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k 3. WHERE ARE THE MISSING GALACTIC SATELLITES?. V(r) = (GM(r)/r) 1/2. The LCDM model predicts that thousands of dwarf DM haloes should exist in the Local Group while only ~50 are observed. Klypin et al.,1999, Moore et al.,1999, Madau et al., 20 08.

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V(r) = (GM(r)/r)1/2

The LCDM model predicts that thousands of dwarf DM haloes should exist in the Local Group while only ~50 are observed.

Klypin et al.,1999, Moore et al.,1999, Madau et al., 2008

Currently favored scenario for explanation of the overabundance of the dark matter subhaloes assumes that dwarf haloes above Vmax ~ 30-50 km/s were forming stars before they fall into the Milky Way or M31 and that smaller haloes never formed any substantial amount of stars.

Bullock et al., 2000,Kravtsov et al., 2004





Anton Tikhonov /SPbSU

Anatoly A. Klypin/NMSU; Stefan Gottloeber /AIP; Gustavo Yepes /UAM

The emptiness of voids in LWDM-model: possibility to escape LCDM-overabundance?

1. LCDM model faces the same overabundance problem, which it had with the number of satellites in the LG: the theory predicts a factor of 10 more haloes as compared with the observed number of dwarf galaxies.(A.V. Tikhonov, A. Klypin, 2008, arXiv:0807.0924)

2. Problems faced by CDM-models on Mpc and sub-Mpc scales motivated reconsideration of WDM (Warm Dark Matter)-models with typical masses of particles mXaround 1keV

which decouple being still ultra-relativistic.

How small can be a galaxy?

Below some mass the haloes are expected to stop producing galaxies inside them.

There are different arguments for that:

stellar feedback (Dekel, 1986) or

photoionization (Bullock, 2000)

may play a significant role in quenching starformation in too small haloes.

For example, (Loeb, 2008) made asimple estimation of the limiting circular velocityVlimbelow which haloeshave essentially no gas infall due to increase of Jeans mass caused byUV background at the epoch of reionization:

Vlim = 34 · (TIGM/1.5·104K)1/2km/s,

where TIGM is thetemperature of intergalactic medium gas ionized by stars.

(Hoeft, 2006) studied formation of dwarf DM haloes in cosmologicalvoid regions using high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations andassuming that cosmological UV-background photo-evaporates baryons outof haloes of dwarf galaxies, and thereby limits their cooling and starformation rate.

(Hoeft, 2006) give characteristic mass MC = 6 · 109 h-1Msun

below which haloes start to fail accretinggas.

We compare the spectrum of void sizes in the Local Volume galaxy sample with the distribution of voids in high-resolution cosmological simulations. The simulations give us detailed information (positions, velocities, masses, circular velocities, and so on) for dark matter haloes and their satellites. Yet, they do not provide luminosities of galaxies..Theoretical predictions of the luminosity of a galaxy hosted by a halo with given mass, circular velocity and merging history are quite uncertain and cannot be used for our analysis.

Instead, we ask a more simple question:

What luminositya halo or subhalo with given circular velocityshould havein order to reproduce the observed spectrum of void sizes?

V(r) = (GM(r)/r)1/2

Vc = 20km/s – Mvir~109 Mo

Vc = 50km/s – Mvir~1010 Mo

When doing this, we assume that haloes with larger circular velocities should host more luminous galaxies. We will later see that matching of the void spectrum in simulations and with the observations puts significant constraint on relation of the halo circular velocity and the luminosity of a galaxy hosted by the halo. If we take too large circular velocity, there are too few galaxies and sizes of voids become too large. Instead, if very smallhaloes host galaxies, the number of large voids declines well below what is observed in the Local Volume.

Description of the Local Volume galaxy sample

The first compilation of a Local volume (LV) sample of galaxies situated within 10Mpc was made by Kraan-Korteweg & Tammann (1979) who published a list of 179 nearby galaxies with radial velocities VLG< 500 km/s

In his Catalog and Atlas of Nearby Galaxies, Tully (1988) noted the presence in the Local Supercluster (LSC) that consists of number of intersecting filaments of the so-called Local void which begins directly from the boundaries of the Local Group and extends in the direction of North Pole of the LSC by ~ 20 Mpc. The Local void looks practically free from galaxies.

