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# AP Chemistry Summer Assignment - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

AP Chemistry Summer Assignment. Measurements & Nomenclature. w = 6.87 cm. h = 0.05 cm. l = 17.9 cm. III. Significant Figures. 1. Calculate the area of the dark rectangle. 122.973. 123. 123 cm 2. 2. Calculate the volume of the object. 6.14865. 6. 6 cm 3. 10 cm. 11 cm. A. B. C.

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### APChemistrySummer Assignment

Measurements & Nomenclature

h = 0.05 cm

l = 17.9 cm

III. Significant Figures

1. Calculate the area of the dark rectangle.

122.973

123

123 cm2

2. Calculate the volume of the object

6.14865

6

6 cm3

11 cm

A

B

C

D

III. Significant Figures

3. Calculate the sum of the length, width, and height.

24.82

24.8

24.8 cm

4. What is the length of each segment?

A = 10.07 cm

B = 10.23 cm

C = 10.50 cm

D = 11.00 cm

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

9 cm

10 cm

0 cm

1 cm

9 cm

10 cm

9 cm

10 cm

a. ____________

c. _____________

e. _____________

g. ____________

b. ____________

d. _____________

f. _____________

h. ____________

justified

B. Introduction:

When making measurements or doing calculation you should not keep more digits in a number than is ________. These rules of significant figures will show you how to determine the correct number of digits.

C. What is a significant figure?

Significant figures in a measurement are all values (digits) known precisely, plus ______ digit that is estimated.

Example: Make the measurement with the correct significant figures.

one

9.24 cm

9.00 cm

9.0 cm

0.02 cm

9.88 cm

9.70 cm

9.8 cm

0.90 cm

1. Every nonzero digit in a recorded measurement is significant.

• Examples: 47,357 5 sig figs 25 ________

2

• Zeros between nonzero digits are significant.

• (“Sandwich rule”)

• Examples: 1,007 4 sig figs

• 305 _______

3

3. Zeros in front of all nonzero digit are not significant.

Examples: 0.00238 3 sig figs

0.98 ______

0.000006 ______

2

1

Examples: 426.00 5 sig figs 2.060 ______ 0.8080 ________

4

4

5. Zeroes at the end of a measurement where there is no decimal point are ambiguous. To clearly show the correct number of sig figs, these measurements should be written in scientific notation.

Examples: 120 2-3 sig figs

3000 1-4 sig fig

1,000,000 _______

1 - 7

Examples: Write the number 100,000 with (a) 1 sig fig,

(b) 3 sig figs, (c) 5 sig figs.

(a) 1 x 105

(b) 1.00 x 105

(c) 1.0000 x 105

E. Practice: 1. Determine the number of significant figures for each of the following measurement.

(a) 54320.0 (b) 0.004550 (c) 151309 (d) 10.54

(e) 5.20 x 105 (f) 15,000 (g) 10.04 (h) 0.0750

2. When completing calculations, it is often necessary to round the final answer to a particular number of significant figures (round up for 5 and above; keep digits the same for 4 and below). Round the above measurements to 2 significant figures. Example: 0.0753 = 0.075 107.0 = _______________

