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AP Chemistry Summer Assignment

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### APChemistrySummer Assignment

Measurements & Nomenclature

h = 0.05 cm

l = 17.9 cm

III. Significant Figures1. Calculate the area of the dark rectangle.

122.973

123

123 cm2

2. Calculate the volume of the object

6.14865

6

6 cm3

11 cm

A

B

C

D

III. Significant Figures3. Calculate the sum of the length, width, and height.

24.82

24.8

24.8 cm

4. What is the length of each segment?

A = 10.07 cm

B = 10.23 cm

C = 10.50 cm

D = 11.00 cm

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

9 cm

10 cm

0 cm

1 cm

9 cm

10 cm

9 cm

10 cm

a. ____________

c. _____________

e. _____________

g. ____________

b. ____________

d. _____________

f. _____________

h. ____________

justified

B. Introduction:

When making measurements or doing calculation you should not keep more digits in a number than is ________. These rules of significant figures will show you how to determine the correct number of digits.

C. What is a significant figure?

Significant figures in a measurement are all values (digits) known precisely, plus ______ digit that is estimated.

Example: Make the measurement with the correct significant figures.

one

9.24 cm

9.00 cm

9.0 cm

0.02 cm

9.88 cm

9.70 cm

9.8 cm

0.90 cm

- How do you determine sig figs in a measurement that has already been recorded?
- Sig Figs: The Rules

1. Every nonzero digit in a recorded measurement is significant.

- Examples: 47,357 5 sig figs 25 ________

2

- Zeros between nonzero digits are significant.
- (“Sandwich rule”)
- Examples: 1,007 4 sig figs
- 305 _______

3

3. Zeros in front of all nonzero digit are not significant.

Examples: 0.00238 3 sig figs

0.98 ______

0.000006 ______

2

1

- Zeros at the end of a number already been recorded?and to the right of a decimal point are significant.

Examples: 426.00 5 sig figs 2.060 ______ 0.8080 ________

4

4

5. Zeroes at the end of a measurement where there is no decimal point are ambiguous. To clearly show the correct number of sig figs, these measurements should be written in scientific notation.

Examples: 120 2-3 sig figs

3000 1-4 sig fig

1,000,000 _______

1 - 7

Examples: Write the number 100,000 with (a) 1 sig fig,

(b) 3 sig figs, (c) 5 sig figs.

(a) 1 x 105

(b) 1.00 x 105

(c) 1.0000 x 105

E. Practice: 1. Determine the number of significant figures for each of the following measurement.

(a) 54320.0 (b) 0.004550 (c) 151309 (d) 10.54

(e) 5.20 x 105 (f) 15,000 (g) 10.04 (h) 0.0750

2. When completing calculations, it is often necessary to round the final answer to a particular number of significant figures (round up for 5 and above; keep digits the same for 4 and below). Round the above measurements to 2 significant figures. Example: 0.0753 = 0.075 107.0 = _______________

6

4

6

4

54000

0.0046

150,000

11

5.4 x 104

4.6 x 10–3

1.5 x 105

3

2-5

4

3

10

0.075

5.2 x 105

1.5 x 104

1.0 x 101

7.5 x 10–2

= 1.1 x 102

110

How many significant figures are in each of the following measurements?

24 mL

2 significant figures

4 significant figures

3001 g

0.0320 m3

3 significant figures

6.4 x 104 molecules

2 significant figures

560 kg

2-3 significant figures

3. Determine the number of sig figs for each measurement. Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

# sig figsRounded Answer

1. 0.0037 _______ ______________

2. 134.1 _______ ______________

3. 1,000,000 _______ ______________

4. 5.730 x 102 _______ ______________

5. 410.50 _______ ______________

6. 79500 _______ ______________

7. 3071.04 _______ ______________

8. 4.08 x 10-6 _______ ______________

9. 0.998 _______ ______________

10. 1.570 _______ ______________

-------------

2

4

1.3 x 102

1-7

1.0 x 106

5.7 x 102

4

410

5

= 4.1 x 102

80,000

= 8.0 x 104

3-5

6

3100

= 3.1 x 103

3

4.1 x 10-6

1.0

3

1.6

4

# sig figs Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.Rounded Answer

4

14

3. Continued

11. 14.04 _______ ______________

12. 5.401 _______ ______________

13. 1340 _______ ______________

14. 0.00566 _______ ______________

15. 0.8120 _______ ______________

16. 18.009 _______ ______________

17. 100.5 _______ ______________

18. 3008 _______ ______________

19. 112040.0 _______ ______________

20. 43.05 _______ ______________

4

5.4

3-4

1300

= 1.3 x 103

5.7 x 10-3

3

4

0.81

18

5

4

= 1.0 x 102

100

3000

= 3.0 x 103

4

7

1.1 x 105

4

43

4.1 x 10 Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.2

9.0

1.91

Example: 12.11 m + 8.0 m + 1.013 m = 21.123 (Rounds to ONE place after the decimal) = 21.1 m