Later, Karachentsev (1994) published an updated version of the LV list, which contained 226 galaxies with VLG < 500 km/s. Over the past few years, special searches for new nearby dwarf galaxies have been undertaken basing on the optical sky survey POSS-II/ESO/SERC, HI and infrared surveys of the zone of avoidance, ‘‘blind’’ sky surveys in the 21 cm line, HIPASS and HIJASS.

At the present time, the sample of galaxies with distances less than 10 Mpc numbers about 550 galaxies. For half of them the distances have been measured to an accuracy as high as 8-10% (Karachentsev et al., 2004=Catalog of Neighboring Galaxies). Over the last 5 years, snapshot surveys with Hubble Space Telescope (HST ) have provided us with the TRGB distances for many nearby galaxies.

The distances are not measured using theredshifts because the perturbations of the Hubble flow in the LocalVolume are large and significantly distort the spatial distribution of galaxies.

In spite from the presence of local voids, the average density of luminositywithin the radius of 8 Mpc around us exceeds 1.8 - 2.0 times the global luminosity density. Almost the same excess is also seen in the local HI massdensity. About 2/3 of the LV galaxies belong to the known virializedgroups like the LG.

Karachentsev et al., 2007

void detection algorithm
3D grid.
  • Empty seed sphere of largest possible radius Rseedis identified.
  • Expansion of seed spheres by spheres with radius Rsph > 0.9 Rseed
  • and with centers inside already
  • fixed part of a void.
  • Next seed sphere is determined. Process continues until Rseed > Rthreshold.
  • Voids have flexible but still regular shapes and are thick enough throughout their volumes.
  • Voids are defined to be completely inside sample boundaries.
  • (El-Ad & Piran,1997, Gottloeber, 2003)
  • Then we considered Cumulative void function ΔV/V(>Rvoid)

2D-case of point-like distribution. Seed circles and voids growing from them are shown. The numerals indicate the order of identification of voids

Void detection algorithm

distribution of six largest minivoids within the lv sphere of radius 7 5 mpc
Distribution of six largest minivoids within the LV-sphere of radius 7.5 Mpc.

¼ of the Local Volume is occupied by Void in Aquila - front part of the Local (Tully) Void (Tikhonov & Karachentsev, 2006)

Luminosity functions of LV galaxies

The volume limited sample is complete for galaxies with abs. magnitudesMB < -12 within 8Mpc radius. Another volume limitedsample is MB < -10 within 4Mpc. Karachentsev (2004)noted that luminosity density in LV in B-band with respectto the mean in the Universe about 1.8 - 2 times higher. Luminosity density is rather unstable characteristic in such a small volume as LV.

This values give us reasonable criteria for selection of "LV-candidates"-8Mpc spheres from simulations. Since we observe that largest part of number and luminosity overdensity in LV with respect to the universal values comes from brightest galaxies we used number overdensity criteria for ratio of number density of halos with circular velocity Vc > 100 km/s in 8Mpc sphere to the mean density of such halos in the whole simulated box – halos that must contain luminous galaxies.


Cumulative void function ΔV/V(>Rvoid) = Vvoids (>Rvoid)/ Vsample, Vvoids - total volume of voids with Reff > Rvoid, Vsample- total volume of a sample, Reff = (3Vvoid/4π)-1/3.

Local Volume

LCDM- Overabandance

Isolated dIrr

In terms of TF-relation

Dwarf Galaxies

dIrr Camelopardalis B; D=2.2Mpc; MB=−10.9

Vrot~10 km s−1

dIrr CGCG 269-049 MB=−12.46D=3.4Mpc

Vrotsin(i) ≤ 8 km s−1


dSph in the field

MB = -9.94

D = 1.86 Mpc (TRGB)

Central SB, ΣV=24m/□”

Karachentsev et al.

2001A&A, 379, 407

WDM-paradigm mX =1keV

Box 64h-1Mpc, h=0.72 WDM and CDM WMAP3

Initial conditions

Resulting haloes



WDM-like simlations (with P(k)-truncation suffer by fake-haloes:

Appeared via spurious fragmentation of filaments

Wang&White, 2007; Klypin, 2008





Vlim = 15-20 km/s

Vlim = 35 km/s



The LCDM modelfaces the same overabundance problem, which it had with the number of satellites inthe LG: the theory predicts a factor of ten more haloes as compared with the observednumber of dwarf galaxies.


1. Thousands of dSph in the field to find out

2. Halo Vc ~ 2Vrot:dwarf galaxies are hosted by significantly

more massive haloes.

3. Dwarf formation was suppressed by e.g. UV- background

4. LWDM-models (P(k) - truncation) mX ~ 1keV