6

4

6

4

54000

0.0046

150,000

11

5.4 x 104

4.6 x 10–3

1.5 x 105

3

2-5

4

3

10

0.075

5.2 x 105

1.5 x 104

1.0 x 101

7.5 x 10–2

= 1.1 x 102

110

24 mL

2 significant figures

4 significant figures

3001 g

0.0320 m3

3 significant figures

6.4 x 104 molecules

2 significant figures

560 kg

2-3 significant figures

3. Determine the number of sig figs for each measurement. Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

1. 0.0037 _______ ______________

2. 134.1 _______ ______________

3. 1,000,000 _______ ______________

4. 5.730 x 102 _______ ______________

5. 410.50 _______ ______________

6. 79500 _______ ______________

7. 3071.04 _______ ______________

8. 4.08 x 10-6 _______ ______________

9. 0.998 _______ ______________

10. 1.570 _______ ______________

-------------

2

4

1.3 x 102

1-7

1.0 x 106

5.7 x 102

4

410

5

= 4.1 x 102

80,000

= 8.0 x 104

3-5

6

3100

= 3.1 x 103

3

4.1 x 10-6

1.0

3

1.6

4

# sig figs Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.Rounded Answer

4

14

3. Continued

11. 14.04 _______ ______________

12. 5.401 _______ ______________

13. 1340 _______ ______________

14. 0.00566 _______ ______________

15. 0.8120 _______ ______________

16. 18.009 _______ ______________

17. 100.5 _______ ______________

18. 3008 _______ ______________

19. 112040.0 _______ ______________

20. 43.05 _______ ______________

4

5.4

3-4

1300

= 1.3 x 103

5.7 x 10-3

3

4

0.81

18

5

4

= 1.0 x 102

100

3000

= 3.0 x 103

4

7

1.1 x 105

4

43

4.1 x 10 Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.2

9.0

1.91

Example: 12.11 m + 8.0 m + 1.013 m = 21.123 (Rounds to ONE place after the decimal) = 21.1 m

3 cm

10025.12 mm

4. Rules for Significant Figure in CalculationsMultiplication or Division: The number of sig figs in the result is the same number as the number in the least precise (least sig figs) measurement.

Example: (1) 4.56 m x 1.4 m = 6.38 m2 (Round to TWO sig figs) = 6.4 m2

(a) 17.24 x 0.52 (b) 118.24 x 3.5 (c)

8.9648

413.84

1.913034301

Addition or Subtraction: The result has the same number of decimal places as the least precise measurement used in the calculation.

(1) 21 cm – 18.3 cm =

(2) 10000.00 mm + 25.116 mm =

3 sig figs Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

round to

3 sig figs

2 sig figs

round to

2 sig figs

Significant Figures

Multiplication or Division

The number of significant figures in the result is set by the original number that has the smallest number of significant figures

4.51 x 3.6666 = 16.536366

= 16.5

6.8 ÷ 112.04 = 0.0606926

= 0.061

89.332 Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

+

1.1

one significant figure after decimal point

two significant figures after decimal point

90.432

round off to 90.4

round off to 0.79

3.70

-2.9133

0.7867

Significant Figures

The answer cannot have more digits to the right of the decimal

point than any of the original numbers.

Scientific Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

IV. Exponential Notation (_________ Notation)

602200000000000000000000

6.022 x 1023

A. Chemistry examples:

2. Mass of an electron

0.000000000000000000000000000000911 kg

9.11 x 10-31 kg

B. Technique to change from positional notation to scientific notation:

1. Leave ___ number to the ______ of the decimal.

2. When the decimal is moved to the ______, the exponent is ____________.

3. When the decimal is moved to the ______, the exponent is ____________.

4. Number must contain the same number of ____________ as the original value.

1

left

left

(+) positive

right

(-) negative

Sig figs (S.F.)

C. Convert the following to scientific notation: Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

1.35 x 105

5.500 x 10-3

1. 135000 (3 s.f) ____________

2. 0.005500 ____________

3. 120,000,000,000 (2 s.f.) ____________

4. 0.00000004441 ____________

1.2 x 1011

4.441 x 10-8

D. Use of calculator with scientific notation:

1.61 x 10-19

Step 1: Enter the number

Step 2: Press the Expontent button ____ or ____

Step 3: Enter the exponent

Step 4: If negative exponent, use ____ key.

1.61

EE

EXP

1.61 00

1.61 19

+/-

1.61 -19

= 1.2 x 10 Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.33

= 1 x 10-27

9.29 x 106

2.26

8.75 x 1020

0.0528

E. Exponent problems (Use correct sig figs!)

Raising to a power Taking a root

Step 1: Enter number Step 1: Enter number

Step 2: Press Step 2: Press

Step 3: Enter power Step 3: Enter root

Step 4: Press Step 4: Press

Example: Example:

xy

xy

2nd

=

=

(a) (14.5)6 =

(b) (1.72 x 105)4 =

The number of atoms in 12 g of carbon: Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

602,200,000,000,000,000,000,000

The mass of a single carbon atom in grams:

0.0000000000000000000000199

Scientific Notation

6.022 x 1023

1.99 x 10-23

N x 10n

N is a number

between 1 and 10

n is a positive or

negative integer

move decimal left Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

move decimal right

Scientific Notation

568.762

0.00000772

n > 0

n < 0

568.762 = 5.68762 x 102

0.00000772 = 7.72 x 10-6

• Write each quantity with the same exponent n

• Combine N1 and N2

• The exponent, n, remains the same

4.31 x 104 + 3.9 x 103 =

4.31 x 104 + 0.39 x 104 =

4.70 x 104

Scientific Notation Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

Multiplication

(4.0 x 10-5) x (7.0 x 103) =

(4.0 x 7.0) x (10-5+3) =

28 x 10-2 =

2.8 x 10-1

• Multiply N1 and N2

Division

8.5 x 104÷ 5.0 x 109 =

(8.5 ÷ 5.0) x 104-9 =

1.7 x 10-5

• Divide N1 and N2

• Subtract exponents n1and n2

http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/scienceopticsu/powersof10/