3 cm

10025.12 mm

4. Rules for Significant Figure in CalculationsMultiplication or Division: The number of sig figs in the result is the same number as the number in the least precise (least sig figs) measurement.

Example: (1) 4.56 m x 1.4 m = 6.38 m2 (Round to TWO sig figs) = 6.4 m2

(a) 17.24 x 0.52 (b) 118.24 x 3.5 (c)

8.9648

413.84

1.913034301

Addition or Subtraction: The result has the same number of decimal places as the least precise measurement used in the calculation.

(1) 21 cm – 18.3 cm =

(2) 10000.00 mm + 25.116 mm =

3 sig figs Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

round to

3 sig figs

2 sig figs

round to

2 sig figs

Significant Figures

Multiplication or Division

The number of significant figures in the result is set by the original number that has the smallest number of significant figures

4.51 x 3.6666 = 16.536366

= 16.5

6.8 ÷ 112.04 = 0.0606926

= 0.061

89.332 Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

+

1.1

one significant figure after decimal point

two significant figures after decimal point

90.432

round off to 90.4

round off to 0.79

3.70

-2.9133

0.7867

Significant Figures

Addition or Subtraction

The answer cannot have more digits to the right of the decimal

point than any of the original numbers.

Scientific Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

IV. Exponential Notation (_________ Notation)602200000000000000000000

6.022 x 1023

A. Chemistry examples:

1. Avogadro’s Number

2. Mass of an electron

0.000000000000000000000000000000911 kg

9.11 x 10-31 kg

B. Technique to change from positional notation to scientific notation:

1. Leave ___ number to the ______ of the decimal.

2. When the decimal is moved to the ______, the exponent is ____________.

3. When the decimal is moved to the ______, the exponent is ____________.

4. Number must contain the same number of ____________ as the original value.

1

left

left

(+) positive

right

(-) negative

Sig figs (S.F.)

C. Convert the following to scientific notation: Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

1.35 x 105

5.500 x 10-3

1. 135000 (3 s.f) ____________

2. 0.005500 ____________

3. 120,000,000,000 (2 s.f.) ____________

4. 0.00000004441 ____________

1.2 x 1011

4.441 x 10-8

D. Use of calculator with scientific notation:

1.61 x 10-19

Step 1: Enter the number

Step 2: Press the Expontent button ____ or ____

Step 3: Enter the exponent

Step 4: If negative exponent, use ____ key.

1.61

EE

EXP

1.61 00

1.61 19

+/-

1.61 -19

= 1.2 x 10 Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.33

= 1 x 10-27

9.29 x 106

2.26

8.75 x 1020

0.0528

E. Exponent problems (Use correct sig figs!)Raising to a power Taking a root

Step 1: Enter number Step 1: Enter number

Step 2: Press Step 2: Press

Step 3: Enter power Step 3: Enter root

Step 4: Press Step 4: Press

Example: Example:

xy

xy

2nd

=

=

(a) (14.5)6 =

(b) (1.72 x 105)4 =

The number of atoms in 12 g of carbon: Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

602,200,000,000,000,000,000,000

The mass of a single carbon atom in grams:

0.0000000000000000000000199

Scientific Notation

6.022 x 1023

1.99 x 10-23

N x 10n

N is a number

between 1 and 10

n is a positive or

negative integer

move decimal left Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

move decimal right

Scientific Notation

568.762

0.00000772

n > 0

n < 0

568.762 = 5.68762 x 102

0.00000772 = 7.72 x 10-6

Addition or Subtraction

- Write each quantity with the same exponent n
- Combine N1 and N2
- The exponent, n, remains the same

