certificate • In Singapore, through the Teachers’ Network , teachers can attend 100 hours of CPD per year on top of 20 hours each week of observation and research • New Zealand funds 20% release time for new teachers and 10% for those in their second year

  15. Concerns • Exclusion of ITET and CPD providers from discussion and development • Lack of understanding of Master’s (and other CPD) by key decision-makers • Dearth of experience in civil servants • Financial constraints of the time • Other priorities such as formation of consortia, merger, UW, regionalisation etc.

  16. What we know • Clear direction from Minister (but lack of clarity around operation) • Consistency of message across UK • Needs a joined up approach between schools, local authorities, WG and HEIs (note limited place of HEIs in SEF though) – we need “Quaternary Level Reform” • We must raise the status of teaching and teachers together • We probably don’t need any more flexibility in training provision

  17. What we can do • Selection of trainee teachers: work towards a Wales-wide set of criteria and standards including literacy and numeracy tests, possibly psychometric tests but not apply dogmatically • Ensure stakeholders are aware of the generic benefits of an ITET degree and the transferable skills therein • Challenge assertion at CPD is “highly academic and theoretical “ (Andrews)

  18. and • Ensure ITET is research-informed (TLRP etc) • Rebalance curriculum to include areas seen as deficits – lobby for 18 month or 2 year PGCE • Engage in dialogue with consortia and schools around partnership working for QTS, Induction, EPD and CPD • Develop a close link with the WG Standards Unit • Develop CPD programme for teacher educators with key partners • Work with WG to revise Standards fro QTS, Induction etc. • Use UCET Cymru as driver of change and to gain greater consistency of practice without losing Centre individuality

  19. References • Wei, R. C., Andree, A. and Darling-Hammond, L. (2009) How nations invest in teachers: High achieving nations treat their teachers as professionals, Educational Leadership, 66 (5), 28-33. • The Scottish Government (2011) Teaching Scotland’s Future (the Donaldson Report), Report of a review of teacher education in Scotland. • The Scottish Government (2010) Literature review on teacher education in the 21st Century, Appendix 3, comparator education systems. • Andrews, L. (2011) Teaching makes a difference, speech given on 2ndFebruary 2011 at the Reardon Smith Lecture Theatre, Cardiff.