Practice Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

1. If the mass, radius, and height of a cylinder are given, what would be the equation to find the Density?

2. Write the correct number of sig figs for each of the following numbers.

0.0030500____

5

35000____

2-5

3.167 x 109____

4

100____

1-3

1.00006____

6

.000008____

1

3. Calculate each problem with the correct sig figs and units.

(24 + 100.35 + 0.0035 + 1.25) x 102 g =

12,852  1.29 x 104 g

__________

9.8 x 103

__________

(0.32)(25)(1223.4) =

172.1 m

__________

406.1m – 234.034 m =

0.029 or 2.9 x 10-2

__________

(0.0035) / (0.12) =

4. Calculate the following problem with the correct sig figs and units.

____________________

5.29 x 10-5 or 5.3 x 10-5

V. Metric System Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

10

100

1000

A. Based on powers of 10

Ex. 1 m = ______ dm = ______ cm = ______ mm

B. Uses “___________” and “____________.”

prefixes

Base units

1. Length

meter (m)

gram (g)

2. Mass

liter (L)

3. Volume

second (s)

4. Time

Joule (J)

5. Energy

C. Metric Prefixes: Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.Memorize this table!!!! Prefix Symbol Multiplier/Factor

2. Tera T 1012

1. Peta P 1015

3. Giga G 109

4. Mega M 106

5. kilo k 103

6. hecto h 102

7. deka da 101

Base Unit m, g, L, s, J

8. deci d 10-1

9. centi c 10-2

10. milli m 10-3

11. micro µ 10-6

12. nano n 10-9

13. pico p 10-12

1 EE - 6 Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

D. Examples: Multiplier ALWAYS goes with the _____________________.

Base Unit (m, L, g, s, J)

10-6

106

1012

10-12

1 Mm = _____ m 1 µg = _____ g

1 Ts = _____ s 1 pm = _____ m

E. Converting within the metric system using dimensional analysis:

• Convert to base unit by canceling units (Top unit cancels with _______ unit).

• Place the multiplier with the _____________________.

• Place a ___ in front of the unit with ______.

• To enter multiplier into the calculator, use a __ before the exponent key (NOT A 10).

• Example: 10-6

bottom

base unit (m, L, g, s, J)

1

prefix

1

1 x 10-6

10 x 10-6

1 L = 1 dm Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.3

Volume – SI derived unit for volume is cubic meter (m3)

1 mL = 1 cm3

L Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.2

mL

10 –3 L

1.63 L x

= 1.63 x 10-3

1 mL

Dimensional Analysis Method of Solving Problems

• Determine which unit conversion factor(s) are needed

• Carry units through calculation

• If all units cancel except for the desired unit(s), then the problem was solved correctly.

How many mL are in 1.63 L?

1 mL = 10-3 L

1

mL

1.63 L x

= 1.63 x 103 mL

10-3

L

= 3.6 x 10 Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.-9 m

= 5.56 x 10-11 Tg

= 5.75 x 10-6 Mm

= 5.90 x 10-16 GL

= 7.85 x 1010m

= 4.56 x 1012 pg

F. Metric dimensional analysis examples:

3.6 x 100 nm

10-9

m

1

nm

1. Convert 3.6 nm to m.

2. Convert 55.6 g to Tg

3. Convert 575 cm to Mm.

4. Convert 0.456 dag to pg.

5. Convert 78.5 km to m

6. Convert 0.000590 mL to GL.

Tg

5.56 x 101 g

1

1012

g

5.75 x 102 cm

10-2

m

1

Mm

1

cm

106

m

4.56 x 10-1 dag

101

g

1

pg

1

dag

10-12

g

7.85 x 101 km

103

m

1

m

1

km

10-6

m

5.90 x 10-4 mL

10-3

L

1

GL

1

mL

109

L

6.5 x 10 Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.-5

1 x 107

4.4 x 104

Practice

Metric / English Conversion Factors (given on test): Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

Length Mass

1 inch = 2.54 cm 1 lb. = 16 oz. = 256 drams

1 meter = 39.37 in 1 kg = 2.205 lb.