4.31 x 104 + 3.9 x 103 =

4.31 x 104 + 0.39 x 104 =

4.70 x 104

Scientific Notation Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

Multiplication

(4.0 x 10-5) x (7.0 x 103) =

(4.0 x 7.0) x (10-5+3) =

28 x 10-2 =

2.8 x 10-1

- Multiply N1 and N2
- Add exponents n1and n2

Division

8.5 x 104÷ 5.0 x 109 =

(8.5 ÷ 5.0) x 104-9 =

1.7 x 10-5

- Divide N1 and N2
- Subtract exponents n1and n2

http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/scienceopticsu/powersof10/

Practice Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

1. If the mass, radius, and height of a cylinder are given, what would be the equation to find the Density?

2. Write the correct number of sig figs for each of the following numbers.

0.0030500____

5

35000____

2-5

3.167 x 109____

4

100____

1-3

1.00006____

6

.000008____

1

3. Calculate each problem with the correct sig figs and units.

(24 + 100.35 + 0.0035 + 1.25) x 102 g =

12,852 1.29 x 104 g

__________

9.8 x 103

__________

(0.32)(25)(1223.4) =

172.1 m

__________

406.1m – 234.034 m =

0.029 or 2.9 x 10-2

__________

(0.0035) / (0.12) =

4. Calculate the following problem with the correct sig figs and units.

____________________

5.29 x 10-5 or 5.3 x 10-5

V. Metric System Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

10

100

1000

A. Based on powers of 10

Ex. 1 m = ______ dm = ______ cm = ______ mm

B. Uses “___________” and “____________.”

prefixes

Base units

1. Length

meter (m)

gram (g)

2. Mass

liter (L)

3. Volume

second (s)

4. Time

Joule (J)

5. Energy

C. Metric Prefixes: Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.Memorize this table!!!! Prefix Symbol Multiplier/Factor

2. Tera T 1012

1. Peta P 1015

3. Giga G 109

4. Mega M 106

5. kilo k 103

6. hecto h 102

7. deka da 101

Base Unit m, g, L, s, J

8. deci d 10-1

9. centi c 10-2

10. milli m 10-3

11. micro µ 10-6

12. nano n 10-9

13. pico p 10-12

1 EE - 6 Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

D. Examples: Multiplier ALWAYS goes with the _____________________.Base Unit (m, L, g, s, J)

10-6

106

1012

10-12

1 Mm = _____ m 1 µg = _____ g

1 Ts = _____ s 1 pm = _____ m

E. Converting within the metric system using dimensional analysis:

- Convert to base unit by canceling units (Top unit cancels with _______ unit).
- Place the multiplier with the _____________________.
- Place a ___ in front of the unit with ______.
- To enter multiplier into the calculator, use a __ before the exponent key (NOT A 10).
- Example: 10-6

bottom

base unit (m, L, g, s, J)

1

prefix

1

1 x 10-6

10 x 10-6

1 L = 1 dm Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.3

Volume – SI derived unit for volume is cubic meter (m3)

1 mL = 1 cm3

L Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.2

mL

10 –3 L

1.63 L x

= 1.63 x 10-3

1 mL

Dimensional Analysis Method of Solving Problems

- Determine which unit conversion factor(s) are needed
- Carry units through calculation
- If all units cancel except for the desired unit(s), then the problem was solved correctly.

How many mL are in 1.63 L?

1 mL = 10-3 L

1

mL

1.63 L x

= 1.63 x 103 mL

10-3

L

= 3.6 x 10 Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.-9 m

= 5.56 x 10-11 Tg

= 5.75 x 10-6 Mm

= 5.90 x 10-16 GL

= 7.85 x 1010m

= 4.56 x 1012 pg

F. Metric dimensional analysis examples:3.6 x 100 nm

10-9

m

1

nm

1. Convert 3.6 nm to m.

2. Convert 55.6 g to Tg

3. Convert 575 cm to Mm.

4. Convert 0.456 dag to pg.

5. Convert 78.5 km to m

6. Convert 0.000590 mL to GL.

Tg

5.56 x 101 g

1

1012

g

5.75 x 102 cm

10-2

m

1

Mm

1

cm

106

m

4.56 x 10-1 dag

101

g

1

pg

1

dag

10-12

g

7.85 x 101 km

103

m

1

m

1

km

10-6

m

5.90 x 10-4 mL

10-3

L

1

GL

1

mL

109

L

6.5 x 10 Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.-5

1 x 107

4.4 x 104

PracticeMetric / English Conversion Factors (given on test): Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

Length Mass

1 inch = 2.54 cm 1 lb. = 16 oz. = 256 drams

1 meter = 39.37 in 1 kg = 2.205 lb.

1 mile = 1.609 km 1 lb = 453.6 g

1 furlong = 220 yd.

VolumeTime

1 L = 1.057 qt. 1 fortnight = 2 weeks

1 gal. = 4 qt. = 8 pt.

1 pt. = 2 cups

1 mL = 1 cm3

1 pt. = 16 fl. oz.

VI. Conversion Factors: Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

equivalent

1

1

12

A. Whenever two measurements are equal, or ___________, a ratio of these two measurements will equal __.

Example: ___ ft. = ___ in. can be written as the following ratios:

B. Conversion factor: ratio of ___________ measurements.

C. Write conversion factors for the following pairs of units:

a. miles and feet

b. days and year

c. yard and feet

D. Assume all conversion factors are _________ significant. (Use initial number to determine sig figs).

equivalent

infinitely

60 min Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

m

x

x

x

343

60 s

1 mi

s

1 hour

= 767

1 min

1609 m

mi

hour

The speed of sound in air is about 343 m/s. What is this speed in miles per hour?

meters to miles

seconds to hours

1 mi = 1609 m

1 min = 60 s

1 hour = 60 min

= 2.64 x 10 Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.14s

= 3.69 x 1012 ng

VII. Dimensional Analysis IDimensions

Units (___________) are used to solve a problem.

Examples:

A. The average human brain weighs 8.13 lb. What is the mass in ng?

B. How many microseconds in 8.37 years? Write answer in scientific notation.

lb

g

ng

8.13 lb.

453.6

g

1

ng

1

lb.

g

10-9

y

d

h

min

s

s

8.37 y

365

d

24

h

60

min

60

s

1

s

1

y

1

d

1

h

1

min

10-6

s

= 22,367 mi/h Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

= 1.5 x 107 cm3

ft.

s

32,805 ft

s

kL

L

mL

cm3

15 kL

103

L

1

mL

1

cm3

1

kL

10-3

L

1

mL

C. A container contains 15 kL. Convert this to cm3.

D. Apollo 13 re-entered the Earth’s atmosphere at a speed of 32,805 ft/s. What was the speed in miles per hour (mph)?

mi

min

h

60

s

60

min

1

mi

1

min

1

h

5,280

ft

235 m Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

s

= 1.26 x 104 mi/d

= 591 cm3

m

s

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

= 1.30 lb

in

ft

mi

min

h

d

60

s

60

min

24

h

39.37

in

1

ft

1

mi

E. An arrow moves towards you at 235 m/s. How many miles could the arrow move in one day?(Assume the arrow never falls to the Earth).

F. (a) Determine the number of cm3 in a 20.0 fl. oz. bottle of Coke. (b) What is the mass of the Coke in pounds, assuming that it is the density of water (1 g / mL)?

1

min

1

h

1

d

1

m

12

in

5,280

ft

fl. oz.

pt

qt

L

mL

cm3

cm3

g

lb

(a)

4

L

1

mL

20 fl. oz.

1

pt

qt

1

1

cm3

8

1.057

qt

10-3

16

fl.oz.

pt

L

1

mL

(b)

591 cm3

1

g

1

lb

1

cm3

453.6

g

3.00 x 10 Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.8 m

s

= 5.88 x 1012 mi/y

m

m

s

s

100.0 m

9.86 s

= 22.7 mi/h

km

mi

min

h

d

y

60

s

60

min

24

h

365

d

1

1

km

mi

G. The speed of light is 3.00 x 108 m/s. How many miles does light travel per year?

H. Carl Lewis set the world record for the 100.0 m dash on August 25, 1991 in the finals of the World Track Championships with a time of 9.86 seconds. What was his average speed in miles per hour?

1

min

1

h

1

d

1

y

1.609

103

m

km

km

mi

min

h

1

60

s

60

min

1

km

mi

1.609

1

min

1

h

103

m

km

= 244.09 in Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.3

x

x

x

= 2.4 x 102 in3

x

x

x

x

= 5.3 x 102 in2

= 0.14 ft3

= 532.8 in2

= 532.8 in2

= 5.3 x 102 in2

VIII. Dimensional Analysis II: Square and cubic unitsft

in

3.7 ft2

12

in

12

in

1

ft

1

ft

A. Convert 3.7 ft2 to in2.

B. The engine in a Jeep Cherokee is 4.0 L. Calculate the engine volume in (a) in3, and (b) ft3.

2

3.7 ft2

12

in

1

ft

L

mL

cm3

in

in

ft

3

(a)