1 mile = 1.609 km 1 lb = 453.6 g

1 furlong = 220 yd.

VolumeTime

1 L = 1.057 qt. 1 fortnight = 2 weeks

1 gal. = 4 qt. = 8 pt.

1 pt. = 2 cups

1 mL = 1 cm3

1 pt. = 16 fl. oz.

VI. Conversion Factors: Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

equivalent

1

1

12

A. Whenever two measurements are equal, or ___________, a ratio of these two measurements will equal __.

Example: ___ ft. = ___ in. can be written as the following ratios:

B. Conversion factor: ratio of ___________ measurements.

C. Write conversion factors for the following pairs of units:

a. miles and feet

b. days and year

c. yard and feet

D. Assume all conversion factors are _________ significant. (Use initial number to determine sig figs).

equivalent

infinitely

60 min Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

m

x

x

x

343

60 s

1 mi

s

1 hour

= 767

1 min

1609 m

mi

hour

The speed of sound in air is about 343 m/s. What is this speed in miles per hour?

meters to miles

seconds to hours

1 mi = 1609 m

1 min = 60 s

1 hour = 60 min

= 2.64 x 10 Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.14s

= 3.69 x 1012 ng

VII. Dimensional Analysis I

Dimensions

Units (___________) are used to solve a problem.

Examples:

A. The average human brain weighs 8.13 lb. What is the mass in ng?

B. How many microseconds in 8.37 years? Write answer in scientific notation.

lb

g

ng

8.13 lb.

453.6

g

1

ng

1

lb.

g

10-9

y

d

h

min

s

s

8.37 y

365

d

24

h

60

min

60

s

1

s

1

y

1

d

1

h

1

min

10-6

s

= 22,367 mi/h Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

= 1.5 x 107 cm3

ft.

s

32,805 ft

s

kL

L

mL

cm3

15 kL

103

L

1

mL

1

cm3

1

kL

10-3

L

1

mL

C. A container contains 15 kL. Convert this to cm3.

D. Apollo 13 re-entered the Earth’s atmosphere at a speed of 32,805 ft/s. What was the speed in miles per hour (mph)?

mi

min

h

60

s

60

min

1

mi

1

min

1

h

5,280

ft

235 m Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

s

= 1.26 x 104 mi/d

= 591 cm3

m

s

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

= 1.30 lb

in

ft

mi

min

h

d

60

s

60

min

24

h

39.37

in

1

ft

1

mi

E. An arrow moves towards you at 235 m/s. How many miles could the arrow move in one day?(Assume the arrow never falls to the Earth).

F. (a) Determine the number of cm3 in a 20.0 fl. oz. bottle of Coke. (b) What is the mass of the Coke in pounds, assuming that it is the density of water (1 g / mL)?

1

min

1

h

1

d

1

m

12

in

5,280

ft

fl. oz.

pt

qt

L

mL

cm3

cm3

g

lb

(a)

4

L

1

mL

20 fl. oz.

1

pt

qt

1

1

cm3

8

1.057

qt

10-3

16

fl.oz.

pt

L

1

mL

(b)

591 cm3

1

g

1

lb

1

cm3

453.6

g

3.00 x 10 Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.8 m

s

= 5.88 x 1012 mi/y

m

m

s

s

100.0 m

9.86 s

= 22.7 mi/h

km

mi

min

h

d

y

60

s

60

min

24

h

365

d

1

1

km

mi

G. The speed of light is 3.00 x 108 m/s. How many miles does light travel per year?

H. Carl Lewis set the world record for the 100.0 m dash on August 25, 1991 in the finals of the World Track Championships with a time of 9.86 seconds. What was his average speed in miles per hour?

1

min

1

h

1

d

1

y

1.609

103

m

km

km

mi

min

h

1

60

s

60

min

1

km

mi

1.609

1

min

1

h

103

m

km

= 244.09 in Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.3

x

x

x

= 2.4 x 102 in3

x

x

x

x

= 5.3 x 102 in2

= 0.14 ft3

= 532.8 in2

= 532.8 in2

= 5.3 x 102 in2

VIII. Dimensional Analysis II: Square and cubic units

ft

in

3.7 ft2

12

in

12

in

1

ft

1

ft

A. Convert 3.7 ft2 to in2.

B. The engine in a Jeep Cherokee is 4.0 L. Calculate the engine volume in (a) in3, and (b) ft3.

2

3.7 ft2

12

in

1

ft

L

mL

cm3

in

in

ft

3

(a)