4.0 L

1

mL

1

cm3

1

in

10-3

L

1

mL

2.54

cm

3

(b)

244.09 in3

1

ft

12

in

g Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

g

mL

cm3

19.3 g

x

x

mL

= 1204.8 lb/ft3

= 1.20 x 103 lb/ft3

19.3 g

x

x

x

x

cm3

= 19,300 kg/m3

= 1.93 x 104 kg/m3

lb

(a)

cm3

in

ft

C. The density of gold is 19.3 g/mL. Calculate the density of gold in (a) lb/ft3, (b) kg/m3.

3

3

cm

12

in

1

lb

mL

2.54

1

in

1

453.6

cm3

1

ft

g

1

kg

(b)

m

3

cm

1

kg

1

m

103

10-2

g

x Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

= 2.85 x 103 cm

= 1.21 x 107 kg

= 1.21 x 1010 cm3

x

d = 2.85 dam

D. A spherical container with a diameter of 2.85 dam is filled with water. (a) Determine the volume of the sphere in cm3. (b) Determine the mass of the water in kilograms.

d = 2.85 dam

101

m

1

cm

1

dam

10-2

m

r = 1.425 x 103 cm

(a)

(b)

1.21 x 1010 cm3

1

g

1

kg

1

cm3

103

g

= 4.1148 m Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

x

= 4.5 x 105 lb

= 2.0 x 102 m3

= 203.68 m3

x

x

x

x

(a)

V = l · w · d

E. The dimensions of a swimming pool are 13.5 ft. x 22 m x 225 cm. (a) Determine the volume of the pool in m3. (b) Determine the mass of the water in pounds.

13.5 ft

12

in

1

m

1

ft

39.37

in

V = 4.1148 m · 22 m · 2.25 m

3

1

g

1

lb

(b)

1

cm

2.0368 x 102 m3

10-2

m

1

cm3

453.6

g

= 39.116 cm Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

r = 19.558 cm

= 354.77 cm3

= 0.295 cm

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

= 2.95 x 103µm

d = 15.4 in

d = 15.4 in

2.54

cm

1

in

h = ?

F. A 12.0 fl. oz. soda spilled onto the floor into a cylindrical puddle with a 15.4 inch diameter. Calculate the depth (height) of the puddle in μm.

(a)

fl.oz.

pt

qt

L

mL

cm3

12 fl.oz.

1

pt

1

qt

1

L

1

mL

1

cm3

16

fl.oz.

2

pt

1.057

qt

10-3

L

1

mL

(b)

(c)

0.295 cm

10-2

m

1

µm

m

1

cm

10-6

= 5.56 x 10 Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.-3mm

x

x

V = 90.0 µm3

G. The volume of a red blood cell is 90.0 µm3. What is its diameter in mm? Assume it is spherical.

= 2.780 µm

2.780 µm

10-6

m

1

mm

2

x

µm

m

1

10-3

= 279.407 cm Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.3

x

x

x

x

x

= 9.45 fl.oz.

d = 5.40 cm

h = 12.2 cm

H. The lid of a soup can is 5.40 cm across and the can is 12.2 cm high. What is the volume of the can in fluid ounces?

r = 2.70 cm

V = (2.70 cm)2• 12.2 cm

cm3

mL

L

qt

pt

fl.oz.

279.407 cm3

1

mL

10-3

L

1.057

qt

2

pt

16

fl.oz.

1

cm3

1

mL

1

L

1

qt

1

pt

Inorganic Nomenclature Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

Fig. 2.11 Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

H+

Be2+

I. Background: Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

A. Periodic Table

1. Column: _______ or _______ (Similar properties)

2. Row: _______.

3. _______: Left of staircase (Majority of the elements).

4. ___________: right of staircase.

Exception: _____(non-metal)(____________________)

5. ____________: touching the staircase.

Exception: ___ (metal).

group

family

period

Metals

Non-metals

H

Left of the staircase

Metalloids

Al

Period Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

Group

2.4

- Ions (Charged atoms) Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.
- 1. ________: positively charged (lost e-).
- 2. ________: negatively charged(gained e-).
- C. Trends in the periodic table
- 1. Using the planetary model – (simplified model of atom)
- 2. Energy levels can contain a maximum of:
- 1st energy level: ____
- 2nd energy level: ____
- 3rd energy level: ____ (____)
- 3. _________ are the keys to chemical bonds.