4.0 L

1

mL

1

cm3

1

in

10-3

L

1

mL

2.54

cm

3

(b)

244.09 in3

1

ft

12

in

g Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

g

mL

cm3

19.3 g

x

x

mL

= 1204.8 lb/ft3

= 1.20 x 103 lb/ft3

19.3 g

x

x

x

x

cm3

= 19,300 kg/m3

= 1.93 x 104 kg/m3

lb

(a)

cm3

in

ft

C. The density of gold is 19.3 g/mL. Calculate the density of gold in (a) lb/ft3, (b) kg/m3.

3

3

cm

12

in

1

lb

mL

2.54

1

in

1

453.6

cm3

1

ft

g

1

kg

(b)

m

3

cm

1

kg

1

m

103

10-2

g

x Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

= 2.85 x 103 cm

= 1.21 x 107 kg

= 1.21 x 1010 cm3

x

d = 2.85 dam

D. A spherical container with a diameter of 2.85 dam is filled with water. (a) Determine the volume of the sphere in cm3. (b) Determine the mass of the water in kilograms.

d = 2.85 dam

101

m

1

cm

1

dam

10-2

m

r = 1.425 x 103 cm

(a)

(b)

1.21 x 1010 cm3

1

g

1

kg

1

cm3

103

g

= 4.1148 m Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

x

= 4.5 x 105 lb

= 2.0 x 102 m3

= 203.68 m3

x

x

x

x

(a)

V = l · w · d

E. The dimensions of a swimming pool are 13.5 ft. x 22 m x 225 cm. (a) Determine the volume of the pool in m3. (b) Determine the mass of the water in pounds.

13.5 ft

12

in

1

m

1

ft

39.37

in

V = 4.1148 m · 22 m · 2.25 m

3

1

g

1

lb

(b)

1

cm

2.0368 x 102 m3

10-2

m

1

cm3

453.6

g

= 39.116 cm Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

r = 19.558 cm

= 354.77 cm3

= 0.295 cm

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

= 2.95 x 103µm

d = 15.4 in

d = 15.4 in

2.54

cm

1

in

h = ?

F. A 12.0 fl. oz. soda spilled onto the floor into a cylindrical puddle with a 15.4 inch diameter. Calculate the depth (height) of the puddle in μm.

(a)

fl.oz.

pt

qt

L

mL

cm3

12 fl.oz.

1

pt

1

qt

1

L

1

mL

1

cm3

16

fl.oz.

2

pt

1.057

qt

10-3

L

1

mL

(b)

(c)

0.295 cm

10-2

m

1

µm

m

1

cm

10-6

= 5.56 x 10 Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.-3mm

x

x

V = 90.0 µm3

G. The volume of a red blood cell is 90.0 µm3. What is its diameter in mm? Assume it is spherical.

= 2.780 µm

2.780 µm

10-6

m

1

mm

2

x

µm

m

1

10-3

= 279.407 cm Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.3

x

x

x

x

x

= 9.45 fl.oz.

d = 5.40 cm

h = 12.2 cm

H. The lid of a soup can is 5.40 cm across and the can is 12.2 cm high. What is the volume of the can in fluid ounces?

r = 2.70 cm

V = (2.70 cm)2• 12.2 cm

cm3

mL

L

qt

pt

fl.oz.

279.407 cm3

1

mL

10-3

L

1.057

qt

2

pt

16

fl.oz.

1

cm3

1

mL

1

L

1

qt

1

pt

Inorganic Nomenclature Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

Fig. 2.11 Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

H+

Be2+

I. Background: Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

A. Periodic Table

1. Column: _______ or _______ (Similar properties)

2. Row: _______.

3. _______: Left of staircase (Majority of the elements).

4. ___________: right of staircase.

Exception: _____(non-metal)(____________________)

5. ____________: touching the staircase.

Exception: ___ (metal).

group

family

period

Metals

Non-metals

H

Left of the staircase

Metalloids

Al

Period Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

Group

2.4

• Ions (Charged atoms) Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

• 1. ________: positively charged (lost e-).

• 2. ________: negatively charged(gained e-).

• C. Trends in the periodic table

• 1. Using the planetary model – (simplified model of atom)

• 2. Energy levels can contain a maximum of:

• 1st energy level: ____

• 2nd energy level: ____

• 3rd energy level: ____ (____)

• 3. _________ are the keys to chemical bonds.