Cations

Anions

2

8

8

18

Electrons

Ex. Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

Column 1 (____________) Column 18 (___________)

Alkali Metals

Noble gases

H (___ e-)

1

He (___ e-)

2

Ne (___e-)

10

Li (___e-)

3

Na (___e-)

11

Ar (___e-)

18

1 e- in outer shell

Similarities: (________________) ______________

Full outer shell

e Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.-

- Atoms can gain or lose ___ to achieve a full outer shell (more stable).
- Atoms will do what is _______ (least energy) i.e. Oxygen has 6 valence e-: easier to _____ 2 than to ____ 6.

easiest

gain

lose

x

Lose 1

+1

x

Lose 2

+2

x

Lose 3

+3

x

Lose or gain 4

+/-4

Non-metals only (above staircase)

x

Gain 3

-3

x

-2

Gain 2

x

-1

Gain 1

x

0

II. Binary Ionic Compounds Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

A. Background info

1. Metal / ___________ ( _______ is always written first).

2. One element ________ and the other ________.

3. ___________ of e-

4. Charged ions attract one another (opposites attract).

5. The compound is _________

Non-metal

Metal

loses e-

gains e-

Transfer

neutral

(Metal 1st) Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

(Metal 1st)

(Metal 1st)

B. Ex.

Sodium & chlorine

NaCl (1 Na to every Cl)

Na Cl

Na+ Cl

Ex.

Calcium & bromine

CaBr2 (2 Br for every 1 Calcium)

Br

Ca

Ca2+ Br

Br

Ex.

Li2O (2 Li for every 1 Oxygen)

Lithium & oxygen

Li

Li+ O2

O

Li

Ex.

Aluminum & sulfur

Al2S3 (3 Al for every 2 S)

Al

S

Al3+ S2

S

Al

S

- C. Shortcut to determining formula (Criss-Cross method): Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.
- 1. ________ from charge becomes the subscript.
- 2. All ionic compounds are _________ (no + or -).
- 3. Subscripts are written in ________ possible ratio.
- The number “1” is never written (It is implied).
- Examples

Number

neutral

lowest

Ex. Al3+ O2-

Ex. Li+ O2-

Al2O3

Li2O

(Aluminum oxide)

(Lithium oxide)

Ex. Ca2+ O2-

Ex. Mg2+ N3-

Mg3N2

Ca2O2

CaO

(Calcium oxide)

(Magnesium nitride)

- D. Nomenclature of binary ionic compounds (bi = 2). Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.
- 1. _____ is named first (name of atom).
- 2. ____________ is named second, ending changed to ____.
- If the metal (cation) can have multiple charges, the charge is written as a roman numeral (IUPAC).
- (Fe, Cu, Co, Hg, Mn, Sn, Pb)

Metal

Non-metal

-ide

4. Formula to name:

a. Li2O _________________

b. Al2O3 _________________

c. CaO _________________

d. Mg3N2 _________________

Lithium oxide

Aluminum oxide

Calcium oxide

Magnesium nitride

Iron ___ oxide Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

(III)

Ferric oxide

e. Fe2O3 __________________ (___________________)

f. SnO2 __________________ (___________________)

g. CuCl ___________________ (___________________)

h. MnN ____________________ (___________________)

2(x) + 3(-2) = 0

x = +3

Tin ___ oxide

(IV)

Stannic oxide

1(x) + 2(-2) = 0

x = +4

Copper __ chloride

(I)

Cuprous chloride

1(x) + 1(-1) = 0

x = +1

Manganese ___ nitride

(III)

Manganic nitride

1(x) + 1(-3) = 0

x = +3

- Name to formula: Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.
- a. Beryllium fluoride ____________ ___________
- b. Potassium bromide ____________ ___________
- c. Tin (II) oxide ____________ ___________
- d. Cobaltic sulfide ____________ ___________
- e. Strontium iodide ____________ ___________

BeF2

Be2+ F –

K+ Br –

KBr

SnO

Sn2+ O2-

Co2S3

Co3+ S2-

SrI2

Sr2+ I –

6. Polyatomic Ion: A group of atoms with a _______ charge. Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

Ex. (1) CN- =

(2) NH4+ =

(3) OH- =

a. Polyatomic ions will _______ stay together as a group.

b. If there is more than one polyatomic ion, it must be placed in ____________.