Cations

Anions

2

8

8

18

Electrons

Ex. Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

Column 1 (____________) Column 18 (___________)

Alkali Metals

Noble gases

H (___ e-)

1

He (___ e-)

2

Ne (___e-)

10

Li (___e-)

3

Na (___e-)

11

Ar (___e-)

18

1 e- in outer shell

Similarities: (________________) ______________

Full outer shell

e Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.-

• Atoms can gain or lose ___ to achieve a full outer shell (more stable).

• Atoms will do what is _______ (least energy) i.e. Oxygen has 6 valence e-: easier to _____ 2 than to ____ 6.

easiest

gain

lose

x

Lose 1

+1

x

Lose 2

+2

x

Lose 3

+3

x

Lose or gain 4

+/-4

Non-metals only (above staircase)

x

Gain 3

-3

x

-2

Gain 2

x

-1

Gain 1

x

0

II. Binary Ionic Compounds Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

A. Background info

1. Metal / ___________ ( _______ is always written first).

2. One element ________ and the other ________.

3. ___________ of e-

4. Charged ions attract one another (opposites attract).

5. The compound is _________

Non-metal

Metal

loses e-

gains e-

Transfer

neutral

(Metal 1st) Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

(Metal 1st)

(Metal 1st)

B. Ex.

Sodium & chlorine

NaCl (1 Na to every Cl)

Na Cl

Na+ Cl

Ex.

Calcium & bromine

CaBr2 (2 Br for every 1 Calcium)

Br

Ca

Ca2+ Br

Br

Ex.

Li2O (2 Li for every 1 Oxygen)

Lithium & oxygen

Li

Li+ O2

O

Li

Ex.

Aluminum & sulfur

Al2S3 (3 Al for every 2 S)

Al

S

Al3+ S2

S

Al

S

• C. Shortcut to determining formula (Criss-Cross method): Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

• 1. ________ from charge becomes the subscript.

• 2. All ionic compounds are _________ (no + or -).

• 3. Subscripts are written in ________ possible ratio.

• The number “1” is never written (It is implied).

• Examples

Number

neutral

lowest

Ex. Al3+ O2-

Ex. Li+ O2-

Al2O3

Li2O

(Aluminum oxide)

(Lithium oxide)

Ex. Ca2+ O2-

Ex. Mg2+ N3-

Mg3N2

Ca2O2

CaO

(Calcium oxide)

(Magnesium nitride)

• D. Nomenclature of binary ionic compounds (bi = 2). Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

• 1. _____ is named first (name of atom).

• 2. ____________ is named second, ending changed to ____.

• If the metal (cation) can have multiple charges, the charge is written as a roman numeral (IUPAC).

• (Fe, Cu, Co, Hg, Mn, Sn, Pb)

Metal

Non-metal

-ide

4. Formula to name:

a. Li2O _________________

b. Al2O3 _________________

c. CaO _________________

d. Mg3N2 _________________

Lithium oxide

Aluminum oxide

Calcium oxide

Magnesium nitride

Iron ___ oxide Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

(III)

Ferric oxide

e. Fe2O3 __________________ (___________________)

f. SnO2 __________________ (___________________)

g. CuCl ___________________ (___________________)

h. MnN ____________________ (___________________)

2(x) + 3(-2) = 0

x = +3

Tin ___ oxide

(IV)

Stannic oxide

1(x) + 2(-2) = 0

x = +4

Copper __ chloride

(I)

Cuprous chloride

1(x) + 1(-1) = 0

x = +1

Manganese ___ nitride

(III)

Manganic nitride

1(x) + 1(-3) = 0

x = +3

• Name to formula: Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

• a. Beryllium fluoride ____________ ___________

• b. Potassium bromide ____________ ___________

• c. Tin (II) oxide ____________ ___________

• d. Cobaltic sulfide ____________ ___________

• e. Strontium iodide ____________ ___________

BeF2

Be2+ F –

K+ Br –

KBr

SnO

Sn2+ O2-

Co2S3

Co3+ S2-

SrI2

Sr2+ I –

6. Polyatomic Ion: A group of atoms with a _______ charge. Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

Ex. (1) CN- =

(2) NH4+ =

(3) OH- =

a. Polyatomic ions will _______ stay together as a group.

b. If there is more than one polyatomic ion, it must be placed in ____________.

single

cyanide

ammonium

hydroxide

always

parentheses

Examples: Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

Iron (II) hydroxide

Fe2+ OH-

Fe(OH)2

Ferrous hydroxide

Ca2+ CN-

Ca(CN)2

Calcium cyanide

NH4+ O2-

(NH4)2O

Ammonium oxide

NaCN

(No Parentheses b/c only 1)

Sodium cyanide

Na+ CN-

Cobalt (III) hydroxide

Co(OH)3

Co3+ OH-

Cobaltic hydroxide

• III. Helpful Hints to Memorize Oxyanions Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

• In learning the formulas and charges of common oxyanions, start with the –ate form. From it follows that:

• hypo______ite = 2 less oxygens

• _______ite = 1 less oxygen

• _______ate

• per______ate = 1 more oxygen

• **ALL forms have the SAME charge!**

Transition Metals Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

1

2

18

13

15

16

17

14

1

2

3

4

5

6

A Guide to Determine Whether the –ate Formula is –XO3 or –XO4:

B

C

N

Cl

P

Si

S

Se

Br

As

I

Transition Metals Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

1

2

18

13

15

16

17

14

1

2

3

4

5

6

A Guide to Determine What the Charge of the Oxy-Anion is:

-3

-2

-1

B

C

N

- 4

-3

-2

-1

Cl

P

Si

S

-3

-2

-1

Se

Br

As

-1

I

NO Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.3-

ClO3-

NO2-

ClO4-

• Examples:

• Borate = ________ Carbonate = ________

• Nitrate = ________ Chlorate = ________

• Nitrite = ________ Perchlorate = ________

BO33-

CO32-

Thio- Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

SO42-

S2O32-

OCN-

SCN-

C. “_____” = Sulfur replacing an oxygen.

Ex. Sulfate = ________ Thiosulfate = ________

Ex. Cyanate = ________ Thiocyanate= ________

(III) Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

ferric

IV. Ternary Compounds: (compounds containing ___ or more elements).

1. Name the _______

2. Find the appropriate name of the _______.

3. Formula to name:

3

cation

anion

a. Li2SO4 _______________

b. Fe(NO3)3 _________________________

Lithium sulfate

Iron ___ (_____) nitrate

1(x) + 3(-1) = 0

x = +3

(I) Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

cuprous

(II)

manganous

c. CdC2O4 __________________

d. Cu3AsO3 ___________________________

e. Mn2SiO4 ________________________________

f. (NH4)2SO4 __________________

Copper __ (_______) arsenite

3(x) + 1(-3) = 0

x = +1

Manganese __ (___________) silicate

2(x) + 1(-4) = 0

x = +2

Ammonium sulfate

• Name to formula: Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

• a. Potassium thiocyanate: __________ _________

• b. Aluminum permanganate: __________ _________

• c. Plumbic acetate: ____________ ___________

• d. Cobalt (III) oxalate: ____________ ___________

• e. Sodium hypochlorite: __________ __________

K+ SCN-

KSCN

Al3+ MnO4-

Al(MnO4)3

Pb+4 C2H3O2-

Pb(C2H3O2)4

Co3+ C2O42-

Co2(C2O4)3

Na+ ClO-

NaClO

V. Nomenclature of Hydrates Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

A. Hydrate: Ionic compound with ______ molecules stuck in the _______ lattice. The water is included in the ______ and formula.

1. ZnSO4 7 H20: __________________________

2. CaCO3 3 H2O: __________________________

3. Cu2C2O4 2H2O: _________________________________

4. Calcium chloride pentahydrate: _____________

5. Cupric acetate monohydrate: _______________________

water

crystal

name

Zinc sulfate

heptahydrate

Calcium carbonate

trihydrate

Copper (I) (cuprous) oxalate

dihydrate

CaCl2

5H20

Cu(C2H3O2)2

H20

CO Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

VI. Binary Molecular Compounds

A. Molecular (________) compounds

1. Non-metal to __________. ______of staircase including hydrogen

2. ________ of electrons.

Ex.

3. Non-metals can often combine in several different ways.

Ex.

covalent

non-metal

Right

Sharing

(Both Cl need “1” electron)

Cl Cl

CO2

• Nomenclature of binary molecular compounds: Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

• Greek prefixes are used:

• mono = hexa =

• di = hepta =

• tri = octa =

• tetra = nona =

• penta = deca =

1

6

2

7

3

8

4

9

5

10

mono

2. The prefix “_______” is omitted for the 1st element.

Ex.