single

cyanide

ammonium

hydroxide

always

parentheses

Examples: Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

Iron (II) hydroxide

Fe2+ OH-

Fe(OH)2

Ferrous hydroxide

Ca2+ CN-

Ca(CN)2

Calcium cyanide

NH4+ O2-

(NH4)2O

Ammonium oxide

NaCN

(No Parentheses b/c only 1)

Sodium cyanide

Na+ CN-

Cobalt (III) hydroxide

Co(OH)3

Co3+ OH-

Cobaltic hydroxide

- III. Helpful Hints to Memorize Oxyanions Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.
- In learning the formulas and charges of common oxyanions, start with the –ate form. From it follows that:
- hypo______ite = 2 less oxygens
- _______ite = 1 less oxygen
- _______ate
- per______ate = 1 more oxygen
- **ALL forms have the SAME charge!**

Transition Metals Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

1

2

18

13

15

16

17

14

1

2

3

4

5

6

A Guide to Determine Whether the –ate Formula is –XO3 or –XO4:B

C

N

Cl

P

Si

S

Se

Br

As

I

Transition Metals Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

1

2

18

13

15

16

17

14

1

2

3

4

5

6

A Guide to Determine What the Charge of the Oxy-Anion is:-3

-2

-1

B

C

N

- 4

-3

-2

-1

Cl

P

Si

S

-3

-2

-1

Se

Br

As

-1

I

NO Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.3-

ClO3-

NO2-

ClO4-

- Examples:
- Borate = ________ Carbonate = ________
- Nitrate = ________ Chlorate = ________
- Nitrite = ________ Perchlorate = ________

BO33-

CO32-

Thio- Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

SO42-

S2O32-

OCN-

SCN-

C. “_____” = Sulfur replacing an oxygen.

Ex. Sulfate = ________ Thiosulfate = ________

Ex. Cyanate = ________ Thiocyanate= ________

(III) Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

ferric

IV. Ternary Compounds: (compounds containing ___ or more elements).

1. Name the _______

2. Find the appropriate name of the _______.

3. Formula to name:

3

cation

anion

a. Li2SO4 _______________

b. Fe(NO3)3 _________________________

Lithium sulfate

Iron ___ (_____) nitrate

1(x) + 3(-1) = 0

x = +3

(I) Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

cuprous

(II)

manganous

c. CdC2O4 __________________

d. Cu3AsO3 ___________________________

e. Mn2SiO4 ________________________________

f. (NH4)2SO4 __________________

Cadmium oxalate

Copper __ (_______) arsenite

3(x) + 1(-3) = 0

x = +1

Manganese __ (___________) silicate

2(x) + 1(-4) = 0

x = +2

Ammonium sulfate

- Name to formula: Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.
- a. Potassium thiocyanate: __________ _________
- b. Aluminum permanganate: __________ _________
- c. Plumbic acetate: ____________ ___________
- d. Cobalt (III) oxalate: ____________ ___________
- e. Sodium hypochlorite: __________ __________

K+ SCN-

KSCN

Al3+ MnO4-

Al(MnO4)3

Pb+4 C2H3O2-

Pb(C2H3O2)4

Co3+ C2O42-

Co2(C2O4)3

Na+ ClO-

NaClO

V. Nomenclature of Hydrates Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

A. Hydrate: Ionic compound with ______ molecules stuck in the _______ lattice. The water is included in the ______ and formula.

1. ZnSO4 7 H20: __________________________

2. CaCO3 3 H2O: __________________________

3. Cu2C2O4 2H2O: _________________________________

4. Calcium chloride pentahydrate: _____________

5. Cupric acetate monohydrate: _______________________

water

crystal

name

Zinc sulfate

heptahydrate

Calcium carbonate

trihydrate

Copper (I) (cuprous) oxalate

dihydrate

CaCl2

5H20

Cu(C2H3O2)2

H20

CO Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

VI. Binary Molecular Compounds

A. Molecular (________) compounds

1. Non-metal to __________. ______of staircase including hydrogen

2. ________ of electrons.

Ex.

3. Non-metals can often combine in several different ways.

Ex.

covalent

non-metal

Right

Sharing

(Both Cl need “1” electron)

Cl Cl

CO2

- Nomenclature of binary molecular compounds: Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.
- Greek prefixes are used:
- mono = hexa =
- di = hepta =
- tri = octa =
- tetra = nona =
- penta = deca =

1

6

2

7

3

8

4

9

5

10

mono

2. The prefix “_______” is omitted for the 1st element.

Ex.

CO = _________________

Carbon monoxide

- For oxides the ending “______” is omitted. Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.
- a. N2O = ____________________
- b. N2O3 = ____________________
- c. N2O4 = ____________________
- d. NO = ____________________
- e. NO2 = ____________________
- f. NO5 = ____________________

o or a

Dinitrogen monoxide

Dinitrogen trioxide

Dinitrogen tetroxide

Nitrogen monoxide

Nitrogen dioxide

Nitrogen pentoxide

Metal Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.

Non-metal

- Compound
- IonicCovalent
- (Charges Cancel Out) (No Charges)

- 1.
- 2. 2.
- 3. 3.

Metal / Non-metal

Non-metal only

No Prefixes!!!

Prefixes

= Diiodine tetroxide

Li20

= Lithium oxide

I2O4

Ex.

1. _______________________

2. _____________________

P2O5

Diphosphorus pentoxide

NCl3

Nitrogen trichloride

- Nomenclature (Acids) Round the measurements to 2 sig figs. If original measurement only contains 1 or 2 sig figs, leave the second line blank.
- A. Acids: Compounds that contain __________ as the positive ion (H+).
- B. Exceptions: _____ (water) & ______ (hydrogen peroxide).
- C. Binary Acids: Acids that ___ ____ contain oxygen.
- 1. Use prefix “______”
- 2. Add stem or full name of ______.
- 3. Add suffix “___”.
- Add the word ______.
- Ex. HBr = _________________________
- HCl = _________________________
- HCN = ________________________

hydrogen

H20

H2O2

do

not

hydro

anion

ic

acid

Hydrobromic Acid

Hydrochloric Acid

Hydrocyanic Acid

- Ternary Acids: Contain ____ or more elements, __________ oxygen.
- Acids formed with anions that contain ______ become ____ acids.
- HNO3 (NO3- = _______) __________
- HClO4(ClO4- = ___________) _____________
- H2SO4(SO42- = ________) ___________
- H3PO4(PO43- = ___________) _______________

3

including

-ate

-ic

Nitrate

Nitric acid

Perchlorate

Perchloric acid

Sulfate

Sulfuric acid

Phosphate

Phosphoric acid

-ous oxygen.

- Acids formed with anions that contain ____ become ______ acids.
- HNO2 (NO2- = ________) ____________
- HClO2 (ClO2- =_________) _____________
- H2SO3 (SO32- =________) ______________

-ite

Nitrite

Nitrous acid

Chlorite

Chlorous acid

Sulfite

Sulfurous acid

- Name to formula:
- a. cyanic acid __________________ ________
- b. dichromic acid ______________________ _______
- c. hypochlorous acid _____________________ _______
- d. hydrosulfuric acid _______________ ______

H+

OCN- (Cyanate)

HOCN

Cr2O72- (Dichromate)

H2Cr2O7

H+

ClO- (Hypochlorite)

HClO

H+

H2S

H+

S2- (Sulfide)

Compounds oxygen.

IonicCovalent

(Metal / Non-metal)

BinaryTernary

Acids

Contain H+

BinaryTernary

w/ oxygen

HydratesHydrates

- w/ H2O
- Uses prefixes
- ie. Calcium chloride
- dihydrate
- CaCl2 2H2O

- w/ H2O
- Uses prefixes
- ie. Calcium carbonate
- trihydrate
- CaCO3 3H2O

•

•

- Non-metal / Non-metal
- Uses prefixes, -ide
- I2O7 Diiodine heptoxide

- 2 elements
- -ide
- Roman numeral
- (if needed)
- ie. Calcium chloride
- CaCl2

- 3 or more elements
- Anion is named
- Roman numerals
- (if needed)
- ie. Calcium carbonate
- CaCO3

- No oxygen
- Hydro__ic acid
- ie, Hydrochloric acid
- HCl

- -ate—ic
- acid
- H2CO3
- Carbonic
- acid

- -ite---ous
- acid
- H2SO3
- Sulfurous
- acid

2.7 oxygen.

EOCP 2.88 oxygen.

Mg(HCO3)2

Mg2+

HCO3-

Cl-

Strontium chloride

Sr2+

Fe(NO2)3

Iron (III) nitrite

Mn2+

ClO3-

Mn(ClO3)2

Sn4+

Br-

Tin (IV) bromide

Co3(PO4)2

Cobalt (II) phosphate

Mercury (I) iodide

Hg2I2

Copper (I) carbonate

Cu+

CO32-

Li+

N3-

Li3N

Al2S3

Aluminum sulfide

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