CO = _________________

Carbon monoxide

• For oxides the ending “______” is omitted. Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

• a. N2O = ____________________

• b. N2O3 = ____________________

• c. N2O4 = ____________________

• d. NO = ____________________

• e. NO2 = ____________________

• f. NO5 = ____________________

o or a

Dinitrogen monoxide

Dinitrogen trioxide

Dinitrogen tetroxide

Nitrogen monoxide

Nitrogen dioxide

Nitrogen pentoxide

Metal Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

Non-metal

• Compound

• IonicCovalent

• (Charges Cancel Out) (No Charges)

• 1.

• 2. 2.

• 3. 3.

Metal / Non-metal

Non-metal only

No Prefixes!!!

Prefixes

= Diiodine tetroxide

Li20

= Lithium oxide

I2O4

Ex.

1. _______________________

2. _____________________

P2O5

Diphosphorus pentoxide

NCl3

Nitrogen trichloride

• Nomenclature (Acids) Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

• A. Acids: Compounds that contain __________ as the positive ion (H+).

• B. Exceptions: _____ (water) & ______ (hydrogen peroxide).

• C. Binary Acids: Acids that ___ ____ contain oxygen.

• 1. Use prefix “______”

• 2. Add stem or full name of ______.

• Ex. HBr = _________________________

• HCl = _________________________

• HCN = ________________________

hydrogen

H20

H2O2

do

not

hydro

anion

ic

acid

Hydrobromic Acid

Hydrochloric Acid

Hydrocyanic Acid

• Ternary Acids: Contain ____ or more elements, __________ oxygen.

• Acids formed with anions that contain ______ become ____ acids.

• HNO3 (NO3- = _______) __________

• HClO4(ClO4- = ___________) _____________

• H2SO4(SO42- = ________) ___________

• H3PO4(PO43- = ___________) _______________

3

including

-ate

-ic

Nitrate

Nitric acid

Perchlorate

Perchloric acid

Sulfate

Sulfuric acid

Phosphate

Phosphoric acid

-ous oxygen.

• Acids formed with anions that contain ____ become ______ acids.

• HNO2 (NO2- = ________) ____________

• HClO2 (ClO2- =_________) _____________

• H2SO3 (SO32- =________) ______________

-ite

Nitrite

Nitrous acid

Chlorite

Chlorous acid

Sulfite

Sulfurous acid

• Name to formula:

• a. cyanic acid __________________ ________

• b. dichromic acid ______________________ _______

• c. hypochlorous acid _____________________ _______

• d. hydrosulfuric acid _______________ ______

H+

OCN- (Cyanate)

HOCN

Cr2O72- (Dichromate)

H2Cr2O7

H+

ClO- (Hypochlorite)

HClO

H+

H2S

H+

S2- (Sulfide)

Compounds oxygen.

IonicCovalent

(Metal / Non-metal)

BinaryTernary

Acids

Contain H+

BinaryTernary

w/ oxygen

HydratesHydrates

• w/ H2O

• Uses prefixes

• ie. Calcium chloride

• dihydrate

• CaCl2 2H2O

• w/ H2O

• Uses prefixes

• ie. Calcium carbonate

• trihydrate

• CaCO3 3H2O

• Non-metal / Non-metal

• Uses prefixes, -ide

• I2O7 Diiodine heptoxide

• 2 elements

• -ide

• Roman numeral

• (if needed)

• ie. Calcium chloride

• CaCl2

• 3 or more elements

• Anion is named

• Roman numerals

• (if needed)

• ie. Calcium carbonate

• CaCO3

• No oxygen

• Hydro__ic acid

• ie, Hydrochloric acid

• HCl

• -ate—ic

• acid

• H2CO3

• Carbonic

• acid

• -ite---ous

• acid

• H2SO3

• Sulfurous

• acid

2.7 oxygen.

EOCP 2.88 oxygen.

Mg(HCO3)2

Mg2+

HCO3-

Cl-

Strontium chloride

Sr2+

Fe(NO2)3

Iron (III) nitrite

Mn2+

ClO3-

Mn(ClO3)2

Sn4+

Br-

Tin (IV) bromide

Co3(PO4)2

Cobalt (II) phosphate

Mercury (I) iodide

Hg2I2

Copper (I) carbonate

Cu+

CO32-

Li+

N3-

Li3N

Al2S3

Aluminum sulfide